journal-of-advanced-research-in-fluid-mechanics-and-thermal-scienceISSN (Online)
: 2289-7879

Frequency : Monthly

Editor-in-Chief : Dr. Nor Azwadi Che Sidik (E-mail)
Technical Editor : Ahmad Tajuddin Mohamad (E-mail)
View full editorial board

Aims and Scope : This journal welcomes high-quality original contributions on experimental, computational, and physical aspects of fluid mechanics and thermal sciences relevant to engineering or the environment, multiphase and microscale flows, microscale electronic and mechanical systems; medical and biological systems; and thermal and flow control in both the internal and external environment.

Article of the month

Experimental Analysis of The Thermal Effect of The Magneto-Mechanical Behavior of Viscoelastic Elastomer
Mohamed Tourab, Salah Aguib

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RECENT ARTICLES

Volume 60
Volume 60, No. 1 (August, 2019)
Numerical Investigation of Hydrostatic Pressure on Free Vibrating Rectangular Cantilever Plates Partially Submerged in Viscous Media
Atheer Raheem Abdullah, Wajeeh Kamal Hasan, Mustafa Abdulsalam Mustafa
Page 1 – 14

Experimental Investigation of Drag Reduction by a Polymeric Additive in Crude Oil Flow in Horizontal Pipe
Farhan Lafta Rashid, Haider Nadhom Azziz, Shaheed Mahdi Talib
Page 15 – 23

Efficiency of Electricity Production from Installed Generator on a Condensing Unit of an Air Conditioner
Chanita Mano, Atthakorn Thongtha
Page 24 – 37

MHD Rotating Fluid Past a Semi-Infinite Vertical Moving Plate: Coriolis Force and Wall Velocity Effects
Zohra Benharkat, Mohamed Najib Bouaziz
Page 38 – 51

An Assessment of Power Demand for Electric Vehicles in Comparison to Conventional on Real and Standard Driving Cycles
Sameer D Ali, Ahmed Al-Samari, Saadoon Abdul Hafedh, Itimad Dawood Jumaah Azzawi
Page 52 – 59

Numerical Simulation of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Wellbore
Farhan Lafta Rashid, Hasan Qahtan Hussein, Asaad Salim Bded
Page 60 – 70

Review of the Recent Power Augmentation Techniques for the Savonius Wind Turbines
Mohanad Al-Ghriybah, Mohd Fadhli Zulkafli, Djamal Hissein Didane, Sofian Mohd
Page 71 – 84

A Qualitative Inter-relation between Drop Impacts on a Solid Surface and the Interaction of a Droplet Placed Inside a Superheated Pool
Ashish Karn, Rohan De, Abhay Kumar
Page 85 – 94

Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Natural Compounds: Glucose, Eugenol and Thymol
Mayyadah Shanan Abed, Ashwaq S. Abed, Farhad Mohammad Othman
Page 95 – 111

A Cost-effective Data Acquisition Instrumentation for Measurement of Base Pressure and Wall Pressure in Suddenly Expanded Flow Through Ducts
Vigneshvaran Sethuraman, Parvathy Rajendran, Sher Afghan Khan
Page 112 – 123

Experimental Analysis of the Effect of Tube Pass Length on The Characteristics of Heat Transfer in U-Sharp Turned Channels
Ahmad Syuhada, Muhammad Ilham Maulana, Agus Adria
Page 124 – 131

A Review on Thin Layered Composite Zeolite for Water Desalination Applications
Norsuhailizah Sazali, Zawati Harun, Tijjani Abdullahi, Norazlianie Sazali, Mohamad Shaiful Abdul Karim, Ahmad Syahiman Mohd Shah
Page 132 – 143

A Review on Factors Affecting Heat Transfer Efficiency of Nanofluids for Application in Plate Heat Exchanger
Haziqatulhanis Ibrahim, Norazlianie Sazali, Ahmad Syahiman Mohd Shah, Mohamad Shaiful Abdul Karim, Farhana Aziz, Wan Norharyati Wan Salleh
Page 144 – 154

Volume 60, No. 2 (August, 2019)
DeltaE Modelling and Experimental Study of a Standing Wave Thermoacoustic Test Rig
Fatimah Al Zahrah Mohd Saat, Dahlia Johari, Ernie Mattokit
Page 155 – 165

Large Eddy Simulation using One-Equation SGS Model based on Dynamic Procedure for Flows in Laminar-Transition Region
Firdaus Mohamad, Takeo Kajishima
Page 166 – 177

UAV NACA4415 Wing Structural Performance Analysis Subjected to External Aerodynamic Load Using Schrenk’s Approximation
Ernnie Illyani Basri, Adi Azriff Basri, Mohd. Firdaus Abas, Faizal Mustapha, Mohamed Thariq Hameed Sultan, Kamarul Arifin Ahmad
Page 178 – 190

A Review: Parameters Affecting the PVT Collector Performance on the Thermal, Electrical, and Overall Efficiency of PVT System
Amira Lateef Abdullah, Suhaimi Misha, Noreffendy Tamaldin, Mohd Afzanizam Mohd Rosli, Fadhil Abdulameer Sachit
Page 191 – 232

Thermodynamic Analysis of Solar Absorption Cooling System
Jasim Abdulateef, Sameer Dawood Ali, Mustafa Sabah Mahdi
Page 233 – 246

Study of Combustion Performance of Syngas from Biomass Waste (Wood Waste) in a Gas Burner
Mohd Hafizi Othman, Muhammad Roslan Rahim, Mohammad Nazri Mohd Jaafar, Mazlan Said, Norazila Othman, Muhammad Syahiran Abdul Malik, Anis Athirah Mohd Azli
Page 247 – 257

Barriers, Challenges and Opportunities for Energy Management Program: A Case Study of Universiti Utara Malaysia
Mohd Nasrun Mohd Nawi, Mohamad Zamhari Tahir, Mohd Nazaruddin Yusoff
Page 258 – 269

MHD Viscous Incompressible Casson Fluid Flow with Hall Current
Mohammad Afikuzzaman, Mohammad Ferdows, Raushan Ara Quadir, Md. Mahmud Alam
Page 270 – 282

High Altitude Transonic Aerodynamics of Supercritical Airfoil at different Turbulence Levels
N. Vinayaka, C. Akshaya, Avinash Lakshmikanthan, Shiv Pratap Singh Yadav, R. P. Sindhu
Page 283 – 295

Thermo-Mechanical Modelling of Laser Welding Process on Aluminium Alloy EN AW 6082-T6
Elfi Rahayu Imam Fauzi, Zahurin Samad, Norzalilah Mohamad Nor, Mohd Sabri Che Jamil, Mohd Najib Ali Mokhtar
Page 296 – 309

Simulation of Heat Transfer on Blood Flow through a Stenosed Bifurcated Artery
Muhammad Sabaruddin Ahmad Jamali, Zuhaila Ismail
Page 310 – 323

PUBLISHED ARTICLES

PrefaceVolume 1 - Volume 5Volume 6 - Volume 10Volume 11 - Volume 15Volume 16 - Volume 20Volume 21 - Volume 25Volume 26 - Volume 30Volume 31 - Volume 35Volume 36 - Volume 40Volume 41 - Volume 45Volume 46 - Volume 50Volume 51 - Volume 55Volume 56 - Volume 60
Volume 29, No. 1 (January, 2017)
Torrefaction of Pulverized Empty Fruit Bunch and Polyethylene Plastics Waste Mixture
Hasan Mohd Faizal, Abdul Halim Mohd Salleh, Hielfarith Suffri Shamsuddin, Muhammad Ariff Hanaffi Mohd Fuad, Zulkarnain Abdul Latiff, Mohd Rosdzimin Abdul Rahman
Page 1 – 9
Abstract
The combustion properties of torrefied mixture of empty fruit bunch (EFB) and
polyethylene (PE) plastics were investigated experimentally, for weight ratio of 95:5
(EFB: PE) and 90:10. The mixture samples were obtained from briquettes that were
produced under various briquetting temperatures (150°C-190°C). The torrefaction was
performed at constant temperature of 250°C and at constant nitrogen flow rate of 1
l/min. Generally, it can be said that the combustion properties such as calorific value
and moisture content fulfil the minimum requirement stated by standard for
commercial briquette (DIN51731). In addition, it can be said that the effect of mixture
composition on the combustion properties is stronger than the effect of briquetting
temperature.

Cite
MLA
Faizal, Hasan Mohd, et al. “Torrefaction of Pulverized Empty Fruit Bunch and Polyethylene Plastics Waste Mixture.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 29.1 (2017): 1-9.
APA
Faizal, H. M., Salleh, A. H. M., Shamsuddin, H. S., Ariff, M., Fuad, H. M., Latiff, Z. A., & Rahman, M. R. A. (2017). Torrefaction of Pulverized Empty Fruit Bunch and Polyethylene Plastics Waste Mixture. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 29(1), 1-9.
Chicago
Faizal, Hasan Mohd, Abdul Halim Mohd Salleh, Hielfarith Suffri Shamsuddin, Muhammad Ariff, Hanaffi Mohd Fuad, Zulkarnain Abdul Latiff, and Mohd Rosdzimin Abdul Rahman. “Torrefaction of Pulverized Empty Fruit Bunch and Polyethylene Plastics Waste Mixture.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 29, no. 1 (2017): 1-9.
Harvard
Faizal, H.M., Salleh, A.H.M., Shamsuddin, H.S., Ariff, M., Fuad, H.M., Latiff, Z.A. and Rahman, M.R.A., 2017. Torrefaction of Pulverized Empty Fruit Bunch and Polyethylene Plastics Waste Mixture. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 29(1), pp.1-9.
Vancouver
Faizal HM, Salleh AH, Shamsuddin HS, Ariff M, Fuad HM, Latiff ZA, Rahman MR. Torrefaction of Pulverized Empty Fruit Bunch and Polyethylene Plastics Waste Mixture. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;29(1):1-9.

The Investigation on SIMPLE and SIMPLER Algorithm through Lid Driven Cavity
Lee Chern Earn, Tey Wah Yen, Tan Lit Ken
Page 10 – 22

Abstract
The present study analyzes in details to compare SIMPLE and SIMPLER algorithm in
terms of their convergence rate, iteration number and computational time. The work
which is based on primitive variables (u, v, P) formulation of Navier-Stokes equations
to investigate the velocity and pressure distribution in the square cavity at Reynolds
number of 100 and 400. The solutions are obtained for grid size 16 × 16 up to 256 ×
256. From the plots of velocity profiles along centerline geometry, it shows good
agreement with the benchmark solution from past researchers. The velocity and
pressure in the cavity varies as the Reynolds number increases from 100 to 400.
SIMPLER algorithm is proven to be more efficient compared to SIMPLE as iteration
number required for a given Reynolds number and grid size is lower than that of
SIMPLE. The values of under-relaxation factors for velocity components and pressure
play significant role in terms of convergence rate of a numerical scheme.

Cite
MLA
CE Lee, WY Tey, LK Tan. “The Investigation on SIMPLE and SIMPLER Algorithm through Lid Driven Cavity.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 29.1 (2017): 10-23.
APA
Lee, C. E., Tey, W. Y., & Tan, L. Ken. (2017). The Investigation on SIMPLE and SIMPLER Algorithm through Lid Driven Cavity. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 29(1), 10-23.
Chicago
Lee Chern Earn, Tey Wah Yen, and Tan Lit Ken. “The Investigation on SIMPLE and SIMPLER Algorithm through Lid Driven Cavity.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 29, no. 1 (2017): 10-23.
Harvard
Lee, C.E., Tey, W.Y., Tan, L.K., 2017. The Investigation on SIMPLE and SIMPLER Algorithm through Lid Driven Cavity. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 29(1), pp.10-23.
Vancouver
Lee, CE, Tey, W., Tan, LK. The Investigation on SIMPLE and SIMPLER Algorithm through Lid Driven Cavity. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;29(1):10-23.
Volume 30, No. 1 (February, 2017)
A Comparison of Cylindrical and Row Trenched Film-cooling Holes on a Combustor Endwall Surface at High Blowing Ratio
Ehsan Kianpour, Nor Azwadi Che Sidik
Page 1 – 11
Abstract
This study was done to study the effects of cylindrical and row trenched cooling holes
with alignment angle of ±60 degrees at blowing ratio of BR=3.18 on the film cooling
effectiveness near the combustor end wall surface. In this study, a three-dimensional
representation of a Pratt and Whitney gas turbine engine was simulated and analysed
with a commercial finite volume package FLUENT 6.2.26. The analysis has been carried
out with Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes turbulence model (RANS) on internal
cooling passages. This combustor simulator was combined with the interaction of two
rows of dilution jets, which were staggered in the streamwise direction and aligned in
the spanwise direction. In comparison with the baseline case of cooling holes, the
application of row trenched hole near the endwall surface doubled the performance
of film-cooling effectiveness.

Cite
MLA
Ehsan Kianpour, Nor Azwadi Che Sidik. “A Comparison of Cylindrical and Row Trenched Film-cooling Holes on a Combustor Endwall Surface at High Blowing Ratio.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 30.1 (2017): 1-11.
APA
Ehsan, K., & Nor Azwadi, C. S. (2017). A Comparison of Cylindrical and Row Trenched Film-cooling Holes on a Combustor Endwall Surface at High Blowing Ratio. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 30(1), 1-11.
Chicago
Ehsan Kianpour, and Nor Azwadi Che Sidik. “A Comparison of Cylindrical and Row Trenched Film-cooling Holes on a Combustor Endwall Surface at High Blowing Ratio.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 30, no. 1 (2017): 1-11.
Harvard
Ehsan, K., and Nor Azwadi, C.S, 2017. A Comparison of Cylindrical and Row Trenched Film-cooling Holes on a Combustor Endwall Surface at High Blowing Ratio. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 30(1), pp.1-11.
Vancouver
Ehsan K, Nor Azwadi CS. A Comparison of Cylindrical and Row Trenched Film-cooling Holes on a Combustor Endwall Surface at High Blowing Ratio. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;30(1):1-11.

Investigation of Energy Conservation Potentials in Kaduna Polytechnic, Nigeria
Sani Malami Suleiman, Muhammad Rabiu Abbas, Abubakar Sadiq Aliyu
Page 12 – 20

Abstract
Energy conservation in buildings is given utmost importance today by organizations all
over the world because an effective energy management in an enterprise leads to
significant cost savings in addition to indirect benefits, such as extended equipment
life, increased comfort, safety, and productivity. An effective and successful energy
management program begins with an energy audit, which is a systematic approach for
assessing energy end-use efficiency of all concerned systems/equipment.to identify
energy conserving measures (ECMs). This paper analyzed the data obtained based on
the extracted electricity utility bills and Automotive Gas Oil (AGO) consumption records
for 7 years (i.e. from 2009 to 2015) for Kaduna Polytechnic, being the two energy
sources, as well as site surveys and analysis of the energy end users present. The
records have shown that, the institution consumes annually an average electrical
energy of 1445448 kWh and an average of 11093.14143 liters of AGO, which is
equivalent to 118918.48 kWh during normal operation. The result of the investigation
and analysis of the energy conservation potentials in the institution have shown that,
energy savings of up to 7.5% of the total energy can be achieved by switching-off all
security lights during the day. While turning off the air conditioners in the early
morning hours of between 8am to 10am would provide a saving of up to 10% of the
total energy. Furthermore, a saving of 19.5% of the total energy can be achieved when
the incandescent lamps are replaced with the energy efficient ones. The energy
conservation measures (ECMs) followed in this research had shown significant savings
in terms of both energy and cost, and if well implemented, can pave the way for a
sustainable future towards energy management in the institution.

