journal-of-advanced-research-in-applied-mechanicsISSN (Online)
: 2289-7895

Frequency : Monthly

Editor-in-Chief : Dr. Mohd Yazid Yahya (E-mail)
View full editorial board

Aims and Scope : The journal is concerned with high-level investigations of modern physical and mechanical problems and reports current progress in this field. The journal also encourages contributions from the newly emerging areas such as biomechanics, electromechanics, the mechanical behavior of advanced materials, nanomechanics, and many other inter-disciplinary research areas in which the concepts of applied mechanics are extensively applied and developed.

Recent Articles

Volume 53, No. 1 (January, 2019)

Underwater Fish Attraction LED Lamp (UFAL) for Improving Aquaculture Productivity
Noor Zalikha Mohamed Islam, Nik Mohd Azmi Nik Abdul Aziz, Norhidayah Abu, Wedianti Shualdi, Khairuldin Mohd Isha, Tan Chin Kong, Tan Chin Hai, Mohd Muzamir Mahat

INDEXING

google-scholar
myjurnal
focus
MyCite

PUBLISHED ARTICLES

Volume 1 - Volume 5Volume 6 - Volume 10Volume 11 - Volume 15Volume 16 - Volume 20Volume 21 - Volume 25Volume 26 - Volume 30Volume 31 - Volume 35Volume 36 - Volume 40Volume 41 - Volume 45Volume 46 - Volume 50Volume 51 - Volume 55Volume 56 - Volume 60
Volume 47, No. 1 (July, 2018)
Mechanical Properties and Impact Resistance of Hybrid Kenaf and Coir Fibre Reinforced Concrete
Annis Nazirah Abdul Aziz, Roszilah Hamid
Page 1 – 10
Abstract
Concrete is brittle and weak in tensile but strong in compressive strength. To improve concrete weakness, fibres are added as reinforcement. In this research, kenaf fibre was hybridized with coir fibre in order to achieve optimum mechanical properties and impact resistance of fibre reinforced concrete (FRC). Since, kenaf fibre has high tensile strength and water absorption but low in ductility while coir fibre possess the opposite, the hybridization of these two fibres could complement each other. Five mixes with different kenaf:coir fibre ratios (S1;100:0, S2;50:50, S3;60:40, S4;40:60,S5; 0:100) at 4% fibre content by concrete volume and fibre length of 3-5 cm were tested for their mechanical properties (compressive, split tensile and flexural strengths) and ultimate energy absorption (via drop-weight impact test). It has been observed that FRC containing 100% kenaf fibre (S1) and 100% coir fibre (S5) shows the increment in all mechanical properties and impact resistance compared to control. For hybrid fibres, samples with higher content of kenaf fibre, S3 shows the highest increase for all mixes in mechanical properties, the increments are 10.8%, 37%, and 9.8% for compressive, split tensile and flexural strengths, respectively, but for impact resistance, the increment is 66.7%. For samples with higher content of coir, S4, the increment in mechanical properties are lower than S3 (8.1%, 17.6% and 3.5% but the impact resistance is the highest at 8 number of blows and 339.03 Nm of ultimate energy absorption with an increment of 166.7% compared to all mixes. The results reveal that hybrid kenaf and coir FRC exhibit enhanced mechanical properties and impact resistance compared to single kenaf/coir FRC and if application where mechanical properties is in need, hybrid fibre mix S3 is suggested and for impact resistance application, hybrid S4 is proposed.

Cite
MLA
Annis Nazirah, Abdul Aziz and Roszilah, Hamid. "Mechanical Properties and Impact Resistance of Hybrid Kenaf and Coir Fibre Reinforced Concrete." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 47.1 (2018): 1-10.
APA
Annis Nazirah, A. A., & Roszilah, H.,(2018). Mechanical Properties and Impact Resistance of Hybrid Kenaf and Coir Fibre Reinforced Concrete. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics, 47(1), 1-10.
Chicago
Annis Nazirah Abdul Aziz and Roszilah Hamid."Mechanical Properties and Impact Resistance of Hybrid Kenaf and Coir Fibre Reinforced Concrete." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics." 47, no. 1 (2018): 1-10.
Harvard
Annis Nazirah, A.A., and Roszilah, H.,2018. Mechanical Properties and Impact Resistance of Hybrid Kenaf and Coir Fibre Reinforced Concrete. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 47(1), pp. 1-10.
Vancouver
Annis Nazirah AA, Roszilah H. Mechanical Properties and Impact Resistance of Hybrid Kenaf and Coir Fibre Reinforced Concrete. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics. 2018;47(1): 1-10.

The Effect of Drying Techniques on the Antioxidant Capacity, Flavonoids and Phenolic Content of Fermented Local Cocoa Bean
Hafiz Majid, Hadassah Alau Rining
Page 11 - 19

Abstract
The effect of drying techniques namely sun drying, freeze drying, and oven drying on the antioxidant capacity, total phenolic and flavonoid contents of 3 clones of fermented local cocoa bean (BR25, MCBC6, PA76) was determined. The highest cocoa bean extraction yield was found using freeze drying, followed by sun drying, and oven drying method. The highest total phenolic content was obtained from freeze drying of BR25 with value of 1380.86±4.21 mg GAE/g, and the lowest was found in oven drying of PA76 with total phenolic content of 672.95±1.35 mg GAE/g. For total flavonoid content, the highest value was found from freeze drying method of BR25 with value of 4536 ±10.37 mg QE/g and the lowest was in oven drying of PA76 with flavonoid content of 2639 ±7.07 mg QE/g. Lower IC50 value indicated a stronger antioxidant activity of extracts. Results obtained show the same trend where the lowest IC50 value was obtained in freeze dry followed by sun dry and oven dry method. The lowest IC50 value was found in for freeze drying techniques of PA76 with value of 4.70±0.37 mg/ml and the highest was found in oven drying of MCBC6 with IC50 value of 369.17±1.29 mg/ml. Freeze drying method was found to be the best method to preserve highest amount of total phenolic and flavonoid content.