Cite
MLA
Sani, Malami Suleiman, et al. “Investigation of Energy Conservation Potentials in Kaduna Polytechnic, Nigeria.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 30.1 (2017): 12-20.
APA
Sani, M. S., Muhammad, R. A., & Abubakar, S. A. (2017). Investigation of Energy Conservation Potentials in Kaduna Polytechnic, Nigeria. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 30(1), 12-20.
Chicago
Sani Malami Suleiman, Muhammad Rabiu Abbas, and Abubakar Sadiq Aliyu. “Investigation of Energy Conservation Potentials in Kaduna Polytechnic, Nigeria.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 30, no. 1 (2017): 12-20.
Harvard
Sani, M.S., Muhammad, R.A., Abubakar, S.A., 2017. Investigation of Energy Conservation Potentials in Kaduna Polytechnic, Nigeria. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 30(1), pp.12-20.
Vancouver
Sani MS, Muhammad RA, Abubakar SA. Investigation of Energy Conservation Potentials in Kaduna Polytechnic, Nigeria. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;30(1):12-20.
Volume 31, No. 1 (March, 2017)
Energy Saving Potential of an Air-conditioner – Ice Thermal Storage (AC-ITS) system
Norati Artini Awang, Haslinda Mohamed Kamar, Nazri Kamsah
Page 1 – 10
Abstract
Air-conditioning (AC) systems are the most common energy consuming equipment in
commercial buildings in Malaysia. An Ice Thermal Storage (ITS) application is capable
of reducing the power consumption of the air-conditioning system and its
corresponding costs as it transfers the peak of electricity consumption from on-peak
to off-peak hours. In this study, an analysis was performed on a conceptual AC-ITS
system to estimate the annual saving in operating cost when compared to an existing
AC system installed at Perpustakaan Raja Zarith Sofia (PRZS) building located in
Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor. First, the cooling loads of the building based on
the Carrier Cooling Load Method were determined. Based on the cooling loads the
system equipment was selected. From the cooling load profile, the chiller-charging and
-discharging scheduling of the ITS system were determined. The estimated annual
operating cost of the present AC system is approximately RM 437,877. By employing
the ITS-AC system, a potential saving of about RM 299,901 per year can be achieved,
representing a 68.5 % saving per year.

Cite
MLA
Awang, Norati Artini, Haslinda Mohamed Kamar, and Nazri Kamsah. “Energy Saving Potential of an Air-conditioner – Ice Thermal Storage (AC-ITS) system.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 31.1 (2017): 1-10.
APA
Awang, N. A., Kamar, H. M., & Kamsah, N. (2017). Energy Saving Potential of an Air-conditioner – Ice Thermal Storage (AC-ITS) system. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 31(1), 1-10.
Chicago
Awang, Norati Artini, Haslinda Mohamed Kamar, and Nazri Kamsah. “Energy Saving Potential of an Air-conditioner – Ice Thermal Storage (AC-ITS) system.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 31, no. 1 (2017): 1-10.
Harvard
Awang, N.A., Kamar, H.M. and Kamsah, N., 2017. Energy Saving Potential of an Air-conditioner – Ice Thermal Storage (AC-ITS) system. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 31(1), pp.1-10.
Vancouver
Awang NA, Kamar HM, Kamsah N. Energy Saving Potential of an Air-conditioner – Ice Thermal Storage (AC-ITS) system. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;31(1):1-10.

Indoor Air of a Double-storey Residential House in Malaysia
Haslinda Mohamed Kamar, Nazri Kamsah, Kam Jia Liq
Page 11 – 18

Abstract
This paper presents an investigation on the effects of using solar chimney, gable vent,
and the combination of the two natural ventilations on the average air temperature
and air-flow condition inside a double-storey house in Malaysia, using computational
fluid dynamics (CFD) method. The representative model of the house comprises of a
main hall, a kitchen and an upper hall. Both temperature and air velocity boundary
conditions were prescribed on the model. Results of the simulation indicates that the
average temperature of the air in the house at 1 pm closely matched the measured
values. It was found that the average temperature of the air in the house is not so
significantly affected by the types of natural ventilation used. Opening the kitchen door
causes the air to flow from the main and upper halls towards the kitchen and causing
a bottle neck at the pathways. A more uniform air flow is obtained when solar
chimneys are used. When gable vents are used, high intensity air flow occurs in the
main hall and it spreads uniformly towards the kitchen and upper hall. The air-flow
intensity becomes even higher in the main and upper halls when a combination of solar
chimney and gable vents are incorporated into the CFD model.

Cite
MLA
Kamar, Haslinda Mohamed, Nazri Kamsah, and J. L. Kam. “Indoor Air of a Double-storey Residential House in Malaysia.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 31.1 (2017): 11-18.
APA
Kamar, H. M., Kamsah, N., & Kam, J. L. (2017). Indoor Air of a Double-storey Residential House in Malaysia. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 31(1), 11-18.
Chicago
Kamar, Haslinda Mohamed, Nazri Kamsah, and J. L. Kam. “Indoor Air of a Double-storey Residential House in Malaysia.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 31, no. 1 (2017): 11-18.
Harvard
Kamar, H.M., Kamsah, N. and Kam, J.L., 2017. Indoor Air of a Double-storey Residential House in Malaysia. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 31(1), pp.11-18.
Vancouver
Kamar HM, Kamsah N, Kam JL. Indoor Air of a Double-storey Residential House in Malaysia. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;31(1):11-18.
Volume 32, No. 1 (April, 2017)
Catalytic Fast-pyrolysis Process Design and Equipment Setup for Converting Palm Oil Empty Fruit Bunch Biomass to Bio-oil
Haryanti Yahaya, Halimaton Hamdan, Rozzeta Dolah, Nazlan Muhid, Khair Azim Rashidi, Sulaiman Bakhtiar Rashidi
Page 1 – 8
Abstract
Fast-Pyrolysis is a well-known technology for breaking down molecular composition of
organic materials into gas and liquid forms by mean of high temperature treatment in
the absence of oxygen. Reactors accommodating this means of transformation has
been variously designed and implemented in bench-scale as well as pilot and
commercial scales. In this paper, we will discuss on the process design that fulfilled the
catalytic fast-pyrolysis method as well as the equipment setup to realize this process
of a pilot scale production. The design is to realize targeted heating process
temperature to maintain at 320 °C, mix material with specified catalyst while occupying
a 20 feet size container unit for space optimization. A shredder, industrial mixer,
reactor and condenser are placed adjacently in the unit. Prior production test ran
achieved desired temperature of both reactor and condenser.

Cite
MLA
Haryanti, Yahaya, et al. “Catalytic Fast-pyrolysis Process Design and Equipment Setup for Converting Palm Oil Empty Fruit Bunch Biomass to Bio-oil.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 32.1 (2017): 1-8.
APA
Haryanti, Y., Halimaton, H., Rozzeta, D., Nazlan, M., Khair, A. R., & Sulaiman, B. R. (2017). Catalytic Fast-pyrolysis Process Design and Equipment Setup for Converting Palm Oil Empty Fruit Bunch Biomass to Bio-oil. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 32(1), 1-8.
Chicago
Haryanti Yahaya, Halimaton Hamdan, Rozzeta Dolah, Nazlan Muhid, Khair Azim Rashidi, and Sulaiman Bakhtiar Rashidi. “Catalytic Fast-pyrolysis Process Design and Equipment Setup for Converting Palm Oil Empty Fruit Bunch Biomass to Bio-oil.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 32, no. 1 (2017): 1-8.
Harvard
Haryanti, Y., Halimaton, H., Rozzeta, D., Nazlan, M., Khair, A.R., Sulaiman, B.R., 2017. Catalytic Fast-pyrolysis Process Design and Equipment Setup for Converting Palm Oil Empty Fruit Bunch Biomass to Bio-oil. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 32(1), pp.1-8.
Vancouver
Haryanti Y, Halimaton H, Rozzeta D, Nazlan M, Khair AR, Sulaiman BR. Catalytic Fast-pyrolysis Process Design and Equipment Setup for Converting Palm Oil Empty Fruit Bunch Biomass to Bio-oil. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;32(1):1-8.

The Effect of Microbubbles on the Reduction of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)
Azrin Camillius Tan, Nadia Dayana Bahar, Wira Jazair Yahya, Ahmad Muhsin Ithnin
Page 9 – 14

Abstract
Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) is a wastewater discharged from the palm oil industry. It
contains large quantity of organic matter in the form of total suspended solids (TSS),
volatile suspended solids (VSS), total solids (TS), oil and grease which is the major
contribution to the water resources pollution especially rivers or lakes if left untreated.
Raw POME has high value of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) which is more than
30,000 ppm, thus it must be treated before it can be discharged to the water resources.
Therefore, this paper presents a new method of POME treatment using microbubbles.
Microbubble is selected due to its high oxygen transfer coefficient at a low air flow rate
that can give a major impact on reducing the BOD of POME. Thus, microbubble can be
a factor on reducing the BOD of POME. The POME sample was collected and handled
according to APHA standard. The duration of treatment was carried out for 120
minutes by analysing the BOD at the following time intervals; 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120
minutes with introduction of microbubble. The BOD results were measured using FiveDay
Biochemical Oxygen Demand method (APHA 5210 B). The lowest flowrate of
microbubbles performed better in reducing the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)
with reduction of 26% of BOD at 60th minutes retention time. It is due to the lowest
air flowrate produced the smallest size of microbubble whereas the bubble size is one
of the key factors with significant impacts on floatation and mixing that affect aeration
process.

Cite
MLA
Azrin Camillius, Tan, et al. “The Effect of Microbubbles on the Reduction of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME).” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 32.1 (2017): 9-14.
APA
Azrin, C. T., Nadia, D. B., Wira, J. Y., & Ahmad Muhsin, Ithnin. (2017). The Effect of Microbubbles on the Reduction of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 32(1), 9-14.
Chicago
Azrin Camillius Tan, Nadia Dayana Bahar, Wira Jazair Yahya, and Ahmad Muhsin Ithnin. “The Effect of Microbubbles on the Reduction of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME).” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 32, no. 1 (2017): 9-14.
Harvard
Azrin, C.T., Nadia Dayana, B., Wira Jazair, Y., 2017. The Effect of Microbubbles on the Reduction of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 32(1), pp.9-14.
Vancouver
Azrin Camillius T, Nadia Dayana B, Wira Jazair Y Ahmad Muhsin I. The Effect of Microbubbles on the Reduction of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;32(1):9-14.
Volume 33, No. 1 (May, 2017)
Tribological Properties of Biodegradable Nano-lubricant
Darminesh Sathuramalingam Pillay, Nor Azwadi Che Sidik
Page 1 – 13
Abstract
The biodegradable or vegetable oil possess good chemical properties competitive with
mineral oil which can used as alternative lubricant. However, the vegetable oil has poor
performance of tribological characteristics at high temperature and oxidation which
causes the vegetable lubricant not used widely in industrial sector. To optimize
lubrication, the vegetable oil can be mixed with hybrid additives. In this paper, RBD
palm olein and soybean oil was mixed with single and hybrid additives which has been
tested to determine its lubricating properties. The additives which has been used for
the study was zddp and copper oxide nanoparticles. The mixing percentage of zddp has
been fixed with 1% optimum whereas the copper oxide nanoparticles varies from
0.75% to 1% of the total mass. Testing has been conducted using fourball tribotester
based on ASTM D4172 standard condition. The result shows that formulated palm
olein lubricant with hybrid additive with zddp and CuO nanoparticles at 0.75% and 1%
respectively provided 54.6% of WSD reduction, 29.2% COF reduction and smooth
surface roughness compared with base RDB palm olein and soybean oil. However, in
term of WSD and surface roughness, the mineral lubricant possesses better
performance expect COF value of hybrid additive lubricant possess better value. From
this results, it can be concluded that the performance of vegetable lubricant could be
better enhanced with hybrid additives and its tribological characteristics competitive
with conventional mineral lubricant.

Cite
MLA
Pillay, Darminesh Sathuramalingam, and Nor Azwadi Che Sidik. “Tribological Properties of Biodegradable Nano-lubricant.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 33.1 (2017): 1-13.
APA
Pillay, D. S., & Sidik, N. A. C. (2017). Tribological Properties of Biodegradable Nano-lubricant. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 33(1), 1-13.
Chicago
Pillay, Darminesh Sathuramalingam, and Nor Azwadi Che Sidik. “Tribological Properties of Biodegradable Nano-lubricant.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 33, no. 1 (2017): 1-13.
Harvard
Pillay, D.S. and Sidik, N.A.C., 2017. Tribological Properties of Biodegradable Nano-lubricant. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 33(1), pp.1-13.
Vancouver
Pillay DS, Sidik NA. Tribological Properties of Biodegradable Nano-lubricant. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;33(1):1-13.

Economics of Biogas Plants and Solar Home Systems: For Household Energy Applications
Md Mizanur Rahman, Mohd Faizal Hasan, Aminuddin Saat, Mazlan Abdul Wahid
Page 14 – 26

Abstract
Electricity and clean cooking fuels are the two basic ingredients that are indispensable
to alleviate energy poverty and bring about human development, but still today,
globally, more than one billion people do not have access to these two forms of energy.
The major reasons for the lack of these two energy services are economic constraints.
Biogas plants and solar home systems (SHS) are two technically feasible renewable
energy technologies to deliver cooking and electricity loads in rural areas. The negative
economic perception (i.e. high cost) of these two renewable energy technologies is
primarily responsible for making their diffusion slow in developing countries. This
work presents a model to examine the economic performance (i.e. benefit to cost
ratios) of these new energy technologies against three household load categories.
Applying this model, this study shows that biogas plants used together with SHS show
attractive economic performance e.g. a benefit cost ratio (BCR) of 6.6 for load Category
1(basic load). It is evidenced from this work that biogas plants together with SHS are
economically promising in rural areas in developing country situations particularly in
Bangladesh.

Cite
MLA
Md Mizanur, Rahman, et al. “Economics of Biogas Plants and Solar Home Systems: For Household Energy Applications.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 33.1 (2017): 14-26.
APA
Md Mizanur, R., Mohd Faizal, H., Aminuddin, S., & Mazlan, A. W. (2017). Economics of Biogas Plants and Solar Home Systems: For Household Energy Applications. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 33(1), 14-26.
Chicago
Md Mizanur Rahman, Mohd Faizal Hasan, Aminuddin Saat, and Mazlan Abdul Wahid. “Economics of Biogas Plants and Solar Home Systems: For Household Energy Applications.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 33, no. 1 (2017): 14-26.
Harvard
Md Mizanur, R., Mohd Faizal, H., Aminuddin, S., Mazlan, A.W., 2017. Economics of Biogas Plants and Solar Home Systems: For Household Energy Applications. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 33(1), pp.14-26.
Vancouver
Md Mizanur R, Mohd Faizal H, Aminuddin S, Mazlan AW. Economics of Biogas Plants and Solar Home Systems: For Household Energy Applications. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;33(1):14-26.
Volume 34, No. 1 (June, 2017)
Numerical Analysis of Heat and Fluid Flow in Microchannel Heat Sink with Triangular Cavities
Soo Weng Beng, Wan Mohd. Arif Aziz Japar
Page 1 – 8
Abstract
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in heat transfer enhancement
using nanofluids in corrugated channels due current devices become smaller and
smaller and are expected to perform better. The devices will create hot spot and
generate more heat are related to the devices performance are better and inability of
current heat sink to remove heat. So, the aim of this project is to stimulate the
nanofluids flow in straight channel and corrugated microchannel using ANSYS software
with certain specific parameters to be fixed or stated which are hydraulic diameter is
133.3 µm, Knudsen Number will be fixed when flow is continuum, Reynold number will
be below than 1400, so that the flow in within laminar region, the inlet temperature
will be 300 K, uniform heat flux 100W/cm2
and inlet velocity will be in the range of
1.0m/s to 4.5m/s. This research will describe the procedure of using ANSYS software
and to analysis the heat enhancement, pressure drop, velocity contour of nanofluids
happen in straight microchannel compared to triangular cavities microchannel. The
analysis proved triangular cavities that using high volume fraction of nanofluid has
better performance compared to straight channel with the same volume fraction of
nanofluid because the triangular cavities microchannel have the highest nusselt
number and lowest friction factor whereby these two factors become indicator to
thermal performance.

Cite
MLA
Soo Weng Beng, Wan Mohd Arif Aziz Japar. “Numerical Analysis of Heat and Fluid Flow in Microchannel Heat Sink with Triangular Cavities.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 34.1 (2017): 1-8.
APA
Soo, W. B., & Wan Mohd Arif, A. J. (2017). Numerical Analysis of Heat and Fluid Flow in Microchannel Heat Sink with Triangular Cavities. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 34(1), 1-8.
Chicago
Soo Weng Beng, and Wan Mohd Arif Aziz Japar. “Numerical Analysis of Heat and Fluid Flow in Microchannel Heat Sink with Triangular Cavities.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 34, no. 1 (2017): 1-8.
Harvard
Soo, W.B., Wan Mohd Arif, A.J., 2017. Numerical Analysis of Heat and Fluid Flow in Microchannel Heat Sink with Triangular Cavities. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 34(1), pp.1-8.
Vancouver
Soo WB, Wan Mohd Arif AJ. Numerical Analysis of Heat and Fluid Flow in Microchannel Heat Sink with Triangular Cavities. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;34(1):1-8.

Erosion Prediction of Bypass Seat in Oil Well Auto-fill Equipment Using CFD Approach
Ahmad Rizal Maharam
Page 9 – 18

Abstract
Throughout the course completion of oil and gas wells, it is important to run casing in
a wellbore that is normally laden with wellbore fluids. The wellbore fluid, or mud,
serves two essential purposes. First, it helps to keep the inflow of formation fluids into
the wellbore by exerting hydrostatic pressure on the formation. The hydrostatic
pressure that is applied must be sufficiently high enough to keep fluid inflow but not
high enough to crumble down the formation. During casing run, the impacts of surge
and swab must be considered when deciding casing running rates to ensure the
boundary between the hydrostatic pressure column and formation pressure keep at
equilibrium. Second, the mud assists to circulate cuttings from the wellbore during the
drilling commencement. Occasionally during running casing in the wellbore, it is
important to have dependable auto-fill equipment to help limit the surge and swab
effect. The concept is enabling wellbore fluids to enter the casing from the lower end
of the casing is called auto-fill or self-fill. Filling the casing consequently from the lower
end wipes out the requirement for manual filling the casing from surface while running
in hole (RIH) and casing running efficiencies can increased. In the event that circulation
time and additionally rate while RIH or well conditioning surpasses pre-determined
mud weight and flowrate, erosion on the valve could happen, which lead to higher than
anticipated auto-fill deactivation rates. Thus, this study aims to assess flow behavior
and erosion characteristics of the auto-fill valve assembly at the highest acceptable
predetermined flowrate parameter.

Cite
MLA
Ahmad Rizal Maharam. “Erosion Prediction of Bypass Seat in Oil Well Auto-fill Equipment Using CFD Approach.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 34.1 (2017): 9-18.
APA
Ahmad Rizal, M. (2017). Erosion Prediction of Bypass Seat in Oil Well Auto-fill Equipment Using CFD Approach. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 34(1), 9-18.
Chicago
Ahmad Rizal Maharam. “Erosion Prediction of Bypass Seat in Oil Well Auto-fill Equipment Using CFD Approach.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 34, no. 1 (2017): 9-18.
Harvard
Ahmad Rizal, M., 2017. Erosion Prediction of Bypass Seat in Oil Well Auto-fill Equipment Using CFD Approach. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 34(1), pp.9-18.
Vancouver
Ahmad Rizal M. Erosion Prediction of Bypass Seat in Oil Well Auto-fill Equipment Using CFD Approach. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;34(1):9-18.
Volume 35, No. 1 (July, 2017)
Estimated Original Oil in Place Variation Due to Porosity Determination Technique
Ariffin Samsuri, Zainal Zakaria, Issham Ismail, M. N. Krishnamurthy
Page 1 – 10
Abstract
Original oil in place underpins field appraisal, development, and management and at
early appraisal stage, static volumetric technique had been used for estimation. One
of the key variables in this technique is porosity; therefore the technique use for
porosity determination will influence the estimated original oil in place magnitude.
The evaluations of zone-average porosity in the net-pay intervals in a single well have
accuracy of approximately 5 to 25 % of total porosity. This is largely the result of
systematic uncertainty. Through this research paper, it is inferred that, the effect of
averaging the porosity is more imminent on an inter-bedded reservoir rather than a
clean sand reservoir. This is because the averaging effect is not accounting the porosity
changes in smaller scale, as it is wrongly assumed; changes in smaller area of reservoir
are negligible. This fundamental approach is proven to be incorrect. Though in clean
sand this averaging method is still applicable, it is proven that an averaging method is
not suitable to be used in a laminar or inter-bedded reservoir. The difference that may
be introduced is almost 25% of the original oil in place, which may affect the economic
model as the potentially producible and sub-economic field or discovery.

Cite
MLA
Ariffin, Samsuri, et al. “Estimated Original Oil in Place Variation Due to Porosity Determination Technique.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 35.1 (2017): 1-10.
APA
Ariffin, S., Zainal, Z., Issham, I., & Krishnamurthy, M. N.(2017). Estimated Original Oil in Place Variation Due to Porosity Determination Technique. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 35(1), 1-10.
Chicago
Ariffin Samsuri, Zainal Zakaria, Issham Ismail, and M. N. Krishnamurthy. “Estimated Original Oil in Place Variation Due to Porosity Determination Technique.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 35, no. 1 (2017): 1-10.
Harvard
Ariffin, S., Zainal, Z., Issham, I., Krishnamurthy, M.N., 2017. Estimated Original Oil in Place Variation Due to Porosity Determination Technique. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 35(1), pp.1-10.
Vancouver
Ariffin S, Zainal Z, Issham I, Krishnamurthy MN. Estimated Original Oil in Place Variation Due to Porosity Determination Technique. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;35(1):1-10.

Green Energy Initiative: An Overview of Biodiesel Production from Jatropha Feedstock in Nigeria
Abubakar Sadiq Aliyu, Abdulkarim Ali Deba, Haruna Saidu
Page 11 – 22

Abstract
Increase in global development of renewable energy sources as sustainable
alternatives to the conventional fossil fuels witnessed in recent time is linked to
greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; high dependency on imported fossil oil especially in
the developed world; non-renewable nature of fossil fuels; price volatility of petroleum
products and instability in the oil producing areas. Therefore, bioenergy appears to
offer hope for addressing these concerns while also providing new opportunities for
farmers in developing and developed countries alike. Among the many possible
resources, biodiesel has received the most attention as a promising substitute for
conventional petrol-diesel fuel. The production of biodiesel (methyl esters) from
Jatropha plant is currently generating interest in every economy of the world as an
alternative means of producing liquid fuels from biomass and have gather relevance
due to the environmental advantage the process offers. Biodiesel is a renewable
source of energy that can facilitate clean air, readily usable in existing engines and
transport facilities, capable of generating employment and income for citizens but has
not been fully tapped. Hence, efforts are being made to explore this economically
competitive, environmentally acceptable and readily available alternative source of
energy. Therefore, the paper provides a review of Jatropha as a feedstock for biodiesel
production in Nigeria. Focusing on biodiesel development from Jatropha feedstock, the
objectives of reviewing its current trends in the production of this biofuel will hold an
immense benefit. The biodiesel fuel properties and potential of Jatropha towards
environmental sustainability, poverty alleviation, and more importantly improve
economic development for rural communities were highlighted.

Cite
MLA
Abubakar, Sadiq Aliyu, et al. “Green Energy Initiative: An Overview of Biodiesel Production from Jatropha Feedstock in Nigeria.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 35.1 (2017): 11-22.
APA
Abubakar, S. A., Abdulkarim, A. D., & Haruna, S. (2017). Green Energy Initiative: An Overview of Biodiesel Production from Jatropha Feedstock in Nigeria. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 35(1), 11-22.
Chicago
Abubakar Sadiq Aliyu, Abdulkarim Ali Deba, and Haruna Saidu. “Green Energy Initiative: An Overview of Biodiesel Production from Jatropha Feedstock in Nigeria.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 35, no. 1 (2017): 11-22.
Harvard
Abubakar, S.A., Abdulkarim, A.D., Haruna, Saidu., 2017. Green Energy Initiative: An Overview of Biodiesel Production from Jatropha Feedstock in Nigeria. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 35(1), pp.11-22.
Vancouver
Abubakar SA, Abdulkarim AD Haruna S. Green Energy Initiative: An Overview of Biodiesel Production from Jatropha Feedstock in Nigeria. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;35(1):11-22.
Volume 36, No. 1 (August, 2017)
Biofuel Development in Nigeria: Prospect and Challenges
Abubakar Sadiq Aliyu, Abdulkarim Ali Deba, Haruna Saidu, Ibrahim Ladan Mohammed, Mohammed Maikudi Usman
Page 1 – 9
Abstract
Biofuel is perceived as a means to ease global energy concerns, promote rural
development and mitigate climate change. Therefore, its development has been and
will continue to be a priority for most countries. Presently biofuel production is not
economically viable, and the drive for its production is driven by the policies of some
countries that perceive it as the only possible alternative to fossil fuels and a way out
from the declining world crude reserves. Since biofuel offers the opportunities for
developing countries to grow new livelihood and reduce the over dependence on
imported fossil fuel, as well as obvious benefit to the environment, Nigeria is not left
out. Therefore, for Nigeria to step into the biofuels industry in a big way, with every
sector being placed in the use of cleaner renewable energy, government need to plan
towards producing biofuel from her abundant biomass resources. This idea is expected
to boost Nigerian economy through cultivation of arable landmass for provision of
feedstock. Therefore, the quest for biofuels no doubt, represents a legitimate
ambition. It is in the light of this that the paper reveals the prospects and challenges of
biofuel development with the objective of reviewing the current situation in Nigeria. It
further identifies inadequate process technology, poor policy implementation and lack
of public acceptance as factors hampering its success.

Cite
MLA
Abubakar, Sadiq Aliyu, et al. “Biofuel Development in Nigeria: Prospect and Challenges.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 36.1 (2017): 1-9.
APA
Abubakar, S. A., Abdulkarim, A. D., Haruna, S., Ibrahim, L. M., & Mohammed, M. U.(2017). Biofuel Development in Nigeria: Prospect and Challenges. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 36(1), 1-9.
Chicago
Abubakar Sadiq Aliyu, Abdulkarim Ali Deba, Haruna Saidu, Ibrahim Ladan Mohammed, and Mohammed Maikudi Usman. “Biofuel Development in Nigeria: Prospect and Challenges.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 36, no. 1 (2017): 1-9.
Harvard
Abubakar, S.A., Abdulkarim, A.D., Haruna, S., Ibrahim, L.M., Mohammed, M.U., 2017. Biofuel Development in Nigeria: Prospect and Challenges. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 36(1), pp.1-9.
Vancouver
Abubakar SA, Abdulkarim AD, Haruna S, Ibrahim LM, Mohammed MU. Biofuel Development in Nigeria: Prospect and Challenges. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;36(1):1-9.

Performance Evaluation of a Small-scale Solar Driven Refrigeration System
Mohd Syahmiyadiy Jamaluddin, Md Mizanur Rahman, Mohd Faizal Hasan, Aminuddin Saat, Mazlan Abd Wahid
Page 10 – 20

Abstract
The conventional refrigeration systems use fossil fuels for their energy inputs. Due to
the growing environmental degradation and fossil fuel depletion issues, energy supply
from alternative sources is gaining huge attention. Solar driven refrigeration system,
which uses solar energy as its energy input, not only addresses these challenges and
but also enhances sustainable development. In this work, we have developed a smallscale
solar driven refrigeration system by combining several components such as a
solar panel, a charge controller, a compressor, an inverter, an evaporator-tank, a
condenser and a few connection wiring. We have operated the system for several days
to check its functionality and performance. During operation, we have measured solar
panel’s current and voltage with a 5-minute interval to calculate power that has been
supplied as an input to the compressor. The evaporator coils pass through the water
tank to cool down water to a desired temperature (i.e. 4 ºC). The temperature of the
evaporator and condenser was also recorded for calculating the cooling effect created
by the refrigerant R-134a. We have calculated coefficient of performance (COP) of the
system for both actual cooling load of water and cooling effect created by the
refrigerant. The refrigeration system successfully operates with an actual COP of 0.95.
Despite the COP is low, the solar driven refrigeration system, which does not require
any fuel, is a promising option in regard to both environment and economic aspects.

Cite
MLA
Mohd Syahmiyadiy, Jamaluddin, et al. “Performance Evaluation of a Small-scale Solar Driven Refrigeration System.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 36.1 (2017): 10-20.
APA
Mohd Syahmiyadiy, J., Md Mizanur, R., Mohd Faizal, H., Aminuddin, S., & Mazlan, A. W.(2017). Performance Evaluation of a Small-scale Solar Driven Refrigeration System. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 36(1), 10-20.
Chicago
Mohd Syahmiyadiy Jamaluddin, Md Mizanur Rahman, Mohd Faizal Hasan, Aminuddin Saat, and Mazlan Abd Wahid. “Performance Evaluation of a Small-scale Solar Driven Refrigeration System.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 36, no. 1 (2017): 10-20.
Harvard
Mohd Syahmiyadiy, J., Md Mizanur, R., Mohd Faizal, H., Aminuddin, S., Mazlan, A.W., 2017. Performance Evaluation of a Small-scale Solar Driven Refrigeration System. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 36(1), pp.10-20.
Vancouver
Mohd Syahmiyadiy J, Md Mizanur R, Mohd Faizal H, Aminuddin S, Mazlan AW. Performance Evaluation of a Small-scale Solar Driven Refrigeration System. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;36(1):10-20.
Volume 37, No. 1 (September, 2017)
Renewable Resource Based Decentralized Power System to a Remote Village in Malaysia: Optimization and Techno-economic Evaluation
Vikkren s/o Vijeyan, Md Mizanur Rahman, Mohd Faizal Hasan, Aminuddin Saat, Mazlan Abd Wahid
Page 1 – 17
Abstract
A portion of rural and remote areas in Malaysia still do not have access to grid
electricity and in near future they are unlikely to get grid access. Lack of electricity in
rural areas jeopardises development and exacerbate the poverty. Decentralized offgrid
rural electrification system that integrates various renewable energy sources
became inevitable for areas where grid connection is neither available nor feasible.
Moreover, designing and implementation of efficient and techno-economically viable
off-grid electric supply is a challenging task. A hybrid combination of renewable energy
technologies is appeared to be a suitable candidate over grid extension for remote
areas. In this study, we model viable off-grid rural electrification system for a remote
village Kampung Sungai Tiang located in Belum, Perak. We consider prospective
electricity demand of the village and utilize available renewable resources to generate
electricity to fulfil the demand. An optional diesel generator has been considered as
backup power supplier whenever the renewable technologies cannot support the
demand. This study implemented HOMER software to determine optimum
electrification systems for the village and evaluate their techno economic
performance. The simulation results reveal that Hybrid PV-Diesel-Biomass system is a
better option to be implemented in this village in regard to viability, techno-economic
performance, and environmental friendliness.