Cite
MLA
Hafiz, Majid, and Hadassah, Alau Rining. "The Effect of Drying Techniques on the Antioxidant Capacity, Flavonoids and Phenolic Content of Fermented Local Cocoa Bean." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 47.1 (2018): 11-19.
APA
Hafiz, M., & Hadassah, A. R.,(2018). The Effect of Drying Techniques on the Antioxidant Capacity, Flavonoids and Phenolic Content of Fermented Local Cocoa Bean. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics, 47(1), 11-19.
Chicago
Hafiz Majid and Hadassah Alau Rining."The Effect of Drying Techniques on the Antioxidant Capacity, Flavonoids and Phenolic Content of Fermented Local Cocoa Bean." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics." 47, no. 1 (2018): 11-19.
Harvard
Hafiz, M., and Hadassah, A.R.,2018. The Effect of Drying Techniques on the Antioxidant Capacity, Flavonoids and Phenolic Content of Fermented Local Cocoa Bean. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 47(1), pp. 11-19.
Vancouver
Hafiz M, Hadassah AR. The Effect of Drying Techniques on the Antioxidant Capacity, Flavonoids and Phenolic Content of Fermented Local Cocoa Bean. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics. 2018;47(1): 11-19.

Volume 48, No. 1 (August, 2018)
Muscle Activation Pattern of Upper and Lower Back Muscles during Islamic Prayer (Salat)
Mohammad Fazle Rabbi, Nurul Wahidah Arshad, Kamarul H. Ghazali, Rohana Abdul Karim, Mohd Zamri Ibrahim, NU Ahamed, Tasriva Sikandar
Page 1 – 8
Abstract
Electromyographic (EMG) activity of muscles can help us to assess the muscular functions during daily activity. In this paper we investigate two major muscles in upper and lower back during movements in Salat. Specifically, the dorsal side of human body has been assessed using EMG activation pattern and muscle co-contraction. Two upper and lower back muscles named as Trapezius and Erector Spinae muscles were investigated during four positions involved in Islamic prayer (Salat). Muscle activation pattern has been elucidated from raw EMG signal after a series of signal processing steps. Next, muscle co-contraction index was calculated from the pattern. Results show that, both muscles maintain a balance in terms of contraction and relaxation during bowing and prostration position of Salat. In addition, there is a clear co-contraction between upper and lower back muscles in two positions during the prayer. The finding of the study may help to develop rehabilitation program for the Muslim population suffering from back pain that restrain them to perform obligatory Salat.

Cite
MLA
Mohammad Fazle, Rabbi., et al. "Muscle Activation Pattern of Upper and Lower Back Muscles during Islamic Prayer (Salat)." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 48.1 (2018): 1-8.
APA
Mohammad Fazle, R., Nurul Wahidah, A., Kamarul, H. G., Rohana, A. K., Mohd Zamri, I., Ahamed, N. U., & Tasriva, S.,(2018). Muscle Activation Pattern of Upper and Lower Back Muscles during Islamic Prayer (Salat). Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics, 48(1), 1-8.
Chicago
Mohammad Fazle Rabbi, Nurul Wahidah Arshad, Kamarul H. Ghazali, Rohana Abdul Karim, Mohd Zamri Ibrahim, NU Ahamed, and Tasriva Sikandar."Muscle Activation Pattern of Upper and Lower Back Muscles during Islamic Prayer (Salat)." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics." 48, no. 1 (2018): 1-8.
Harvard
Mohammad Fazle, R., Nurul Wahidah, A., Kamarul, H.G., Rohana, A.K., Mohd Zamri, I., Ahamed, N.U., and Tasriva, S., 2018. Muscle Activation Pattern of Upper and Lower Back Muscles during Islamic Prayer (Salat). Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 48(1), pp. 1-8.
Vancouver
Mohammad Fazle R, Nurul Wahidah A, Kamarul HG, Rohana AK, Mohd Zamri I, Ahamed NU, Tasriva S. Muscle Activation Pattern of Upper and Lower Back Muscles during Islamic Prayer (Salat). Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics. 2018;48(1): 1-8.

Vehicle Speed Estimation using Image Processing
Fatima Afifah, Sharmin Nasrin, Abdul Mukit
Page 9 - 16

Abstract
This paper aims at determining vehicle speed which is necessary for traffic surveillance systems. These systems are very much useful to monitor and manage various traffic conditions such as traffic management, prevention of accident, also secure transportation. This paper describes a comprehensive approach to localizing target vehicles in video under various environmental conditions. The extracted geometry features from the video are continuously projected onto a profile and are constantly tracked. We rely on temporal information of features and their motion behaviors for vehicle identification, which compensates for the complexity in recognizing vehicle shapes, colors, and types. In speed determination vehicle detection and vehicle tracking are the key steps. To overcome the disadvantages of traditional methods, here, vehicle speed determination using image processing is done with Python language and OpenCV library. In this paper, the proposed method consists of few basic steps-— background subtractions, feature extraction, vehicle tracking etc. The speed is determined using distance travelled by vehicle over number of frames and frame rate.

Cite
MLA
Fatima, Afifah., et al. "Vehicle Speed Estimation using Image Processing." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 48.1 (2018): 9-16.
APA
Fatima, A., Sharmin, N., & Abdul, M.,(2018). Vehicle Speed Estimation using Image Processing. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics, 48(1), 9-16.
Chicago
Fatima Afifah, Sharmin Nasrin, and Abdul Mukit. "Vehicle Speed Estimation using Image Processing." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics." 48, no. 1 (2018): 9-16.
Harvard
Fatima, A., Sharmin, N., and Abdul, M.,2018. Vehicle Speed Estimation using Image Processing. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 48(1), pp. 9-16.
Vancouver
Fatima A, Sharmin N, Abdul M. Vehicle Speed Estimation using Image Processing. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics. 2018;48(1): 9-16.

Volume 49, No. 1 (September, 2018)
Influence of High Performance Hybrid Polyvinyl Alcohol-Polyproplene Fibres on Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Shell Lightweight Concrete
Ming Kun Yew, Ming Chian Yew, Lip Huat Saw, Siong Kang Lim, Jing Han Beh, Foo Wei Lee, Leong Tatt Loh
Page 1 – 11
Abstract
The mechanical properties of oil palm shell (OPS) lightweight concrete (LWC) reinforced with high performance of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibre and polypropylene (PP) fibres were investigated in this study. The influence of single PVA fibre, single PP fibre and hybrid PVA-PP fibre with different volume fraction on the compressive strength, flexural load-extension curve and water absorption of OPS LWC were investigated. The test results indicate that, the strength of OPS LWC reinforced with single PVA fibre or PP fibre improved with the increase of fibre content. However, the compressive strength and water absorption enhances slightly, while the flexural strength improved significantly. When the two types of fibres are mixed into OPS LWC simultaneously, the results show positive and negative of synergy effects. The positive synergy effect of hybrid 0.25% PVA and 0.035% PP had showed the optimum results as compared to different volume fraction of mixes. It shows that, compressive strength and flexural strength increased by 5.5% and 22.1% respectively, while the water absorption decreased 23.1% compared with those of OPS LWC without fibres. Hence, the findings of this paper revealed that the combination with both high performance polymeric fibres can be used to develop more sustainable building materials.