Cite
MLA
Vikkren, Vijeyan, et al. “Renewable Resource Based Decentralized Power System to a Remote Village in Malaysia: Optimization and Techno-economic Evaluation.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 37.1 (2017): 1-17.
APA
Vikkren, V., Md Mizanur, R., Mohd Faizal, H., Aminuddin, S., & Mazlan, A. W.(2017). Renewable Resource Based Decentralized Power System to a Remote Village in Malaysia: Optimization and Techno-economic Evaluation. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 37(1), 1-17.
Chicago
Vikkren s/o Vijeyan, Md Mizanur Rahman, Mohd Faizal Hasan, Aminuddin Saat, and Mazlan Abd Wahid. “Renewable Resource Based Decentralized Power System to a Remote Village in Malaysia: Optimization and Techno-economic Evaluation.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 37, no. 1 (2017): 1-17.
Harvard
Vikkren, V., Md Mizanur, R., Mohd Faizal, H., Aminuddin, S., Mazlan, A.W., 2017. Renewable Resource Based Decentralized Power System to a Remote Village in Malaysia: Optimization and Techno-economic Evaluation. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 37(1), pp.1-17.
Vancouver
Vikkren V, Md Mizanur R, Mohd Faizal H, Aminuddin S, Mazlan AW. Renewable Resource Based Decentralized Power System to a Remote Village in Malaysia: Optimization and Techno-economic Evaluation. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;37(1):1-17.

Flow Simulations of Generic Vehicle Model SAE Type 4 and DrivAer Fastback Using OpenFOAM
Nur Haziqah Shaharuddin, Mohamed Sukri Mat Ali, Shuhaimi Mansor, Sallehuddin Muhamad, Sheikh Ahmad Zaki Shaikh Salim, Muhammad Usman
Page 18 – 31

Abstract
The aim of this study is to simulate flow over two types of generic vehicle model. The
simulation is done using the open source CFD solver, OpenFOAM, which is based on
the finite volume method, where each of the control volume is treated for its flow
physical conservation using governing equations. The two different generic vehicle
models are SAE Type 4 (fullback) – strongly simplified model and DrivAer Fastback – a
more realistic vehicle model. Their flow structures are compared based on the CFD
results. The different in flow behaviours are shown clearly by each model due to the
geometry differences, where the SAE Type 4 is blunter, while the DrivAer Fastback is
more aerodynamic. Results showed that SAE Type 4 model able to produce large
turbulence wake structures and thus lead to higher value of drag coefficient compared
to the DrivAer Fastback model. The drag coefficient for the SAE Type 4 is 0.3722 and
the DrivAer Fastback is 0.2803.

Cite
MLA
Nur Haziqah, Shaharuddin, et al. “Flow Simulations of Generic Vehicle Model SAE Type 4 and DrivAer Fastback Using OpenFOAM.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 37.1 (2017): 18-31.
APA
Nur Haziqah, S., Mohamed Sukri, M. A., Shuhaimi, M., Sallehuddin, M., Sheikh Ahmad Zaki, S. S., & Muhammad, U.(2017). Flow Simulations of Generic Vehicle Model SAE Type 4 and DrivAer Fastback Using OpenFOAM. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 37(1), 18-31.
Chicago
Nur Haziqah Shaharuddin, Mohamed Sukri Mat Ali, Shuhaimi Mansor, Sallehuddin Muhamad, Sheikh Ahmad Zaki Shaikh Salim, and Muhammad Usman. “Flow Simulations of Generic Vehicle Model SAE Type 4 and DrivAer Fastback Using OpenFOAM.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 37, no. 1 (2017): 18-31.
Harvard
Nur Haziqah, S., Mohamed Sukri, M.A., Shuhaimi, M., Sallehuddin, M., Sheikh Ahmad Zaki, S.S., Muhammad, U., 2017. Flow Simulations of Generic Vehicle Model SAE Type 4 and DrivAer Fastback Using OpenFOAM. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 37(1), pp.18-31.
Vancouver
Nur Haziqah S, Mohamed Sukri MA, Shuhaimi M, Sallehuddin M, Sheikh Ahmad Zaki SS, Muhammad U. Flow Simulations of Generic Vehicle Model SAE Type 4 and DrivAer Fastback Using OpenFOAM. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;37(1):18-31.
Volume 38, No. 1 (October, 2017)
Assessment of Atomization Parameters for Flat Fan Nozzles Based on Wind Tunnel Measurements
Nasir Salim Hassen, Nor Azwadi Che Sidik
Page 1 – 9
Abstract
The main objective of this study involved testing of nozzle type, driving speed and wind
speed effects on atomization parameters for broadcast spraying application. Two
broadcast nozzle types flat fan extended range XR11003 and flat fan drift guard nozzle
DG11003 were tested under wind tunnel conditions. To validate spraying results, the
reference nozzle of spraying systems flat fan TeeJet nozzle TP11003 was used for
comparison. The results of this study indicate an obvious effect of the technical
variables and wind variable on atomization parameters. The nozzle DG11003 produced
droplet size spectra of D0.1, D0.5 and D0.9 bigger than the extended range nozzle and
reference nozzle. The droplet size spectra became smaller under increasing of the
driving speed. Droplet size parameters generally tended to be coarser at the higher
wind speeds. This study supports the use of nozzle DG11003 as a means for controlling
spray distribution.

Cite
MLA
Nasir Salim, Hassen, et al. “Assessment of Atomization Parameters for Flat Fan Nozzles Based on Wind Tunnel Measurements.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 38.1 (2017): 1-9.
APA
Nasir Salim, H., & Nor Azwadi, C. S.(2017). Assessment of Atomization Parameters for Flat Fan Nozzles Based on Wind Tunnel Measurements. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 38(1), 1-9.
Chicago
Nasir Salim Hassen, and Nor Azwadi Che Sidik. “Assessment of Atomization Parameters for Flat Fan Nozzles Based on Wind Tunnel Measurements.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 38, no. 1 (2017): 1-9.
Harvard
Nasir Salim, H., Nor Azwadi, C.S., 2017. Assessment of Atomization Parameters for Flat Fan Nozzles Based on Wind Tunnel Measurements. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 38(1), pp.1-9.
Vancouver
Nasir Salim H, Nor Azwadi CS. Assessment of Atomization Parameters for Flat Fan Nozzles Based on Wind Tunnel Measurements. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;38(1):1-9.

Improvement of Immobilization of Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) by Calcium Alginate
Mohammed Saedi Jami, Nurul Alia Fazil, Masashi Iwata
Page 10 – 15

Abstract
Current wastewater pre-treatment plant system handling FOG consumes high energy
and time. This study aims to introduce a new FOG wastewater pre-treatment by
immobilizing the FOG in a calcium alginate gel beads. Using Design-Expert software,
Response surface methodology (RSM) based on face centred central composite
design (FCCCD) was used to optimize two important variables; pH of FOG and
concentration of sodium alginate whereas the oil entrapment efficiency (OEE) was
used as a response. The mixtures of synthetic FOG wastewater and sodium alginate
were dropped in calcium chloride solution in droplets form to produce gel beads. The
optimum combination for having highest OEE percentage at 87.27% was found to be
at pH 4.7 and 10000 ppm concentration of sodium alginate. Moreover, coating the
gel beads with chitosan has reduced the FOG loss during mechanical expression from
23.73 % to 12.58 %. The gel beads were dissolved completely in phosphate buffer
solution of pH 5, 8 and 9. This technique can be applied for easier FOG removal, for it
has high OEE percentage and the final gel is also biodegradable.

Cite
MLA
Mohammed Saedi, Jami, et al. “Improvement of Immobilization of Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) by Calcium Alginate.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 38.1 (2017): 10-15.
APA
Mohammed Saedi, J., Nurul Alia, F., & Masashi, I.(2017). Improvement of Immobilization of Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) by Calcium Alginate. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 38(1), 10-15.
Chicago
Mohammed Saedi Jami, Nurul Alia Fazil, and Masashi Iwata. “Improvement of Immobilization of Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) by Calcium Alginate.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 38, no. 1 (2017): 10-15.
Harvard
Mohammed Saedi, J., Nurul Alia, F., Masashi, I., 2017. Improvement of Immobilization of Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) by Calcium Alginate. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 38(1), pp.10-15.
Vancouver
Mohammed Saedi J, Nurul Alia F, Masashi I. Improvement of Immobilization of Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) by Calcium Alginate. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;38(1):10-15.

Preparation and Characterization of Polylactic Acid Based Polyurethane for Environmental Friendly Packaging Materials
Muhamad Norshafiq Ismail, Najihah Rafidi, Raina Jama Awale, Fathilah Ali
Page 16 – 21

Abstract
Conventional packaging materials are mostly produced using petroleum-based
substances and its’ non-biodegradability are causing landfill problems. Therefore,
researches have been done to replace the non-degradable polymer substances to
degradable polymers. Polylactic acid (PLA) is a type of biodegradable polymer which
is brittle but has good mechanical strength, which makes it a suitable polymer to be
used as packaging materials. To improve the flexibility of PLA, PLA based
polyurethanes (PUs) are produced by using PLA-diol with vegetable oil polyol as the
chain extender. Palm oil polyol (PO) is a type of vegetable oil polyol which are used in
various productions of PUs. In this study, PO polyol is used as soft segment to
improve the flexibility of PLA whereas hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and toluene
diisocyanate (TDI) are used as a source of isocyanate. PLA/Palm oil polyol based
polyurethanes (PLAPOPUs) are synthesized using one-shot and two steps
polymerization method. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) spectra confirmed on the
formation of urethane bond and glass transition temperature was analyzed using
Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The PLAPOPU prepared using HDI through
one-step method has high potential to be used in environmental friendly packaging
industries.

Cite
MLA
Muhamad Norshafiq, Ismail, et al. “Preparation and Characterization of Polylactic Acid Based Polyurethane for Environmental Friendly Packaging Materials.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 38.1 (2017): 16-21.
APA
Muhamad Norshafiq, I., Najihah, R., Raina Jama, A., & Fathilah, A. (2017). Preparation and Characterization of Polylactic Acid Based Polyurethane for Environmental Friendly Packaging Materials. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 38(1), 16-21.
Chicago
Muhamad Norshafiq Ismail, Najihah Rafidi, Raina Jama Awale, and Fathilah Ali. “Preparation and Characterization of Polylactic Acid Based Polyurethane for Environmental Friendly Packaging Materials.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 38, no. 1 (2017): 16-21.
Harvard
Muhamad Norshafiq, I., Najihah, R., Raina Jama, A., Fathilah, A., 2017. Preparation and Characterization of Polylactic Acid Based Polyurethane for Environmental Friendly Packaging Materials. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 38(1), pp.16-21.
Vancouver
Muhamad Norshafiq I, Najihah R, Raina Jama A, Fathilah A. 2017. Preparation and Characterization of Polylactic Acid Based Polyurethane for Environmental Friendly Packaging Materials. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;38(1):16-21.
Volume 39, No. 1 (November, 2017)
Development of Indigenous Biofilm for Enhanced Biogas Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent
Md Zahangir Alam, Nurfarhana Abdul Hanid
Page 1 – 8
Abstract
Palm oil mill effluent (POME), high content of organic substances can be a great
source for production of renewable energy i.e. biogas through microbial
biodegradation. The production of biogas has widely been discovered, however, it
shows a problem with the low yield of biogas produced. Thus, in order to overcome
this problem, a process was used by using indigenous biofilm as a simultaneous
pretreatment (hydrolysis) and biogas production. The studies on isolation,
purification and screening of biofilm producing bacteria were conducted to evaluate
the simultaneous pretreatment and biogas production. The results showed that the
developed biofilm enhanced the biogas production with the operating pH, total
suspended solid (TSS) and biofilm which were found to be 4-8, 1.5- 4.5 % and 2-4 g
respectively. Based on the experiment conducted, the optimum conditions for the
biogas production were at pH 8, TSS of 3.0% and biofilm used of 3 g and the highest
biogas yield was 382 ml within 5 days of anaerobic digestion. Thus, anaerobic
digestion of POME using indigenous biofilm to produce biogas at high yield could be
an alternative and effective solution to reduce the source of pollution to the
environment.

Cite
MLA
Md Zahangir, Alam, et al. ” Development of Indigenous Biofilm for Enhanced Biogas Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 39.1 (2017): 1-8.
APA
Md Zahangir, A., & Nurfarhana, A. H. (2017). Development of Indigenous Biofilm for Enhanced Biogas Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 39(1), 1-8.
Chicago
Md Zahangir Alam, and Nurfarhana Abdul Hanid. “Development of Indigenous Biofilm for Enhanced Biogas Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 39, no. 1 (2017): 1-8.
Harvard
Md Zahangir, A., Nurfarhana A.H., 2017. Development of Indigenous Biofilm for Enhanced Biogas Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 39(1), pp.1-8.
Vancouver
Md Zahangir A, Nurfarhana AH. Development of Indigenous Biofilm for Enhanced Biogas Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;39(1):1-8.

The Application of Multiphase DEM for the Prediction of Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) Deposition in Sewer Pipe Lines
Iman AF Husain, Ma’an Fahmi Alkhatib, Mohammed Saedi Jami, Mohamed E.S Mirghani, Zaki Zainudin, Asif Hoda
Page 9 – 16

Abstract
Fat oil and grease (FOG) deposition into sewer pipes can block the pipes and restrict the wastewater flow causing backflows and sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). Understanding the wastewater flow and transport of FOG particles is a key step for predicting the particles deposition and blockage formation. ANSYS FLUENT was used for simulating the flow of FOG particles and its deposition onto the sewer pipe. The multiphase Eularian-Lagrangian model with discrete Phase method (DPM) was utilized for developing the CFD model. The kinetic parameters and physical values are based on previous experimental work and literature. The CFD Eularian-DEM multiphase model has shown a good potential for simulating the wastewater flow and demonstrated the applicability of CFD to simulate and track the transport and deposition of FOG particles into the sewer pipe walls.

Cite
MLA
Iman, AF Husain, et al. “The Application of Multiphase DEM for the Prediction of Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) Deposition in Sewer Pipe Lines.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 39.1 (2017): 9-16.
APA
Iman AF, H., Ma’an Fahmi, A., Mohammed Saedi, J., Mohamed E.S M., Zaki, Z., & Asif, H. (2017). The Application of Multiphase DEM for the Prediction of Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) Deposition in Sewer Pipe Lines. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 39(1), 9-16.
Chicago
Iman AF Husain, Ma’an Fahmi Alkhatib, Mohammed Saedi Jami, Mohamed E.S Mirghani, Zaki Zainudin, and Asif Hoda. “The Application of Multiphase DEM for the Prediction of Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) Deposition in Sewer Pipe Lines.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 39, no. 1 (2017): 9-16.
Harvard
Iman AF, H., Ma’an Fahmi, A., Mohammed Saedi, J., Mohamed E.S M., Zaki, Z., Asif, H., 2017. The Application of Multiphase DEM for the Prediction of Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) Deposition in Sewer Pipe Lines. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 39(1), pp.9-16.
Vancouver
Iman AF H, Ma’an Fahmi A, Mohammed Saedi J, Mohamed ES M, Zaki Z, Asif, H. The Application of Multiphase DEM for the Prediction of Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) Deposition in Sewer Pipe Lines. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;39(1):9-16.

Flow Characteristic of Blunt- edged Delta Wing at High Angle of Attack
Nurulhuda Tajuddin, Shabudin Mat, Mazuriah Said, Shumaimi Mansor
Page 17 – 25

Abstract
The main objective of this project is to investigate the flow characteristics of the VFE2
blunt edged delta wing profiles at high angle of attack. The vortex is developed on
the upper surface of delta wing and this flow physics is very complicated. The vortex
flow on the sharp-edged wing develops in the Apex region. Different flow topology is
observed for the blunt-edge wing. The vortex on the blunt-edged wing is not
developed in the apex region but at a certain cord wise position based on angle of
attack, Reynolds number and leading edge bluntness. The primary vortex moved
upstream with increasing angle of attack. The problem is that this vortex will be
formed up to the apex if the angle of attack is further increased. No data available at
higher angle of attack of beyond ? = 30° during the VFE-2 experiments due to the
constraint of the experimental work. The data from the surface pressure
measurement performed at 1×10^6 and 2×10^6 is presented in this paper. The
experiments were conducted at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Low Speed Tunnel
(UTM-LST) with maximum speed of 83 m/s. The data were interpreted using pressure
coefficient, Cp against distance of pressure tube that based on the delta wing chord.
Apart from that, tuft method was also performed to visualize the flow characteristics
above the surface of delta wing at high angle of attack. The results highlight
interesting flow physics above blunt-edged wing at high angle of attack. The result
shows that the primary moves upstream closed the apex at high angles of attack.

Cite
MLA
Nurulhuda, Tajuddin, et al. “Flow Characteristic of Blunt- Edged Delta Wing at High Angle of
Attack.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 39.1 (2017): 17-25.
APA
Nurulhuda, T., Shabudin, M., Mazuriah, S., & Shumaimi, M. (2017). Flow Characteristic of Blunt- Edged Delta Wing at High Angle of Attack. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 39(1), 17-25.
Chicago
Nurulhuda Tajuddin, Shabudin Mat, Mazuriah Said, and Shumaimi Mansor. “Flow Characteristic of Blunt- Edged Delta Wing at High Angle of Attack.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 39, no. 1 (2017): 17-25.
Harvard
Nurulhuda, T., Shabudin, M., Mazuriah, S., Shumaimi, M., 2017. Flow Characteristic of Blunt- Edged Delta Wing at High Angle of Attack. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 39(1), pp.17-25.
Vancouver
Nurulhuda T, Shabudin M, Mazuriah S, Shumaimi M. Flow Characteristic of Blunt- Edged Delta Wing at High Angle of Attack. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;39(1):17-25.

A Review on Multiple Functions of Ionic Liquid in Biodiesel Production
Atikah Mohamed Sharikh, Sarina Sulaiman, Azlin Suhaida Azmi
Page 26 – 35

Abstract
Scarcity of petroleum and constant concern over environmental problems caused by diesel fuels has promoted production of biodiesel from renewable sources. Biodiesel synthesized from transesterification methods in the presence of acid or base catalyst or enzyme requires huge amount of solvent, particularly from alcohol to affirm high production yield. Inevitably, the process results in bulky waste that demands appropriate attention. In attempt to tackle the problem, ionic liquid has been identified to be the most potential substitute for conventional catalyst and solvent required in the biodiesel conversion. Ionic liquid that is widely known as ‘green chemical’ can be synthesized to meet reaction requirement by careful selection of anion and cations, with correct proportion of each to produce desired mixture. This paper reviews recent applications of ionic liquid in biodiesel production as catalyst, solvent and co-solvent. Since there are few ways in which ionic liquid can be categorized, this paper highlights classification of ionic liquids into two major groups? namely acidic and basic ionic liquid. Discussion on these tswo groups covers their dual- functions in biodiesel production which are as solvent or co-solvent and catalyst as well as the limitation of each group in the biodiesel production.

Cite
MLA
Atikah Mohamed, Sharikh, et al. “A Review on Multiple Functions of Ionic Liquid in Biodiesel Production.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 39.1 (2017): 26-35.
APA
Atikah, M. S., Sarina, S., & Azlin Suhaida, A.(2017). A Review on Multiple Functions of Ionic Liquid in Biodiesel Production. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 39(1), 26-35.
Chicago
Atikah Mohamed Sharikh, Sarina Sulaiman, and Azlin Suhaida Azmi. “A Review on Multiple Functions of Ionic Liquid in Biodiesel Production.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 39, no. 1 (2017): 26-35.
Harvard
Atikah, M.S., Sarina, S., Azlin Suhaida, A., 2017. A Review on Multiple Functions of Ionic Liquid in Biodiesel Production. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 39(1), pp.26-35.
Vancouver
Atikah MS, Sarina S, Azlin Suhaida A. A Review on Multiple Functions of Ionic Liquid in Biodiesel Production. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;39(1):26-35.

Influences of External Store on Aerodynamic Performance of UTM-LST Generic Light Aircraft Model
Muhammad Zaki Abdul Manaf, Shabudin Mat, Shuhaimi Mansor, Mohd Nazri Nasir, Tholudin Mat Lazim, Wan Khairuddin Wan Ali, Wan Zaidi Wan Omar, Zurriati Mohd Ali, Ainullotfi Abdul-latif, Mastura Abd Wahid, Md Nizam Dahalan, Norazila Othman
Page 36 – 46

Abstract
This paper discusses the impact of the external store on the aerodynamic
performance of the light aircraft model in the subsonic region. Light aircrafts are
normally used to train pilots, survey, leisure and transportation. To date, there have
been a lot of small aircrafts were used for a strategic purposes where an external
store either external fuel storage or armament has been installed on its wing.
Examples of such aircraft are KAI-KA1, A29 Super Tucano and Beechcraft AT-6.
Therefore it is important to study the effect of this external store installation on the
aerodynamic characteristics of a small aircraft. An available light aircraft model of
UTM Low speed wind tunnel (UTM-LST) has been modified so that a generic
external store can be mounted on the lower surface of the wing. Two set of
experiments were carried out on the model which were; the experimental with the
external store and followed by the experimental without external store as a
benchmark of tested configuration. The experiments were conducted at 2 different
speeds of 26 and 39 m/s that corresponding to 0.4 × 10^6 and 0.6 × 10^6 Reynolds
numbers respectively. Three measurement techniques were employed on each
configuration. The first measurement was the 6 component forces and moments
measurement technique. The second technique was the pressure measurement on
the wing while the final test was the tufts flow visualization. The result of steady
balance indicates that external store has no effect on coefficient of lift at low attack
angle but it shows that there was a reduction of lift coefficient by 2% at higher angle
of attack. The data showed that the coefficient of drag increases by 4% when the
external is installed. Suprisingly, the installation of store does not give significance
effects on the pitching moment coefficient. An interesting feature is observed from
surface pressure studies, the results obtained show that there is an increase in the
pressure coefficient if the external is mounted on the wing at a low angle of attack,
while this change does not occur at high attack angle.

Cite
MLA
Muhammad Zaki, Abdul Manaf, et al. “Influences of External Store on Aerodynamic Performance of UTM-LST Generic Light Aircraft Model.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 39.1 (2017): 36-46.
APA
Muhammad Zaki, A. M., Shabudin, M., Shuhaimi, M., Mohd Nazri, N., Tholudin, M. L., Wan Khairuddin W. A., Wan Zaidi, W. O., Zurriati, M. A., Ainullotfi, A. L., Mastura, A. W., Md Nizam, D., & Norazila, O.(2017). Influences of External Store on Aerodynamic Performance of UTM-LST Generic Light Aircraft Model. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 39(1), 36-46.
Chicago
Muhammad Zaki Abdul Manaf, Shabudin Mat, Shuhaimi Mansor, Mohd Nazri Nasir, Tholudin Mat Lazim, Wan Khairuddin Wan Ali, Wan Zaidi Wan Omar, Zurriati Mohd Ali, Ainullotfi Abdul-latif, Mastura Abd Wahid, Md Nizam Dahalan, and Norazila Othman. “Influences of External Store on Aerodynamic Performance of UTM-LST Generic Light Aircraft Model.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 39, no. 1 (2017): 36-46.
Harvard
Muhammad Zaki, A.M., Shabudin, M., Shuhaimi, M., Mohd Nazri, N., Tholudin, M.L., Wan Khairuddin W. A., Wan Zaidi, W.O., Zurriati, M.A., Ainullotfi, A.L., Mastura, A.W., Md Nizam, D., Norazila, O., 2017. Influences of External Store on Aerodynamic Performance of UTM-LST Generic Light Aircraft Model. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 39(1), pp.36-46.
Vancouver
Muhammad Zaki AM, Shabudin M, Shuhaimi M, Mohd Nazri N, Tholudin ML, Wan Khairuddin WA, Wan Zaidi WO, Zurriati MA, Ainullotfi AL, Mastura AW, Md Nizam D, Norazila O. Influences of External Store on Aerodynamic Performance of UTM-LST Generic Light Aircraft Model. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;39(1):36-46.
Volume 40, No. 1 (December, 2017)
Influence of Operating Variables on the In-Situ Transesterification using CaO/Al2(SO4)3 Derived from Waste
Sarina Sulaiman, Mohd Ihsan Rosdi, Dzun N. Jimat, Maizirwan Mel, Parveen Jamal
Page 1 – 6
Abstract
The purpose of this research project is to investigate the effects of amount of catalyst, the ratio of solid to methanol and different temperature on the biodiesel yield. Solid coconut waste and heterogeneous catalyst derived from the waste, which is calcium oxide (CaO) are used to produce biodiesel and also examine the kinetics of the reactive extraction. In this project, the heterogeneous catalyst is produced by combining solid coconut waste and egg shells and finally treating it with Al2 (SO4 )3 . Then, the mixture of wastes was calcinated under high temperature. Then, solid coconut waste in situ transesterification experiment were conducted at different amount of catalysts (2-6wt%), temperature (50-65°C) and methanol to oil ratio (6:1 – 12:1). The optimum parameters were the solid to methanol ratio, temperature and mixing speed which were at 1:10, 60 °C and 350 rpm respectively with highest yield of 47 wt%. The result proves that the biodiesel conversion increase with methanol, but the reaction did not change and decrease after achieving certain percentage of methanol.

Cite
MLA
Sarina, Sulaiman, et al. “Influence of Operating Variables on the In-Situ Transesterification using CaO/Al2(SO4)3 Derived from Waste.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 40.1 (2017): 1-6.
APA
Sarina, S., Mohd Ihsan, R., Dzun, N. J., Maizirwan, M., & Parveen J.(2017). Influence of Operating Variables on the In-Situ Transesterification using CaO/Al2(SO4)3 Derived from Waste. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 40(1), 1-6.
Chicago
Sarina Sulaiman, Mohd Ihsan Rosdi, Dzun N. Jimat, Maizirwan Mel, and Parveen Jamal. “Influence of Operating Variables on the In-Situ Transesterification using CaO/Al2(SO4)3 Derived from Waste.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 40, no. 1 (2017): 1-6.
Harvard
Sarina, S., Mohd Ihsan, R., Dzun, N.J., Maizirwan, M., Parveen J., 2017. Influence of Operating Variables on the In-Situ Transesterification using CaO/Al2(SO4)3 Derived from Waste. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 40(1), pp.1-6.
Vancouver
Sarina S, Mohd Ihsan R, Dzun, NJ, Maizirwan M, Parveen J. Influence of Operating Variables on the In-Situ Transesterification using CaO/Al2(SO4)3 Derived from Waste. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;40(1):1-6.

Effects of Co-digestion of Camel Dung and Municipal Solid Wastes on Quality of Biogas, Methane and Biofertilizer Production
Benaissa Nawel Kheira, Belkheir Dadamoussa, Abdelaziz Bendraoua, Maizirwan Mel, Brahim Labed
Page 7 – 17

Abstract
Biogas and biofertilizer production from anaerobic digestion of local organic solid
waste in Algeria is an attractive choice for greener and cleaner environment. In this
paper, the study focused on the effect of co-digestion of municipal solid organic
wastes (MSW) and camel dung (CD) for the quality production of biogas (methane)
and bio fertilizer products. The concentration of methane production is the
preeminent aim of this work. The experiment was set by feedstocks preparation
where organic waste was mixed with tap water at 1:1 ratio and it allowed to digest at
temperature of 40 °C. The operating hydraulic retention time (HRT) was set at 35
days. Physicochemical properties of feedstocks and constituent elements of the
digestate were determined by American Public Health Association methods. The
experimental study indicated that underdefined operational conditions such as
constant organic loading rate (OLR) of 0.6 kg per day, hydraulic retention time (HRT)
of 35 days and temperature of 40C from MSW and MSW and CD mixtures of ratio at
one to one resulted in a higher methane production (57.3%) compared to monodigestion
of camel dung that produced 45.6% of CH4) in a pH range between 7.0 to
8.1. The improvement has also found related to high biodegradability of the MSW,
the slight ammonium concentration, the optimization of the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio
(C/N 25.8:1) and to the well-balanced nutrients content of the feedstock. The
digestate coming from anaerobic co-digestion has also used as bio-fertilizer and this
by-product has a benefit to avoid the harmful effect in the digester system and in the
surrounding environment. It is shown clearly that the MSW and CD are highly
desirable substrates for anaerobic co-digestion with regards to their good
biodegradability, high methane yield and good bio-fertilizer quality.