Cite
MLA
Ming Kun, Yew., et al. "Influence of High Performance Hybrid Polyvinyl Alcohol-Polyproplene Fibres on Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Shell Lightweight Concrete." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 49.1 (2018): 1-11.
APA
Ming, K. Y., Ming, C. Y., Lip, H. S., Siong, K. L., Jing, H. B., Foo, W. L., & Leong, T. L.,(2018). Influence of High Performance Hybrid Polyvinyl Alcohol-Polyproplene Fibres on Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Shell Lightweight Concrete. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics, 49(1), 1-11.
Chicago
Ming Kun Yew, Ming Chian Yew, Lip Huat Saw, Siong Kang Lim, Jing Han Beh, Foo Wei Lee, and Leong Tatt Loh."Influence of High Performance Hybrid Polyvinyl Alcohol-Polyproplene Fibres on Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Shell Lightweight Concrete." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics." 49, no. 1 (2018): 1-11.
Harvard
Ming, K.Y., Ming, C.Y., Lip, H.S., Siong, K.L., Jing, H.B., Foo, W.L., and Leong, T.L., 2018. Influence of High Performance Hybrid Polyvinyl Alcohol-Polyproplene Fibres on Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Shell Lightweight Concrete. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 49(1), pp. 1-11.
Vancouver
Ming KY, Ming CY, Lip HS, Siong KL, Jing HB, Foo WL, Leong TL. Influence of High Performance Hybrid Polyvinyl Alcohol-Polyproplene Fibres on Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Shell Lightweight Concrete. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics. 2018;49(1): 1-11.

Optimization of Flame-Retardant Additives on Fire Protection Performance and Thermal Properties of Water-Based Intumescent Coating
Yew Ming Chian, Yew Ming Kun, Saw Lip Huat, Beh Jing Han, Rajkumar Durairaj, Ng Tan Ching, Teh Jing Yuen
Page 12 - 23

Abstract
The aim of this research project was to optimize the effect of flame-retardant additives on the fire protection performances and the thermal properties of water-based intumescent fire protective coatings on steel structures. Four intumescent coating formulations with different ratios of flame-retardant additives (Ammonium polyphosphate (APP), Melamine (MEL) and Pentaerythritol (PER)) were formulated and mixed with the flame-retardant fillers and the water-based polymer binder. The coatings were characterized and examined by using the Bunsen burner test, static immersion test, furnace test, adhesion test, freeze-thaw cycle test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Thermogravimetri Analysis (TGA). The results showed that the Coating 1 with the ratio of APP: MEL: PER of 2:1:1 was effective in fire protection performance, with good quality of water resistance, adhesion strength, promoting a better uniform char layer formation and thermal stability. Significantly, the optimized flame-retardant additives have proved to be efficient in the protection of steel structures against fire and weather resistance.

Cite
MLA
Yew, Ming Chian., et al. "Optimization of Flame-Retardant Additives on Fire Protection Performance and Thermal Properties of Water-Based Intumescent Coating." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 49.1 (2018): 12-23.
APA
Yew, M. C., Yew, M. K., Saw, L. H., Beh, J. H., Rajkumar, D., Ng, T. C., & Teh, J. Y.,(2018). Optimization of Flame-Retardant Additives on Fire Protection Performance and Thermal Properties of Water-Based Intumescent Coating. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics, 49(1), 12-23.
Chicago
Yew Ming Chian, Yew Ming Kun, Saw Lip Huat, Beh Jing Han, Rajkumar Durairaj, Ng Tan Ching, and Teh Jing Yuen. "Optimization of Flame-Retardant Additives on Fire Protection Performance and Thermal Properties of Water-Based Intumescent Coating." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics." 49, no. 1 (2018): 12-23.
Harvard
Yew, M.C., Yew, M.K., Saw, L.H., Beh, J.H., Rajkumar, D., Ng, T.C., and Teh, J.Y.,2018. Optimization of Flame-Retardant Additives on Fire Protection Performance and Thermal Properties of Water-Based Intumescent Coating. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 49(1), pp. 12-23.
Vancouver
Yew MC, Yew MK, Saw LH, Beh JH, Rajkumar D, Ng TC, Teh JY. Optimization of Flame-Retardant Additives on Fire Protection Performance and Thermal Properties of Water-Based Intumescent Coating. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics. 2018;49(1): 12-23.

Volume 50, No. 1 (October, 2018)
Undergrounds Water Pipe Mapping using Ground Penetrating Radar and Global Positioning System
Ashraf Abd Gani, Roszilah Hamid
Page 1 – 11
Abstract
A complete water pipe plan with the position and depth of the water pipe from ground surface is really important for future maintenance, upgrading and construction. A non-destructive technique, Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) with 400 MHz frequency antenna and Radan 7 software from GSSI can be utilised to detect the buried water pipes under concrete and asphalt pavement and dry clay at more than 1 m from the ground and with the support from global positioning system (GPS). Site tests where the depth of the pipes are accessible from the ground (concrete and asphalt pavements and dry clay) were done to determine the accuracy of the GPR signal analysis. Results shows that the depth of embedded water pipe obtained using GPR under concrete pavement is 1.55 m while the actual depth is 1.64 m with 9 cm or 5% difference and is 0.96 m (GPR) and 1 m (actual) with 4 cm or 4% difference under dry clay. Both results shows that GPR method is accurate with negligible error. The depth of embedded water pipe under asphalt pavement is later determined as 1.2 m. Standard Guideline for Underground Utility Mapping by Department of Survey and Mapping Malaysia (JUPEM) required accuracy of 10 cm (in vertical and horizontal direction) of the utilities mapped to be classified as Quality Level A. Based on results of these site surveys, analysis of GPR electromagnetic waves to map underground utilities is proposed when Quality Level A is required and mapping plan of underground pipe can be produced with help of GPS.