Cite
MLA
Benaissa Nawel, Kheira, et al. “Effects of Co-digestion of Camel Dung and Municipal Solid Wastes on Quality of Biogas, Methane and Biofertilizer Production.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 40.1 (2017): 7-17.
APA
Benaissa, N. K., Belkheir, D., Abdelaziz, B., Maizirwan, M., & Brahim, L.(2017). Effects of Co-digestion of Camel Dung and Municipal Solid Wastes on Quality of Biogas, Methane and Biofertilizer Production. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 40(1), 7-17.
Chicago
Benaissa Nawel Kheira, Belkheir Dadamoussa, Abdelaziz Bendraoua, Maizirwan Mel, and Brahim Labed. ” Effects of Co-digestion of Camel Dung and Municipal Solid Wastes on Quality of Biogas, Methane and Biofertilizer Production.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 40, no. 1 (2017): 7-17.
Harvard
Benaissa, N.K., Belkheir, D., Abdelaziz, B., Maizirwan, M., & Brahim, L., 2017. Effects of Co-digestion of Camel Dung and Municipal Solid Wastes on Quality of Biogas, Methane and Biofertilizer Production. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 40(1), pp.7-17.
Vancouver
Benaissa NK, Belkheir D, Abdelaziz B, Maizirwan M, Brahim L. Effects of Co-digestion of Camel Dung and Municipal Solid Wastes on Quality of Biogas, Methane and Biofertilizer Production. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;40(1):7-17.

Wind Tunnel Experiments on a Generic Sharp-Edge Delta Wing UAV Model
Nadhirah Mohd Zain, Shabudin Mat, Khushairi Amri Kasim, Shuhaimi Mansor, Md. Nizam Dahalan, Norazila Othman
Page 18 – 26

Abstract
Delta wing is a triangular shape platform from a plan view. Delta wing can be applied
to aircraft development as well as UAV. However, the flow around delta wing is very
complicated and unresolved to date. On the upper surface of the wing, vortex is
developed which need more studies to understand this flow physics. This paper
discusses an experiment study of active flow control applied on the sharp-edged
generic delta wing UAV. This paper focuses on the effect of rotating propeller on the
vortex properties above a generic 550 swept angle model. The model has an overall
length of 0.99 meter and the experiments were performed in Universiti Teknologi
Malaysia Low Speed wind tunnel sized of 1.5 x 2.0 m^2. In this experiment, the
experiments were conducted at a speed of 18 m/s. In order to differentiate the effect
of propeller size on the vortex system, the experiment was carried out in three
stages, i.e., experimental without propeller called as clean wing configuration and
followed by the experiment with propeller diameter of 13”. The final experiment was
the experiment with propeller diameter of 14”. During the experiments, two
measurement techniques were employed; steady forces and surface pressure
measurements. The experimental data highlights an impact of propeller size on the
coefficients of lift, drag, and moment and vortex system of the delta-shaped UAV.
The results obtained indicate that the lift is increased particularly at high angle of
attack. The results also show that vortex breakdown is delayed further aft of the wing
when propeller rotating at about 5000 RPM.

Cite
MLA
Nadhirah, Mohd Zain, et al. “Wind Tunnel Experiments on a Generic Sharp-Edge Delta Wing UAV Model.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 40.1 (2017): 18-26.
APA
Nadhirah, M. Z., Shabudin, M., Khushairi, A. K., Shuhaimi, M., Md. Nizam, D., & Norazila, O.(2017). Wind Tunnel Experiments on a Generic Sharp-Edge Delta Wing UAV Model. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 40(1), 18-26.
Chicago
Nadhirah Mohd Zain, Shabudin Mat, Khushairi Amri Kasim, Shuhaimi Mansor, Md. Nizam Dahalan, and Norazila Othman.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 40, no. 1 (2017): 18-26.
Harvard
Nadhirah, M.Z., Shabudin, M., Khushairi, A.K., Shuhaimi, M., Md. Nizam, D., & Norazila, O., 2017. Wind Tunnel Experiments on a Generic Sharp-Edge Delta Wing UAV Model. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 40(1), pp.18-26.
Vancouver
Nadhirah MZ, Shabudin M, Khushairi AK, Shuhaimi M, Md. Nizam D, Norazila O. Wind Tunnel Experiments on a Generic Sharp-Edge Delta Wing UAV Model. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;40(1):18-26.

Superaugmented Pitching Motion of UTM CAMAR UAV using Advanced Flying Handling Qualities
Shuhaimi Mansor, Yasser Nogoud, Shabudin Mat, Md. Nizam Dahalan, Ainullotfi Abdul-latif
Page 27 – 37

Abstract
This paper focused of a robust flight control system (FCS) for a small UAV. The main
objective of this design is to ensure the small UAV can fly safely in severe gusty
conditions. The Superaugmentation FCS consisted of Stability Augmentation System
(SAS) and Command Stability Augmentation System (CSAS) was developed in UTMLST
to improve the dynamic characteristics of the longitudinal stability of UAV; i.e
UTM Camar. A combination of the variable stability technique along with advanced
flying and handling qualities (FHQ) requirements are used to reduce the gust effect
on the aircraft or UAV. The results obtained from the simulation studies showed that
the superaugmented aircraft can be operated in severe gust environments than
augmented aircraft. The result from here has reduced strain on the elevator activity
in both extreme and calm weather conditions. Moreover, the superaugmentation FCS
in the longitudinal axis meets the requirements of the level 1 handling qualities
specification in flight phase.

Cite
MLA
Shuhaimi, Mansor, et al. “Superaugmented Pitching Motion of UTM CAMAR UAV using Advanced Flying Handling Qualities.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 40.1 (2017): 27-37.
APA
Shuhaimi, M., Yasser, N., Shabudin, M., Md. Nizam, D., & Ainullotfi, A. L.(2017). Superaugmented Pitching Motion of UTM CAMAR UAV using Advanced Flying Handling Qualities. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 40(1), 27-37.
Chicago
Shuhaimi Mansor, Yasser Nogoud, Shabudin Mat, Md. Nizam Dahalan, and Ainullotfi Abdul-latif. “Superaugmented Pitching Motion of UTM CAMAR UAV using Advanced Flying Handling Qualities” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 40, no. 1 (2017): 27-37.
Harvard
Shuhaimi, M., Yasser, N., Shabudin, M., Md. Nizam, D., & Ainullotfi, A.L., 2017. Superaugmented Pitching Motion of UTM CAMAR UAV using Advanced Flying Handling Qualities. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 40(1), pp.27-37.
Vancouver
Shuhaimi M, Yasser N, Shabudin M, Md. Nizam D, Ainullotfi AL. Superaugmented Pitching Motion of UTM CAMAR UAV using Advanced Flying Handling Qualities. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;40(1):27-37.

Effect of Viscoelastic Behaviour of Cellulose Oil Palm Fiber (COPF) Modified 60-70 Asphalt Binder for Deterioration for Roads and Highways
Md. Maniruzzaman A Aziz, Ahmed Wsoo Hamad, Abdulmalik Musa Maleka, Fauzan Mohd Jakarni
Page 38 – 45

Abstract
This paper dealt with the viscoelastic behaviour of Cellulose Oil Palm Fiber (COPF)
modified 60-70 penetration grade asphalt binder for the deterioration of roads. The
main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of various COPF content on the
physical and rheological properties of penetration grade 60-70 asphalt binder.
Laboratory tests performed comprises of viscosity, penetration, softening point, short
& long term ageing and complex shear modulus (G*). The COPF was blended in 0.2,
0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0% by weight of asphalt binder including 0% as control. The COPF
modified asphalt binder showed an increasing viscosity and softening point with
increase of COPF content, whereas penetration decreases as the COPF increases for
the binder. The complex shear modulus (G*), rutting factor (G*/sin ?) and fatigue
factor (G*sin ?) show significant improvement for the modified samples compared to
unmodified samples. The results indicated that the COPF modified asphalt binder has
high potential to resist permanent (rutting) deformation and fatigue cracking than
the unmodified sample.

Cite
MLA
Md., Maniruzzaman, et al. “Effect of Viscoelastic Behaviour of Cellulose Oil Palm Fiber (COPF) Modified 60-70 Asphalt Binder for Deterioration for Roads and Highways.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 40.1 (2017): 38-45.
APA
Md. Maniruzzaman, A. A., Ahmed Wsoo, H., Abdulmalik Musa, M., & Fauzan, M. J.(2017). Effect of Viscoelastic Behaviour of Cellulose Oil Palm Fiber (COPF) Modified 60-70 Asphalt Binder for Deterioration for Roads and Highways. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 40(1), 38-45.
Chicago
Md. Maniruzzaman A Aziz, Ahmed Wsoo Hamad, Abdulmalik Musa Maleka, and Fauzan Mohd Jakarni. ” Effect of Viscoelastic Behaviour of Cellulose Oil Palm Fiber (COPF) Modified 60-70 Asphalt Binder for Deterioration for Roads and Highways.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 40, no. 1 (2017): 38-45.
Harvard
Md. Maniruzzaman, A.A., Ahmed Wsoo, H., Abdulmalik Musa, M., Fauzan, M.J., 2017. Effect of Viscoelastic Behaviour of Cellulose Oil Palm Fiber (COPF) Modified 60-70 Asphalt Binder for Deterioration for Roads and Highways. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 40(1), pp.38-45.
Vancouver
Md. Maniruzzaman AA, Ahmed Wsoo H, Abdulmalik Musa M, Fauzan MJ. Effect of Viscoelastic Behaviour of Cellulose Oil Palm Fiber (COPF) Modified 60-70 Asphalt Binder for Deterioration for Roads and Highways. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;40(1):38-45.

Aerodynamic Study of Air Flow over A Curved Fin Rocket
Md Nizam Dahalan, Ahmad Fitri Suni, Iskandar Shah Ishak, Nik Ahmad Ridhwan Nik Mohd, Shabudin Mat
Page 46 – 58

Abstract
This paper summarizes a study of the aerodynamic characteristics of a curved fin
rocket. The study was conducted with the use of semi-empirical method and
numerical simulation. The semi-empirical method was implemented with USAF
DATCOM as a reference. The ANSYS Fluent was used for the numerical simulation.
The curved fin rocket configuration included a conical nose, a cylindrical body, and
four curved fins attached symmetrically at the aft body of the rocket. The semiempirical
method and numerical simulations were undertaken at various Mach
numbers, which were 0.15, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 for subsonic speed. For supersonic speed,
the Mach numbers were 1.2, 1.4 and 2.0. The angle of attack varied from 0? to 25? for
each speed, at 5? increments. The compared results included those attained from
wind tunnel testing, USAF DATCOM, numerical simulation, and those results gathered
from previous researchers. According to the results, each method resulted in the
same trend, and followed typical rocket aerodynamic characteristic trends.

Cite
MLA
Md Nizam, Dahalan, et al. “Aerodynamic Study of Air Flow over A Curved Fin Rocket.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 40.1 (2017): 46-58.
APA
Md Nizam, D., Ahmad Fitri, S., Iskandar Shah, I., Nik Ahmad Ridhwan, N. M., & Shabudin, M.(2017). Aerodynamic Study of Air Flow over A Curved Fin Rocket. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 40(1), 46-58.
Chicago
Md Nizam Dahalan, Ahmad Fitri Suni, Iskandar Shah Ishak, Nik Ahmad Ridhwan Nik Mohd, and Shabudin Mat. “Aerodynamic Study of Air Flow over A Curved Fin Rocket.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 40, no. 1 (2017): 46-58.
Harvard
Md Nizam, D., Ahmad Fitri, S., Iskandar Shah, I., Nik Ahmad Ridhwan, N.M., Shabudin, M., 2017. Aerodynamic Study of Air Flow over A Curved Fin Rocket. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 40(1), pp.46-58.
Vancouver
Md Nizam D, Ahmad Fitri S, Iskandar Shah I, Nik Ahmad Ridhwan NM, Shabudin M. Aerodynamic Study of Air Flow over A Curved Fin Rocket. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;40(1):46-58.

Computational Analysis of Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Circular Tube Fitted with Different Inserts
Ahmed. L. Abdullah, Fuat Yilmaz
Page 59 – 69

Abstract
Heat transfer enhancement of air flow using wire coiled of an isosceles triangular
cross-section and twisted tape inserted in a tube have been investigated under
turbulent flow regime. A simulation technique is employed to simulate the swirling
flow with three different pitch ratios (P/D = 1,2, and 3). The isosceles triangle side
length to tube diameter is (a/D = 0.2 and 0.4) and (a/D=0.93) of the twisted tape at a
distance (s) of 2 mm from the tube wall for the both in the range of Reynolds number
from 4000 to 20,000. The heat transfer enhancement represented by a Nusselt
number (Nu) and friction factor (f) in turbulent flow regime is numerically
investigated using CFD package (Ansys FLUENT) to investigate the physical behavior
of the thermal and fluid flows under uniform heat-flux. The results show that the use
of twisted tape and isosceles coiled wire lead to a considerable increase in heat
transfer and pressure drop in comparison with the plane tube. The Nusselt number
increases with the increase of triangle side length and twist width and with the
decrease of pitch ratio. The highest overall enhancement efficiency of 126% and
150% are achieved for the isosceles triangle wire coil with a/D = 0.4 and twisted tape,
respectively at P/D = 1 and Reynolds number of 20000.

Cite
MLA
Ahmed L, Abdullah, et al. “Computational Analysis of Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Circular Tube Fitted with Different Inserts.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 40.1 (2017): 59-69.
APA
Ahmed, L. A., & Fuat, Y.(2017). Computational Analysis of Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Circular Tube Fitted with Different Inserts. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 40(1), 59-69.
Chicago
Ahmed L. Abdullah, and Fuat Yilmaz. “Computational Analysis of Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Circular Tube Fitted with Different Inserts.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 40, no. 1 (2017): 59-69.
Harvard
Ahmed L.A., Fuat, Y., 2017. Computational Analysis of Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Circular Tube Fitted with Different Inserts. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 40(1), pp.59-69.
Vancouver
Ahmed LA, Fuat Y. Computational Analysis of Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Circular Tube Fitted with Different Inserts. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;40(1):59-69.

Experimental Study of UTM New Sport Complex
Norazila Othman, Shabudin Mat, Mastura Ab. Wahid, Shuhaimi Mansor, Md. Nizam Dahalan
Page 70 – 78

Abstract
Wind loading is generally dominated by the separated wind flow over the roof, which
resulted in pressure distribution that varies greatly in both space and time. The
objective of this project is to investigate the flow visualisation of UTM new sport
complex roof in wind tunnel experiment. The UTM stadium model with the scale 1:40
was used in the wind tunnel test experiment. Two different methods were employed
in this research which is flow visualisation test by using smoke generator and
pressure measurements on the top surface of the roof. For flow visualisation, the
images were captured by using digital camera while the pressure measurement data
were measured using pressure scanner. The wind tunnel test has been done
successfully and the results from both wind tunnel tests were compared for
validation purpose.