Cite
MLA
Ashraf, Abd Gani and Roszilah, Hamid.. "Undergrounds Water Pipe Mapping using Ground Penetrating Radar and Global Positioning System." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 50.1 (2018): 1-11.
APA
Ashraf, A. G., & Roszilah, H.,(2018). Undergrounds Water Pipe Mapping using Ground Penetrating Radar and Global Positioning System. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics, 50(1), 1-11.
Chicago
Ashraf Abd Gani, and Roszilah Hamid."Undergrounds Water Pipe Mapping using Ground Penetrating Radar and Global Positioning System." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics." 50, no. 1 (2018): 1-11.
Harvard
Ashraf, A.G., and Roszilah, H., 2018. Undergrounds Water Pipe Mapping using Ground Penetrating Radar and Global Positioning System. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 50(1), pp. 1-11.
Vancouver
Ashraf AG., Roszilah H. Undergrounds Water Pipe Mapping using Ground Penetrating Radar and Global Positioning System. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics. 2018;50(1): 1-11.

Anti- Fatigue Rubber Mat for Industrial Workplace: Load Pressure Analysis at Different Type of Mats
H Kamarularifin, Mazlina Mustafa Kamal, Che Muhd Firdaus Che Mat
Page 12 - 16

Abstract
The material from natural rubber/recycle rubber blends produced will be used as anti-fatigue mat for prolonged standing worker in the industrial workplace applications. Many industrial workplaces dealing with standing position worker especially in processes job. The employer believes that performing jobs in standing position will give more degree of freedom especially operating large machine which will increase the productivity. The commercialized anti-fatigue rubber mat was used to compare the load and pressure analysis between conventional and formulated anti-fatigue mats. The study focused on the contact area, force in % body weight, contact pressure, and force applied on to the mats. The result showed that the conventional mat gave highest pressure recorded at 0.15MPa. The high pressure contact will increase the fatigue condition thus increased the tiredness feeling. The commercial anti- fatigue mat gave lowest value (44.54%) of normalized force meaning that almost 55.5% bodyweight was absorbed by mat followed by formulated mat and conventional mat.

Cite
MLA
Kamarularifin, H., et al. "Anti- Fatigue Rubber Mat for Industrial Workplace: Load Pressure Analysis at Different Type of Mats." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 50.1 (2018): 12-16.
APA
Kamarularifin, H., Mazlina, M. K., & Che Muhd Firdaus, C. M.,(2018). Anti- Fatigue Rubber Mat for Industrial Workplace: Load Pressure Analysis at Different Type of Mats. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics, 50(1), 12-16.
Chicago
Kamarularifin H, Mazlina Mustafa Kamal, and Che Muhd Firdaus Che Mat. "Anti- Fatigue Rubber Mat for Industrial Workplace: Load Pressure Analysis at Different Type of Mats." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics." 50, no. 1 (2018): 12-16.
Harvard
Kamarularifin, H., Mazlina, M.K., and Che Muhd Firdaus, C.M.,2018. Anti- Fatigue Rubber Mat for Industrial Workplace: Load Pressure Analysis at Different Type of Mats. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 50(1), pp. 12-16.
Vancouver
Kamarularifin H, Mazlina MK, Che Muhd Firdaus CM. Anti- Fatigue Rubber Mat for Industrial Workplace: Load Pressure Analysis at Different Type of Mats. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics. 2018;50(1): 12-16.

Volume 51, No. 1 (November, 2018)
Mapping the Variable-Rate Application (VRA) of Precision Fertilizing for Soybean
P. H. T. Nugraheni, M. Mawardi, L. Sutiarso, S. Virgawati, M. Fuadi
Page 1 – 9
Abstract
Information on the spatial and temporal diversity of soil properties is very important for farmers in making decisions for farming, namely applying agricultural inputs (in this case is about fertilizer) with appropriate treatment, in the right place, at the right time and the right amount to achieve precision farming. The application of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) in providing visual information and spatial analysis can be used to support the process of decision making in site-specific agricultural management. The research aims to produce a map of recommended variability rates for Urea, SP-36 and KCl fertilization applications for soybean based on N, P and K soil status. The determination of fertilizer dosage for soybean in each N, P and K soil level uses existing recommendations, in this case referring to the research done by Permadi and Haryati (2015). They used high, medium and low values for each N, P and K soil status, and suggested to apply the fertilizers when soybean at the age of 10 DAP and 30 DAP. The mapping was done at two fields of 1000 m.sq with 9 grids of 10m x 10m for each field. The results of the recommendation of urea fertilizer at field D were uniform at the amount of 0,1218 kg/ 100m.sq at 10 DAP and 0,0522 kg/ 100m.sq at 30 DAP. For the recommendation of SP-36 fertilizer were varied in two groups, 4 (four) grids with low P content, should be applied with 0,104 kg/ 100m.sq of SP-36 at 10 DAP and none at 30 DAP and for other 5 (five) grids with medium P content, should be applied with 0,080 kg/ 100m.sq SP-36 at 10 DAP and none at 30 DAP. Then, the recommendation for KCl fertilizer on all grids was uniform at the amount of 0,147 kg/ 100m.sq at 10 DAP and 0,063 kg/ 100m.sq at 30 DAP. At field B, the recommendation for urea fertilizer in all grid was uniform at the amount of 0,1218 kg/ 100m.sq at 10 DAP and 0,0522 kg/ 100m.sq at 30 DAP. For SP-36 fertilizer in 4 (four) grids with medium P content, should be applied with 0,080 kg/ 100m.sq SP-36 at 10 DAP and none at 30 DAP, and for other 5 (five) grids with medium P content, should be applied with 0,040 kg/ 100m.sq SP-36 at 10 DAP and none at 30 DAP. Finally, the recommendation for KCl fertilizer on all grids was uniform at 0,147 kg/ 100m.sq at 10 DAP and 0,063 kg/ 100m.sq at 30 DAP.

Cite
MLA
Nugraheni, Mawardi., et al. "Mapping the Variable-Rate Application (VRA) of Precision Fertilizing for Soybean." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 51.1 (2018): 1-9.
APA
Nugraheni, P. H. T., Mawardi, M., Sutiarso, L., Virgawati, S., & Fuadi, M.,(2018). Mapping the Variable-Rate Application (VRA) of Precision Fertilizing for Soybean. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics, 51(1), 1-9.
Chicago
Nugraheni, P. H. T., Mawardi, M., Sutiarso, L., Virgawati, S., and Fuadi, M."Mapping the Variable-Rate Application (VRA) of Precision Fertilizing for Soybean." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics." 51, no. 1 (2018): 1-9.
Harvard
Nugraheni, P.H.T., Mawardi, M., Sutiarso, L., Virgawati, S., and Fuadi, M., 2018. Mapping the Variable-Rate Application (VRA) of Precision Fertilizing for Soybean. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 51(1), pp. 1-9.
Vancouver
Nugraheni PHT, Mawardi M, Sutiarso L, Virgawati S, Fuadi M. Mapping the Variable-Rate Application (VRA) of Precision Fertilizing for Soybean. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics. 2018;51(1): 1-9.

Enhanced Properties of Palm Oil Boiler Clinker Concrete with Sang Yod Rice Husk Ash
Kamolchanok Kueaket, Danupon Tonnayopas
Page 10 - 19

Abstract
Laboratory experiments of this investigation are to reclaim palm oil boiler clinker (POBC) as coarse aggregate for concrete and partially replaced Portland cement type 1 with Sang Yod rice husk ash (SYRHA) in proportion of 10%, 20% and 30wt.%. Characterization of POBC aggregate was carried out on grain size distribution and shape analysis, specific gravity, loose and compacted bulk density, water absorption, organic impurity, aggregate impact value and Los Angeles abrasion. Each mixing specimen was kept water to binder ratio at 0.42 throughout this study and varied duration of curing in water for 7, 28 and 56 days. The properties of paste and harden cube concrete in size 10×10×10 cm including setting time, bulk density, water absorption and compressive strength and were determined. According to aggregate testing results indicated that POBC was met the specification of normal-weight aggregate. Addition of SYRHA decreased both setting time and hydration temperature of paste. Furthermore, concrete contained 20% SYRHA provided highest 56-day compressive strength of 53.12 MPa and increased water absorption of 5.27%.

Cite
MLA
Kamolchanok Kueaket, Danupon Tonnayopas. "Enhanced Properties of Palm Oil Boiler Clinker Concrete with Sang Yod Rice Husk Ash." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 51.1 (2018): 10-19.
APA
Kamolchanok, K., & Danupon, T.,(2018). Enhanced Properties of Palm Oil Boiler Clinker Concrete with Sang Yod Rice Husk Ash. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics, 51(1), 10-19.
Chicago
Kamolchanok Kueaket, and Danupon Tonnayopas. "Enhanced Properties of Palm Oil Boiler Clinker Concrete with Sang Yod Rice Husk Ash." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics." 51, no. 1 (2018): 10-19.
Harvard
Kamolchanok, K., and Danupon, T.,2018. Enhanced Properties of Palm Oil Boiler Clinker Concrete with Sang Yod Rice Husk Ash. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 51(1), pp. 10-19.
Vancouver
Kamolchanok K, Danupon T. Enhanced Properties of Palm Oil Boiler Clinker Concrete with Sang Yod Rice Husk Ash. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics. 2018;51(1): 10-19.

Volume 52, No. 1 (December, 2018)
Effect of Notch and Notch Size on the Flexural Performance of Flax Fibre Composites
Koh Chai Yee, Azwan Iskandar Azmi, Wan Azani Mustafa, Aiman Akmal Abdul Nasir, Tan Chye Lih
Page 1 – 7
Abstract
Demand for environmentally friendly and sustainable fibre reinforced polymer composites have been increasing steadily in recent years. Natural fibres such as flax fibres are commonly used in various applications that include automotive parts and consumer products. Therefore, mechanical properties of the flax fibre are key factors which would affect the quality of product and its acceptance in industries. Effect of drilled hole size on the mechanical performance of flax fibre composites was investigated in thisa research. In particular, the flexural strength of un-notched and notched (drilled with different hole size) flax fibre composites were evaluated. Drilling process was carried out to obtain a a notched specimen. Universal Testing Machine and ASTM D790 were used to determine the flexural data of the un-notched and notched flax fibre composites by performing three-point bendithe ng test. As expected, the notched flax fibre composites have a lower flexural strength than the un-notched flax fibre compoa sites. It was determined that the smaller notched diameter on the flax fibre composites have higher flexural strength compared to that of the larger notch diameter. Conclusively, notch size would highly affect the flexural strength of flax fibre composites.

Cite
MLA
Koh, Chai Yee., et al. "Effect of Notch and Notch Size on the Flexural Performance of Flax Fibre Composites." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 52.1 (2018): 1-7.
APA
Koh, C. Y., Azwan, I. A., Wan Azani, M., Aiman Akmal, A. N., & Tan, C. L.,(2018). Effect of Notch and Notch Size on the Flexural Performance of Flax Fibre Composites. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics, 52(1), 1-7.
Chicago
Koh Chai Yee, Azwan Iskandar Azmi, Wan Azani Mustafa, Aiman Akmal Abdul Nasir, and Tan Chye Lih."Effect of Notch and Notch Size on the Flexural Performance of Flax Fibre Composites." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics." 52, no. 1 (2018): 1-7.
Harvard
Koh, C.Y., Azwan, I.A., Wan Azani, M., Aiman Akmal, A.N., and Tan, C.L., 2018. Effect of Notch and Notch Size on the Flexural Performance of Flax Fibre Composites. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 52(1), pp. 1-7.
Vancouver
Koh CY, Azwan IA, Wan Azani M, Aiman Akmal AN, Tan CL. Effect of Notch and Notch Size on the Flexural Performance of Flax Fibre Composites. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics. 2018;52(1): 1-7.