Cite
MLA
Norazila, Othman, et al. “Experimental Study of UTM New Sport Complex.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 40.1 (2017): 70-78.
APA
Norazila, O., Shabudin, M., Mastura, A. W., Shuhaimi, M., & Md. Nizam, D.(2017). Experimental Study of UTM New Sport Complex. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 40(1), 70-78.
Chicago
Norazila Othman, Shabudin Mat, Mastura Ab. Wahid, Shuhaimi Mansor, and Md. Nizam Dahalan. “Experimental Study of UTM New Sport Complex.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 40, no. 1 (2017): 70-78.
Harvard
Norazila, O., Shabudin, M., Mastura, A.W., Shuhaimi, M., Md. Nizam, D., 2017. Experimental Study of UTM New Sport Complex. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 40(1), pp.70-78.
Vancouver
Norazila O, Shabudin M, Mastura AW, Shuhaimi M, Md. Nizam D. Experimental Study of UTM New Sport Complex. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;40(1):70-78.
Volume 41, No. 1 (January, 2018)
Wind Tunnel Study of the Effect Zigzag Tape on Aerodynamics Performance of A Wind Turbine Airfoil
Seyed Reza Jafari Gahraz, Tholudin Mat Lazim, Masoud Darbandi
Page 1 – 9
Abstract
A wind tunnel study was performed on the FFA-W-3-270 airfoil, which form a segment of a 1.25 MW wind turbine blade, to examine the effect of fixed roughness height and position using a zigzag tape boundary layer trip strip. Tests were conducted at a Reynolds number of 1×106 over a wide range of angles of attack. The zigzag tape, as an artificial roughness device, not only triggers a premature transition in the flow whereby laminar flow regimes change to turbulent, but also increases the momentum thickness of the turbulent boundary layer and change the airfoil camber. The 60o zigzag tape of 0.5 mm and 1 mm height was placed on the suction side of the airfoil at different chord wise locations. The result indicated that the thicker and the closer the tape to the leading edge had more influence on the boundary layer. Due to a drop in the flow velocity at the tape, the static pressure increased. Consequently, the tripped airfoil developed a lower pressure on the suction side in comparison to the clean airfoil. The maximum lift coefficient decreased by up to 31.5% for the 1 mm tape height located at 5% of the chord and the stall occurs at a lower angle of attack.

Cite
MLA
Seyed Reza, Jafari Gahraz, et al. “Wind Tunnel Study of the Effect Zigzag Tape on Aerodynamics Performance of A Wind Turbine Airfoil.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 41.1 (2018): 1-9.
APA
Seyed Reza, J. G., Tholudin, M. L., & Masoud, D.(2018). Wind Tunnel Study of the Effect Zigzag Tape on Aerodynamics Performance of A Wind Turbine Airfoil. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 41(1), 1-9.
Chicago
Seyed Reza Jafari Gahraz, Tholudin Mat Lazim, and Masoud Darbandi. “Wind Tunnel Study of the Effect Zigzag Tape on Aerodynamics Performance of A Wind Turbine Airfoil.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 41, no. 1 (2018): 1-9.
Harvard
Seyed Reza, J.G., Tholudin, M.L., Masoud, D., 2018. Wind Tunnel Study of the Effect Zigzag Tape on Aerodynamics Performance of A Wind Turbine Airfoil. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 41(1), pp.1-9.
Vancouver
Seyed Reza JG, Tholudin ML, Masoud D. Wind Tunnel Study of the Effect Zigzag Tape on Aerodynamics Performance of A Wind Turbine Airfoil. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;41(1):1-9.

Numerical Simulation of the Attached Growth Reactor with Different Arrangement of Bio-Balls
Gasim Hayder, Puniyarasen Perumulselum
Page 10 – 20

Abstract
Two different simulations were run using ANSYS CFX to analyze the effect of aeration on the balls and to identify the effect of different arrangement on aeration. From the first simulation, close fin ball arrangement was chosen as the best arrangement because the forces acting on the surface of fin ball and inside the fin ball in this arrangement are optimum. When the forces are too low, the scouring process will not occur which promote thicker and excessive biofilm grow which will lead to clogging while when the forces acting on bio-balls are high, detachment of biofilm from the surface will occur. From the second simulation, loose fin ball arrangement and loose cage ball arrangement were chosen as the best arrangement because there is less blue contours zone which indicates the wastewater saturated faster.

Cite
MLA
Gasim, Hayder, et al. “Numerical Simulation of the Attached Growth Reactor with Different Arrangement of Bio-Balls.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 41.1 (2018): 10-20.
APA
Gasim, H., & Puniyarasen, P.(2018). Numerical Simulation of the Attached Growth Reactor with Different Arrangement of Bio-Balls. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 41(1), 10-20.
Chicago
Gasim Hayder, and Puniyarasen Perumulselum. “Numerical Simulation of the Attached Growth Reactor with Different Arrangement of Bio-Balls.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 41, no. 1 (2018): 10-20.
Harvard
Gasim, H., Puniyarasen, P., 2018. Numerical Simulation of the Attached Growth Reactor with Different Arrangement of Bio-Balls. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 41(1), pp.10-20.
Vancouver
Gasim H, Puniyarasen P. Numerical Simulation of the Attached Growth Reactor with Different Arrangement of Bio-Balls. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;41(1):10-20.
Volume 42, No. 1 (February, 2018)
Enhanced k-Means Clustering Algorithm for Malaria Image Segmentation
Aimi Salihah Abdul Nasir, Mohd Yusoff Mashor, Zeehaida Mohamed
Page 1 – 15
Abstract
Clustering is one of the most commonly used digital image segmentation technique in
multifarious fields including medical image segmentation. In essence, this study
proposes clustering algorithm to acquire good segmented images of Plasmodium
Vivax malaria parasite species via unsupervised pixel segmentation. In this study,
enhanced k-means (EKM) clustering algorithm which is an enhanced version of the
conventional k-means (KM) clustering algorithm has been proposed for malaria slide
image segmentation. In the proposed EKM clustering algorithm, the concept of
variance and a new version of transferring process for clustered members are used to
assist the assignation of data to the proper centre during the process of clustering, so
that good segmented image can be generated. The satisfactory sensitivity together
with the high specificity and accuracy values obtained from an average of 100 malaria
images, indicates that the EKM algorithm has provided good segmentation
performances as compared to k-means, fuzzy c-means and moving k-means
clustering algorithms. Good segmented malaria parasite and clean segmented
malaria image has been acquired using the proposed clustering algorithm. Hence, the
proposed EKM clustering can be considered as an image segmentation tool for
segmenting the malaria images.

Cite
MLA
Aimi Salihah, Abdul Nasir, et al. “Enhanced k-Means Clustering Algorithm for Malaria Image Segmentation.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42.1 (2018): 1-15.
APA
Aimi Salihah, A. N., Mohd Yusoff, M., & Zeehaida, M. (2018). Enhanced k-Means Clustering Algorithm for Malaria Image Segmentation. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), 1-15.
Chicago
Aimi Salihah Abdul Nasir, Mohd Yusoff Mashor, and Zeehaida Mohamed. “Enhanced k-Means Clustering Algorithm for Malaria Image Segmentation.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42, no. 1 (2018): 1-15.
Harvard
Aimi Salihah, A.N., Mohd Yusoff, M., Zeehaida, M., 2018. Enhanced k-Means Clustering Algorithm for Malaria Image Segmentation. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), pp.1-15.
Vancouver
Aimi Salihah AN, Mohd Yusoff M, Zeehaida M. Enhanced k-Means Clustering Algorithm for Malaria Image Segmentation. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;42(1):1-15.

Synthesis and Characterization of New Cholinium-based Ionic Liquids for Antimicrobial Application
Khairulazhar Jumbri, Nor Suzy Farahana Mah Noh, Nur Afiqah Ahmad, Mohd Basyaruddin Abdul Rahman, Haslina Ahmad
Page 16 – 23

Abstract
A series of new cholinium-based ionic liquids (ILs) was synthesized by using simple neutralization reaction. The synthesized ILs were choline 3,5-dinitrosalicylate, choline gallate, choline s-(+)-2-(4-isobutylphenyl)propionate, choline behenate and choline peracetate. All the synthesized cholinium-based ILs were characterized by using FT-IR, 1 H and 13C NMR, mass spectrometry, thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry. Result obtained from all characterization techniques confirmed the formation of these cholinium-based ILs. These ILs were then tested for their antimicrobial properties. Anti-microbial test was carried out towards seven types of bacteria which consist of three Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis (B29), Staphylococcus aureus (S276), Staphylococcus epidermidis (S273), two Gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 15442) and Escherichia coli (E266) and two types of yeasts, Candida albicans (9002) and Candida tropicalis (A3). Streptomycin and Nystatin were used for all bacteria as standard. There is one cholinium-based IL shows excellent inhibition of microbes from growth. Choline peracetate was found to inhibit Candida albicans (9002) as good as the standard, Streptomycin which perform highest of inhibition zone diameter, 25 mm.

Cite
MLA
Khairulazhar, Jumbri, et al. “Synthesis and Characterization of New Cholinium-based Ionic Liquids for Antimicrobial Application.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42.1 (2018): 16-23.
APA
Khairulazhar, J., Nor Suzy Farahana, M. N., Nur Afiqah, A., Mohd Basyaruddin, A. R., & Haslina, A.(2018).Synthesis and Characterization of New Cholinium-based Ionic Liquids for Antimicrobial Application. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), 16-23.
Chicago
Khairulazhar Jumbri, Nor Suzy Farahana Mah Noh, Nur Afiqah Ahmad, Mohd Basyaruddin Abdul Rahman, and Haslina Ahmad. “Synthesis and Characterization of New Cholinium-based Ionic Liquids for Antimicrobial Application.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42, no. 1 (2018): 16-23.
Harvard
Khairulazhar, J., Nor Suzy Farahana, M.N., Nur Afiqah, A., Mohd Basyaruddin, A.R., Haslina, A., 2018. Synthesis and Characterization of New Cholinium-based Ionic Liquids for Antimicrobial Application. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), pp.16-23.
Vancouver
Khairulazhar J, Nor Suzy Farahana MN, Nur Afiqah A, Mohd Basyaruddin AR, Haslina A. Synthesis and Characterization of New Cholinium-based Ionic Liquids for Antimicrobial Application. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;42(1):16-23.

Effect of Microwave-Assisted Processing on Quality Characteristics of Pineapple Jam
Nur Aisyah Mohd Ismail, Norazlin Abdullah, Norhayati Muhammad
Page 24 – 30

Abstract
Traditional heating method of pineapple puree during the production of pineapple jam can cause over degradation of quality of the fresh pineapple. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine optimum microwave-assisted processing conditions for producing pineapple jam which could reduce water activity, and meets minimum requirement for pH and total soluble solids contents of fruit jam. The experiment was designed using full-factorial experimental design, which the power and time of the microwave processing were chosen as the independent variables, while the water activity, pH and total soluble solids (TSS) content of the pineapple jam were determined as dependent variables. The microwave treatment was optimised to achieve ideal properties of pineapple jam. The optimum microwave processing of pineapple jam was obtained at 800 Watts of power for 8 minutes. The usage of domestic microwave oven for the pineapple jam production also results in acceptable pineapple jam with 62% of consumers’ preference compared to conventional fruit jam sold in the marketplace.

Cite
MLA
Nur Aisyah, Mohd Ismail, et al. “Effect of Microwave-Assisted Processing on Quality Characteristics of Pineapple Jam.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42.1 (2018): 24-30.
APA
Nur Aisyah, M. I., Norazlin, A., & Norhayati, M.(2018). Effect of Microwave-Assisted Processing on Quality Characteristics of Pineapple Jam. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), 24-30.
Chicago
Nur Aisyah Mohd Ismail, Norazlin Abdullah, and Norhayati Muhammad. “Effect of Microwave-Assisted Processing on Quality Characteristics of Pineapple Jam.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42, no. 1 (2018): 24-30.
Harvard
Nur Aisyah, M.I., Norazlin, A., Norhayati, M., 2018. Effect of Microwave-Assisted Processing on Quality Characteristics of Pineapple Jam. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), pp.24-30.
Vancouver
Nur Aisyah MI, Norazlin A, Norhayati M. Effect of Microwave-Assisted Processing on Quality Characteristics of Pineapple Jam. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;42(1):24-30.

Potential of Staphylococcus Xylosus Strain for Recovering Nickel Ions from Aqueous Solutions
Adel Ali Saeed Abduh Algheethi, Efaq Noman, Radin Maya Saphira Radin Mohamed, Mohamed Osman Abdel-Monem, Amir Hashim Mohd Kassim
Page 31 – 37

Abstract
The potential of bacterial biomass for the biosorption of heavy metals has
investigated extensively. However, the bacterial species exhibited different affinities
toward the heavy metals ions based on their differences in cell wall characteristics,
structure and physiological status (living or dead cells). In this study, the potential of
living and dead cells of Staphylococcus xylosus 222W for removal nickel ions from
aqueous solution as a function for physiological status, nickel and biomass
concentrations, time, pH and temperature was investigated. The pre-treatment of
bacterial cells was performed by the heating at 100 ºC for 15 min. The removal
experiments were conducted in the lab scale. The results revealed that the dead cells
exhibited more efficiency in removing nickel ions than living cells at all investigated
concentrations (2 to 10 mM). The biosorption efficiency (E %) increased with
increasing in biomass cells to limit concentrations (0.1 to 1 g dry wt L-1). The
maximum removal of nickel was 81.41 vs. 77.10 % by living and dead cells,
respectively achieved after 9 and 10 hrs of the incubation period, respectively. The
acidic conditions decrease the efficiency of metal removal, while the optimal removal
was recorded at pH 8 for both biomass (living and dead cells). The maximum uptake
capacity of S. xylosus 222W (living and dead cells) was recorded at 37oC, the
percentage removed being 75.90 vs. 84.92 %, respectively. It can be concluded that S.
xylosus 222W exhibited high potential and affinity to remove of nickel ions from
aqueous solution.

Cite
MLA
Adel Ali Saeed, Abduh Algheethi, et al. “Potential of Staphylococcus Xylosus Strain for Recovering Nickel Ions from Aqueous Solutions.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42.1 (2018): 31-37.
APA
Adel Ali Saeed, A. A., Efaq, N., Radin Maya Saphira, R. M., Mohamed Osman, A. M., & Amir Hashim, M. K. “Potential of Staphylococcus Xylosus Strain for Recovering Nickel Ions from Aqueous Solutions.(2018). Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), 31-37.
Chicago
Adel Ali Saeed Abduh Algheethi, Efaq Noman, Radin Maya Saphira Radin Mohamed, Mohamed Osman Abdel-Monem, and Amir Hashim Mohd Kassim. “Potential of Staphylococcus Xylosus Strain for Recovering Nickel Ions from Aqueous Solutions.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42, no. 1 (2018): 31-37.
Harvard
Adel Ali Saeed, A.A., Efaq, N., Radin Maya Saphira, R.M., Mohamed Osman, A.M., Amir Hashim, M.K., 2018. Potential of Staphylococcus Xylosus Strain for Recovering Nickel Ions from Aqueous Solutions. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), pp.31-37.
Vancouver
Adel Ali Saeed AA, Efaq N, Radin Maya Saphira RM, Mohamed Osman AM, Amir Hashim MK. Potential of Staphylococcus Xylosus Strain for Recovering Nickel Ions from Aqueous Solutions. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;42(1):31-37.

Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Membrane in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids
Soong Guan Theng, Khairulazhar Jumbri, Mohd Dzul Hakim Wirza
Page 38 – 45

Abstract
The polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane has been a popular material in membrane separation process. In this work, molecular dynamic (MD) simulation was done on the PVDF membrane with 100 wt% water, 100 wt% 1,3-dialkylimidazolium bromide ([C2bim]Br) ionic liquid (IL), 100 wt% heptane and 50 wt% IL at GROningen MAchine for Chemical Simulations (GROMACS). The results were evaluated based on potential energy, root mean square deviation (RMSD), root mean square fluctuation (RMSF), radial distribution function (RDF) and contact angle. The stability and interaction of PVDF were evaluated. Results reveal that PVDF has a stronger interaction to [C2bim]+ cation compared to water, heptane and bromine anion. At high concentration of IL, potential energy and RMSD were lower. RDF reveals that [C2bim]+ cation is dominant at short distance (less than 1 nm), indicating that strong interaction of cation with PVDF. Contact angle analysis proved that PVDF membrane is a hydrophobic and oleophilic membrane. IL has a good wettability characteristic on PVDF at high concentration and vice versa. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is an effective tool whose results can be used as reference prior to further experimental approach.