Fuzzy Set Conjoint Approach Modelling in Active Transport
Wan Noor Hanisah Wan Harun, Muhamad Razuhanafi Mat Yazid, Nur Fatihah Halim, Fatimah Ahamad, Muhamad Nazri Borhan, Nik Mohd Iznan Tuan Yaakub
Page 8 - 16

Abstract
Active transport is a friendly environmental transportation that can guarantee life in an environment with high quality, clean and healthy. Green or sustainable transport is said to be as a solution for urban transportation problems because does not has any direct polluting gas emissions and fuel consumption, does not cause congestion and does not impact to the population of the city. This study was conducted to examine the extent of modelling in virtue of the respondent’s situation to formulate based on the use of active transportation. An approach of a fuzzy conjoint model was chosen to describe the situation of the use of active transportation based on questionnaires with 36 items questions are categorized into three main aspects and numerical calculation which is a research question survey on the 378 respondents at UKM. This study is also conducted to identify respondents in relation to the desire factor affecting priority selection based on the factors that influence and obstruction to active transport. Results found that the most important factor that encourages students of UKM to walk or cycle has been identified which is when college is nearer to faculty, can avoid traffic jams and can reach the destinations quicker in some situations with the degree of their respective weights, 0.811 0.793 and 0.687. While the most important factor that prevents students of UKM to choose active transportation mode is weather in Malaysia that always hot and rainy, personal safety is not guaranteed from threats or wild animals and no lighting on the cycling and pedestrians at night each having degrees weights 0.814, 0.772 and 0.763.

Cite
MLA
Wan Noor Hanisah, Wan Harun., et al. "Fuzzy Set Conjoint Approach Modelling in Active Transport." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 52.1 (2018): 8-16.
APA
Wan Noor Hanisah, W. H., Muhamad Razuhanafi, M. Y., Nur Fatihah, H., Fatimah, A., Muhamad Nazri, B., & Nik Mohd Iznan, T. Y.,(2018). Fuzzy Set Conjoint Approach Modelling in Active Transport. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics, 52(1), 8-16.
Chicago
Wan Noor Hanisah Wan Harun, Muhamad Razuhanafi Mat Yazid, Nur Fatihah Halim, Fatimah Ahamad, Muhamad Nazri Borhan, and Nik Mohd Iznan Tuan Yaakub. "Fuzzy Set Conjoint Approach Modelling in Active Transport." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics." 52, no. 1 (2018): 8-16.
Harvard
Wan Noor Hanisah, W.H., Muhamad Razuhanafi, M.Y., Nur Fatihah, H., Fatimah, A., Muhamad Nazri, B., and Nik Mohd Iznan, T.Y.,2018. Fuzzy Set Conjoint Approach Modelling in Active Transport. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 52(1), pp. 8-16.
Vancouver
Wan Noor Hanisah WH, Muhamad Razuhanafi MY, Nur Fatihah H, Fatimah A, Muhamad Nazri B, Nik Mohd Iznan TY. Fuzzy Set Conjoint Approach Modelling in Active Transport. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics. 2018;52(1): 8-16.

Volume 53, No. 1 (January, 2019)
Stress Analysis of Urban Solid Waste Trap by Using Finite Element Analysis (FEA)
Nurul Akmam Naamandadin, Nurul Hazirah Nordin, Wan Azani Mustafa, Norrazman Zaiha Zainol
Page 1 – 7
Abstract
Trash trap is a tool used for the purposes of garbage collection in drainage areas such as rivers or drains. However, ineffective trash designs cause the waste to be difficult to clean. Waste that cannot be properly cleaned will cause problematic drainage problems. The main objective of this study is to construct trash traps for public drainage using a wheel and axle mechanisms as a tool to function. Therefore, the ADDIE model is used as the main guideline in the whole process of designing and building a waste trap model. The ADDIE model consists of five main components, namely the analysis phase, the design phase, the development phase, the implementation phase and the phase of the selection. This study involves qualitative data collection methods with data analysis procedures basically done and reported descriptively. The main data sources for this study are Finite Element Analysis (FEA), calculation methods. The Finite Element software, it aims to see the strength of the model capable of bearing the burden imposed, while for analysis the calculation method is to see the difference in energy consumption between ordinary traps and waste traps using the mechanism. Research findings have shown that waste traps are built to help clean up work.

Cite
MLA
Nurul Akmam, Naamandadin., et al. "Stress Analysis of Urban Solid Waste Trap by Using Finite Element Analysis (FEA)." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 53.1 (2019): 1-7.
APA
Nurul Akmam, N., Nurul Hazirah, N., Wan Azani, M., & Norrazman, Z. Z.,(2019). Stress Analysis of Urban Solid Waste Trap by Using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics, 53(1), 1-7.
Chicago
Nurul Akmam Naamandadin, Nurul Hazirah Nordin, Wan Azani Mustafa, and Norrazman Zaiha Zainol."Stress Analysis of Urban Solid Waste Trap by Using Finite Element Analysis (FEA)." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics." 53, no. 1 (2019): 1-7.
Harvard
Nurul Akmam, N., Nurul Hazirah, N., Wan Azani, M., and Norrazman, Z.Z., 2019. Stress Analysis of Urban Solid Waste Trap by Using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 53(1), pp. 1-7.
Vancouver
Nurul Akmam N, Nurul Hazirah N, Wan Azani M, Norrazman ZZ. Stress Analysis of Urban Solid Waste Trap by Using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics. 2019;53(1): 1-7.

Underwater Fish Attraction LED Lamp (UFAL) for Improving Aquaculture Productivity
Noor Zalikha Mohamed Islam, Nik Mohd Azmi Nik Abdul Aziz, Norhidayah Abu, Wedianti Shualdi, Khairuldin Mohd Isha, Tan Chin Kong, Tan Chin Hai, Mohd Muzamir Mahat
Page 8 - 14

Abstract
In 2014, SIRIM Berhad collaborated with a local SME to design and develop an Underwater Fish Attracting LED Lamp (UFAL). Based on a number of field studies in the open sea of Langkawi, Pulau Aman, and Kuala Muda, at northern Malaysia the green LED was found to be effective in attracting different species of fish. The light spectrum works by attracting planktons (zooplankton and phytoplankton) from the surface of the ocean to convene around it which in turn provides sustenance to the pelagic fishes. In the Malaysian aquaculture industry, the average mortality rate of fish larvae (above 3 months) after being released to a cage is around 50%. The dependency on commercial pellet and trash fish as the major components of the fish’s diet aggravates the situation as these options can be costly. The effectiveness of UFAL has been reflected in the physical and growth rate of seabass and grouper in an aquaculture site at Kuala Muda. After 10 months of its application, the green LED was proven to speed up the fish’s growth by 30-40 %, reducing the dependency on commercial food by 30 % and reducing the harvesting cycle by 20%. In addition, both species of the fish that thrived in cages with UFAL exhibited a lower mortality rate when compared to the control cages. This technology could offer an alternative prospect in the sea coastal aquaculture industry and help local SMEs to produce a reliable product to expand their business into new and niche markets. Based on the outcomes of this study, this promising technology could be the key to improve productivity in the sea coastal aquaculture industry.

Cite
MLA
Noor Zalikha, Mohamed Islam., et al. "Underwater Fish Attraction LED Lamp (UFAL) for Improving Aquaculture Productivity." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 53.1 (2019): 8-14.
APA
Noor Zalikha, M. I., Nik Mohd Azmi, N. A. A., Norhidayah, A., Wedianti, S., Khairuldin, M. I., Tan, C. K., Tan, C. H., & Mohd Muzamir, M.,(2019). Underwater Fish Attraction LED Lamp (UFAL) for Improving Aquaculture Productivity. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics, 53(1), 8-14.
Chicago
Noor Zalikha Mohamed Islam, Nik Mohd Azmi Nik Abdul Aziz, Norhidayah Abu, Wedianti Shualdi, Khairuldin Mohd Isha, Tan Chin Kong, Tan Chin Hai, and Mohd Muzamir Mahat."Underwater Fish Attraction LED Lamp (UFAL) for Improving Aquaculture Productivity." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics." 53, no. 1 (2019): 8-14.
Harvard
Noor Zalikha, M.I., Nik Mohd Azmi, N.A.A., Norhidayah, A., Wedianti, S., Khairuldin, M.I., Tan, C.K., Tan, C. H., and Mohd Muzamir, M., 2019. Underwater Fish Attraction LED Lamp (UFAL) for Improving Aquaculture Productivity. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 53(1), pp. 8-14.
Vancouver
Noor Zalikha MI, Nik Mohd Azmi NAA, Norhidayah A, Wedianti S, Khairuldin MI, Tan CK, Tan CH, Mohd Muzamir M. Underwater Fish Attraction LED Lamp (UFAL) for Improving Aquaculture Productivity. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics. 2019;53(1): 8-14.

Volume 54, No. 1 (February, 2019)
Thermo Physical Enhancement of Advanced Nano-Composite Phase Change Material
Ahmad Tajuddin Mohamad, Nor Azwadi Che Sidik, M’hamed Beriache
Page 1 – 8
Abstract
In this study inorganic salt hydrated phase-change material (PCM) based on calcium chloride hexahydrate (CaCl2·6H2O) is employed to characterize phase change behavior such as the supercooling degree and phase change temperature. The CaCl2·6H2O nanocomposite PCM contained with different volume fraction wt.% of graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) are verified by heating-cooling curves resulted in enhancing thermal behavior. Results demonstrate the validation phase change temperature of the CaCl2·6H2O pure PCM are significantly referenced, supercooling of CaCl2·6H2O/GNP nanocomposite PCM are studied. The degree of supercooling is within the range of 6.0-15.2°C, with the maximum reductions of 68% and no phase segregation was observed. The CaCl2·6H2O/GNP nanocomposite PCM presented acceptable thermal reliability, chemical stability, and heat transfer characteristics, thereby reflecting its acceptability for low-temperature thermal energy storage applications.

Cite
MLA
Ahmad Tajuddin, Mohamad, et al., "Thermo Physical Enhancement of Advanced Nano-Composite Phase Change Material." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 54.1 (2019): 1-8.
APA
Ahmad Tajuddin, M., Nor Azwadi, C. S., & M'hamed, B.,(2019). Thermo Physical Enhancement of Advanced Nano-Composite Phase Change Material. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics, 54(1), 1-8.
Chicago
Ahmad Tajuddin Mohamad, Nor Azwadi Che Sidik, and M'hamed Beriache."Thermo Physical Enhancement of Advanced Nano-Composite Phase Change Material." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics." 54, no. 1 (2019): 1-8.
Harvard
Ahmad Tajuddin, M., Nor Azwadi, C.S., M'hamed, B., 2019. Thermo Physical Enhancement of Advanced Nano-Composite Phase Change Material. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 54(1), pp. 1-8.
Vancouver
Ahmad Tajuddin M, Nor Azwadi CS, M'hamed B. Thermo Physical Enhancement of Advanced Nano-Composite Phase Change Material. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics. 2019;54(1): 1-8.

Evaluation of Stability and Maturity of Compost Quality During Composting of Rice Straw Ash with Food Waste
Siti Noor Baya Khaib, Irnis Azura Zakarya, Tengku Nuraiti Tengku Izhar
Page 9 - 17

Abstract
The physicochemical and biological changes was examined during composting of rice straw ash with food waste in order to assess the effectiveness as stability and maturity of compost at initial C:N ratio of 25 with three different aeration rates of 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 L/min.kg. The rice straw was burned at 300°C temperature to produced rice straw ash before being used to compost with a food waste. A laboratory-scale of bin composter reactor in a cone-shape was used during the composting process. The composting mixture with aeration rates of 0.4 and 0.6L/min.kg maintained the temperature exceeding 55°C for three and more than three days to meet the requirement of pathogen destruction compared to the composting mixture with aeration rate 0.8L/min.kg. The final C:N ratio for composting mixture with aeration rates 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8L/min.kg was 13, 12 and 10. The final germination index in composting mixture with aeration rate 0.6 and 0.8L/min.kg was exceed 80%,; however, the germination index in composting mixture with aeration rate 0.4L/min.kg was never over 80%. The pH values and moisture content obtained for all composting mixture was in a range of 7-8 and 40-70%.

Cite
MLA
Siti Noor Baya, Khaib, et al., "Evaluation of Stability and Maturity of Compost Quality During Composting of Rice Straw Ash with Food Waste." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 54.1 (2019): 9-17.
APA
Siti Noor Baya, K., Irnis Azura, Z., & Tengku Nuraiti, T. I.,(2019). Evaluation of Stability and Maturity of Compost Quality During Composting of Rice Straw Ash with Food Waste. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics, 54(1), 9-17.
Chicago
Siti Noor Baya Khaib, Irnis Azura Zakarya, and Tengku Nuraiti Tengku Izhar."Evaluation of Stability and Maturity of Compost Quality During Composting of Rice Straw Ash with Food Waste." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics." 54, no. 1 (2019): 9-17.
Harvard
Siti Noor Baya, K., Irnis Azura, Z., and Tengku Nuraiti, T.I., 2019. Evaluation of Stability and Maturity of Compost Quality During Composting of Rice Straw Ash with Food Waste. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 54(1), pp. 9-17.
Vancouver
Siti Noor Baya K, Irnis Azura Z, Tengku Nuraiti TI. Evaluation of Stability and Maturity of Compost Quality During Composting of Rice Straw Ash with Food Waste. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics. 2019;54(1): 9-17.

Volume 55, No. 1 (March, 2019)
Ultra-High-Performance Concrete: Development of On-Site Fresh Mix Rheology Test Methods
Yang Chen, Faris Matalkah, Anagi Balachandra, Parviz Soroushian
Page 1 – 11
Abstract
Experimental investigations were conducted on the challenges that may be encountered in the industrial-scale production of ultra-high-performance concrete (UHPC). The rheological attributes of fresh UHPC mixtures were investigated, and a convenient set of tests were developed for field evaluation of the UHPC rheological attributes. These tests would allow for adjustment of the water content of the delivered UHPC to provide adequate workability characteristics, considering that the distinctly low water content of UHPC mixtures make them more prone to the adverse effects of the lack of control on the actual water content of concrete materials produced at industrial scale. The effects of water content on the fresh mix rheology and hardened UHPC compressive strength were evaluated. Distinctions were made between the fresh mix rheology of the UHPC paste versus normal Portland cement paste.

Cite
MLA
Yang, Chen, et al., "Ultra-High-Performance Concrete: Development of On-Site Fresh Mix Rheology Test Methods." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 55.1 (2019): 1-11.
APA
Yang, C., Faris, Ma., Anagi, B., & Parviz, S.,(2019). Ultra-High-Performance Concrete: Development of On-Site Fresh Mix Rheology Test Methods. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics, 55(1), 1-11.
Chicago
Yang Chen, Faris Matalkah, Anagi Balachandra, and Parviz Soroushian."Ultra-High-Performance Concrete: Development of On-Site Fresh Mix Rheology Test Methods." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics." 55, no. 1 (2019): 1-11.
Harvard
Yang, C., Faris, Ma., Anagi, B., and Parviz, S., 2019. Ultra-High-Performance Concrete: Development of On-Site Fresh Mix Rheology Test Methods. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 55(1), pp. 1-11.
Vancouver
Yang C, Faris Ma, Anagi B, Parviz S. Ultra-High-Performance Concrete: Development of On-Site Fresh Mix Rheology Test Methods. Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics. 2019;55(1): 1-11.

Performance of Concrete Incorporating of Clam Shell as Partially Replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)
Bee Poh Ong, Umar Kassim
Page 12 - 21

Abstract
In Malaysia, the uses of concrete will be demand higher in future due to growing of construction industry. Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) known as dominant precursor in manufacturing of concrete, every tons of OPC produce will released similar amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) in activities of quarrying limestone and calcination. Clam shells known as fishery industry waste that have high potential as partial cement replacement in concrete due to its similar chemical composition with limestone which is used in manufacturing of Portland cement. Clam shells were prepared by cleaning, crushing, grinding and calcination. This study investigate the performance of concrete using clamshells as partial replacement of OPC. The properties of clam shell concrete such as density, water absorption, compressive strength and splitting tensile strength has been studies. These properties were compare with Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete. Based on mixes using clamshells ash with proportion of 4%, 6%, and 8% by weight of cement, the optimum compressive strength was achieved for the mix that replaced cement by 6%. The clamshells concrete has higher compressive strength and density compare to OPC in 28th days. For splitting tensile strength on 28th days specimens SC 6% has highest splitting tensile strength compare to specimens SC 4% and SC 8% but splitting tensile strength for OPC concrete (5.1MPa) is higher than specimens concrete SC 6% (4.4MPa). Future studies for this research are first studies into the analysis between degrees of calcination should be made to quantify the value and assesse durability testing of seashell concrete other than water absorption test.

Cite
MLA
Bee Poh Ong, Umar Kassim., "Performance of Concrete Incorporating of Clam Shell as Partially Replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 55.1 (2019): 12-21.
APA
Bee, P. O., & Umar, K.,(2019). Performance of Concrete Incorporating of Clam Shell as Partially Replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics, 55(1), 12-21.
Chicago
Bee Poh Ong, and Umar Kassim."Performance of Concrete Incorporating of Clam Shell as Partially Replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics." 55, no. 1 (2019): 12-21.
Harvard
Bee, P.O., and Umar, K., 2019. Performance of Concrete Incorporating of Clam Shell as Partially Replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 55(1), pp. 12-21.
Vancouver
Bee PO, Umar K. Performance of Concrete Incorporating of Clam Shell as Partially Replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics. 2019;55(1): 12-21.

MOST CITED ARTICLES

Image Logs Application for Locating Faults in Oil and Gas Reservoirs
M. Alizadeh, Z. Movahed, R. Junin, W. R. W. Sulaiman and M. Z. Jaafar

The Use of Nanofluids in Domestic Water Heat Exchanger
L. Y. Keen

ANSYS simulation for Ag/HEG Hybrid Nanofluid in Turbulent Circular Pipe
S. Zainal, C. Tan, C. J. Sian and T. J. Siang

Journal Metrics

google scholar
Source: https://scholar.google.com/

Under review by SCOPUS

Submit Your Manuscript

Manuscripts submitted to the Akademia Baru journals must be original work that has not been published or under consideration for publication elsewhere. The manuscript must be written in good English or Malay and should be no more than 20 pages in length inclusive of tables, figures and illustrations. All submissions will be peer reviewed.

Submit your paper

Guide for Authors

Manuscripts submitted must be original work that has not been published.

Guide for reviewers

The reviewers of the journal assist the editors in making editorial decisions and through the editorial communications; the reviewers assist the authors in improving the manuscript.


Ethics in Publishing

Authors should report their results clearly, honestly, and without fabrication, falsification or inappropriate data manipulation. Authors should provide sufficient details on the method and references to allow others to replicate the work.

View More