Cite
MLA
Soong Guan, Theng, et al. “Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Membrane in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42.1 (2018): 38-45.
APA
Soong, G. T., Khairulazhar, J., & Mohd Dzul, H. W. “Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Membrane in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids (2018). Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Membrane in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), 38-45.
Chicago
Soong Guan Theng, Khairulazhar Jumbri, and Mohd Dzul Hakim Wirza.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42, no. 1 (2018): 38-45.
Harvard
Soong, G.T., Khairulazhar, J., Mohd Dzul, H.W., 2018. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Membrane in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), pp.38-45.
Vancouver
Soong GT, Khairulazhar J, Mohd Dzul, HW. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Membrane in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;42(1):38-45.

Tailoring MCM-41 Mesoporous Silica Particles through Modified Sol-Gel Process for Gas Separation
Wong Yean Sang, Oh Pei Ching
Page 46 – 56

Abstract
Mobil Composition of Matter-41 (MCM-41) is recognized as a potential filler to enhance permeability of mixed matrix membrane (MMM). However, the required loading for available micron-sized MCM-41 was considerably high in order to achieve desired separation performance. In this work, reduced-size MCM-41 was synthesized to minimize filler loading, improve surface modification and enhance polymer-filler compatibility during membrane fabrication. The effect of reaction condition, stirring rate and type of post-synthesis washing solution used on particle diameter of resultant MCM-41 were investigated. It was found that MCM-41 produced at room temperature condition yielded particles with smaller diameter, higher specific surface area and enhanced mesopore structure. Increase of stirring rate up to 500 rpm during synthesis also reduced the particle diameter. In addition, replacing water with methanol as the post-synthesis washing solution to remove bromide ions from the precipitate was able to further reduce the particle size by inhibiting polycondensation reaction. It was also noticed that particle diameter of MCM-41 is optimized with 15 hours of calcination.

Cite
MLA
Wong, Yean Sang, et al. “Tailoring MCM-41 Mesoporous Silica Particles through Modified Sol-Gel Process for Gas Separation.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42.1 (2018): 46-56.
APA
Wong, Y. S., & Oh, P. C.(2018). Tailoring MCM-41 Mesoporous Silica Particles through Modified Sol-Gel Process for Gas Separation. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), 46-56.
Chicago
Wong Yean Sang, and Oh Pei Ching. “Tailoring MCM-41 Mesoporous Silica Particles through Modified Sol-Gel Process for Gas Separation.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42, no. 1 (2018): 46-56.
Harvard
Wong, Y.S., Oh, P.C., 2018. Tailoring MCM-41 Mesoporous Silica Particles through Modified Sol-Gel Process for Gas Separation. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), pp.46-56.
Vancouver
Wong YS, Oh PC. Tailoring MCM-41 Mesoporous Silica Particles through Modified Sol-Gel Process for Gas Separation. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;42(1):46-56.

Identification of Most Tolerant Lichen Species to Vehicular Traffic’s Pollutants: A Case Study at Batu Pahat
Norhayati Muhammad, Nor Haslina Hashim, Nur Ain Khairuddin, Hasliza Yusof, Samsiah Jusoh, Azlan Abas, Balkis A Talip, Norazlin Abdullah, Laily Din
Page 57 – 64

Abstract
Bio-indicators are organisms that can be used for the identification and qualitative determination of human generated environmental factors. The decreasing population of sensitive lichens in specific regions around the world due to low air quality level has make lichens as a bio-indicator for air pollution. Lichen is a result of symbiotic association of fungus and alga and well known for having wide variety of sensitivity towards environmental stressors such as air quality and climate change. This study aims to identify the most tolerant lichen species to vehicular traffic’s pollutant at Batu Pahat urban and suburban areas by using Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) method. The color spot test, thin layer chromatography (TLC) profiling and morphological analysis were employed for species identification. The results have shown that Dirinaria picta has been identified as the most tolerant lichen against pollutants from vehicle traffic. The results also indicated that the air quality of Batu Pahat town/urban area could be considered as moderately clean.

Cite
MLA
Norhayati, Muhammad, et al. “Identification of Most Tolerant Lichen Species to Vehicular Traffic’s Pollutants: A Case Study at Batu Pahat.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42.1 (2018): 57-64.
APA
Norhayati, M., Nor Haslina, H., Nur Ain, K., Hasliza, Y., Samsiah, J., Azlan, A., Balkis, A. T., Norazlin, A., & Laily, D.(2018). Identification of Most Tolerant Lichen Species to Vehicular Traffic’s Pollutants: A Case Study at Batu Pahat. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), 57-64.
Chicago
Norhayati Muhammad, Nor Haslina Hashim, Nur Ain Khairuddin, Hasliza Yusof, Samsiah Jusoh, Azlan Abas, Balkis A Talip, Norazlin Abdullah, and Laily Din. “Identification of Most Tolerant Lichen Species to Vehicular Traffic’s Pollutants: A Case Study at Batu Pahat.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42, no. 1 (2018): 57-64.
Harvard
Norhayati, M., Nor Haslina, H., Nur Ain, K., Hasliza, Y., Samsiah, J., Azlan, A., Balkis, A.T., Norazlin, A., & Laily, D., 2018. Identification of Most Tolerant Lichen Species to Vehicular Traffic’s Pollutants: A Case Study at Batu Pahat. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), pp.57-64.
Vancouver
Norhayati M, Nor Haslina H, Nur Ain K, Hasliza Y, Samsiah J, Azlan A, Balkis AT, Norazlin A, Laily D. Identification of Most Tolerant Lichen Species to Vehicular Traffic’s Pollutants: A Case Study at Batu Pahat. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;42(1):57-64.

Investigation of Carbon Dioxide Solubility in Aqueous N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA)-1- butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([bmim][Ac]) Hybrid Solvent
Sintayehu Mekuria Hailegiorgis, Saleem Nawaz Khan, Nur Hanis H Abdolah, Muhammad Ayoub, Aklilu Tesfamichael
Page 65 – 71

Abstract
In this research work, aqueous hybrid solvents were prepared at different concentrations of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [bmim][Ac] as ionic liquids (ILs) and N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) for the capturing of carbon dioxide (CO2 ). The concentration of MDEA was kept constant at 30 wt% in every hybrid solvent investigated. The solubility of CO2 in the hybrid solvent was investigated by varying the concentration of [bmim][Ac] in the aqueous hybrid solvent as 10 wt% and 20 wt%. For comparison, the solubility experiment was also conducted for pure aqueous MDEA solvent. Addition of [bmim][Ac] in the hybrid solvent reasonably enhanced the solubility of CO2 as compared to its solubility in pure aqueous MDEA solvent. The loading capacity of hybrid solvent was also improved significantly with hybrid solvents. Further increasing the concentration of [bmim][Ac] from 10 wt% to 20 wt% has demonstrated a decrease in the solubility of CO2 into the hybrid solvent. The effect of pressure on loading capacity and rate of absorption was also investigated by increasing the pressure from 10 bar to 20 bar. Both loading capacity and rate of absorption increased with increasing pressure. Promising results were achieved using hybrid solvents for capturing of CO2.

Cite
MLA
Sintayehu, Mekuria Hailegiorgis, et al. “Investigation of Carbon Dioxide Solubility in Aqueous N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA)-1- butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([bmim][Ac]) Hybrid Solvent.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42.1 (2018): 65-71.
APA
Sintayehu, M. H., Saleem, N. K., Nur Hanis, H. A., Muhammad, A., & Aklilu, T.(2018). Investigation of Carbon Dioxide Solubility in Aqueous N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA)-1- butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([bmim][Ac]) Hybrid Solvent. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), 65-71.
Chicago
Sintayehu Mekuria Hailegiorgis, Saleem Nawaz Khan, Nur Hanis H Abdolah, Muhammad Ayoub, and Aklilu Tesfamichael. “Investigation of Carbon Dioxide Solubility in Aqueous N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA)-1- butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([bmim][Ac]) Hybrid Solvent.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42, no. 1 (2018): 65-71.
Harvard
Sintayehu, M.H., Saleem, N.K., Nur Hanis, H.A., Muhammad, A., Aklilu, T., 2018. Investigation of Carbon Dioxide Solubility in Aqueous N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA)-1- butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([bmim][Ac]) Hybrid Solvent. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), pp.65-71.
Vancouver
Sintayehu MH, Saleem NK, Nur Hanis HA, Muhammad A, Aklilu T. Investigation of Carbon Dioxide Solubility in Aqueous N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA)-1- butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([bmim][Ac]) Hybrid Solvent. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;42(1):65-71.

Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potential of Stingless Bee (Heterotrigona itama) By-Products
Rabieatul Adawieah Md Akhir, Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar, Shuaibu Babaji Sanusi
Page 72 – 79

Abstract
Bee bread is the pollen that has been stored in the cells of the honeycomb with various enzymes and honey, which undergoes lactic acid fermentation, while propolis is a resinous material collected by bees from buds of the plants and transform it using bee enzymes. The main objective of this research was to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the stingless bee bread and propolis extracted using 70% ethanol and n-hexane. The antioxidant activity of sample extracts were determined by 2,2,-di-phenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6- sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assays while for the antimicrobial activity, the sample extracts were analyzed using disc diffusion and broth macrodilution assay. For the DPPH and ABTS assays, the results showed that ethanolic extract of bee bread showed the highest percentage of free radical scavenging as compared to other samples with the values of 93.60 ± 0.03% and 97.95±0.01%, respectively. However, FRAP value for both hexanic extract samples, bee bread and propolis have the values of 0.85±0.0 mM FE/g and 0.87±0.00 mM FE/g respectively which were higher than ethanolic extract samples, 2.41±0.02 mM FE/g (bee bread) and 6.64±0.04 mM FE/g (propolis). For disc diffusion assay, the results showed that ethanolic extract of bee bread and propolis as well as hexanic extract of propolis were able to inhibit all tested bacteria in varying diameter of the inhibition zone. Broth macrodilution assay showed minimum inhibition zone (MIC) ranging from <6.67 to 33.33 µL/mL. As the conclusion, all of the samples in this study displayed antioxidant and antimicrobial effect but there are different in the degree of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity exhibited between each of the samples.

Cite
MLA
Rabieatul Adawieah, Md Akhir, et al. “Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potential of Stingless Bee (Heterotrigona itama) By-Products.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42.1 (2018): 72-79.
APA
Rabieatul Adawieah, M. A., Mohd Fadzelly, A. B., & Shuaibu, B. S.(2018). Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potential of Stingless Bee (Heterotrigona itama) By-Products. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), 72-79.
Chicago
Rabieatul Adawieah Md Akhir, Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar, and Shuaibu Babaji Sanusi. “Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potential of Stingless Bee (Heterotrigona itama) By-Products.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42, no. 1 (2018): 72-79.
Harvard
Rabieatul Adawieah, M.A., Mohd Fadzelly, A.B., Shuaibu, B.S., 2018. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potential of Stingless Bee (Heterotrigona itama) By-Products. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), pp.72-79.
Vancouver
Rabieatul Adawieah MA, Mohd Fadzelly AB, Shuaibu BS. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potential of Stingless Bee (Heterotrigona itama) By-Products. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;42(1):72-79.

Antioxidant Assay of Alstonia Angustifolia Ethanolic Leaf Extract
Nurhidayah Ab Rahim, Noorzafiza Zakaria, Syarifah Masyitah Habib Dzulkarnain, Nazar Mohd Zabadi Mohd Azahar, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla
Page 80 – 86

Abstract
In current study, the ability of the ethanolic extract of Alstonia angustifolia in scavenging free radicals was assessed by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 ) radical scavenging assay. The results suggested that the ethanolic extract of A. angustifolia leaves has a notable antioxidant activity. In FRAP assay, it showed that the extract have higher total antioxidant activity with FRAP value is 1868.33 µM/g Fe (ii) dry mass ± 0.15 than the control, quercetin with FRAP value is 1336.9 µM/g Fe (II) dry mass ± 0.12 and ascorbic acid with FRAP value is 1720 µM/g Fe (II) dry mass ± 0.02. For DPPH assay, the IC50 value of the extract is 384.77 while the IC50 value of standards of ascorbic acid and quercetin are 18.07 µg/ml and 39.60 µg/ml, respectively. For H2O2 scavenging assay, the IC50 value for the extract was discovered to be 186.77 µg/ml compared to standard ascorbic acid 466.56 µg/ml. Thus, the study suggests that A. angustifolia ethanolic leaf extract has a good origin of natural antioxidants and might be beneficial in impeding the oxidative stress progression thus averting diseases that related to free radicals.

Cite
MLA
Nurhidayah, Ab Rahim, et al. “Antioxidant Assay of Alstonia Angustifolia Ethanolic Leaf Extract.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42.1 (2018): 80-86.
APA
Nurhidayah, A. R., Noorzafiza, Z., Syarifah Masyitah, H. D., Nazar Mohd Zabadi, M. A., & Mahmood Ameen, A.(2018). Antioxidant Assay of Alstonia Angustifolia Ethanolic Leaf Extract. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), 80-86.
Chicago
Nurhidayah Ab Rahim, Noorzafiza Zakaria, Syarifah Masyitah Habib Dzulkarnain, Nazar Mohd Zabadi Mohd Azahar, and Mahmood Ameen Abdulla. “Antioxidant Assay of Alstonia Angustifolia Ethanolic Leaf Extract.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42, no. 1 (2018): 80-86.
Harvard
Nurhidayah, A.R., Noorzafiza, Z., Syarifah Masyitah, H.D., Nazar Mohd Zabadi, M.A., Mahmood Ameen, A., 2018. Antioxidant Assay of Alstonia Angustifolia Ethanolic Leaf Extract. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), pp.80-86.
Vancouver
Nurhidayah AR, Noorzafiza Z, Syarifah Masyitah HD, Nazar Mohd Zabadi MA, Mahmood Ameen A. Antioxidant Assay of Alstonia Angustifolia Ethanolic Leaf Extract. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;42(1):80-86.

The Influence of Fluctuating Light Condition on Photosynthetic Acclimation in Arabidopsis Thaliana
Furzani Pa’ee, Giles Johnson
Page 87 – 95

Abstract
Photoacclimation is a process by which photosynthetic capacity is regulated in response to environmental adjustments in terms of light regime. Photoacclimation is essential in determining the photosynthetic capacity to optimize light use and to avoid potentially damaging effects. Previous work in our laboratory has identified a gene, gpt2 (At1g61800) that is essential for plants to acclimate to an increase and decrease of growth irradiance, separately. To investigate the photoacclimation ability towards fluctuating natural light condition in Arabidopsis thaliana, photosynthetic capacity was measured in plants of the accession Wassileskija (WS) and in plants lacking expression of the gene At1g61800 (WS-gpt2). The experiment was carried out over a time span from early Autumn to early Spring season in 2010-2011 and 2011- 2012. The seedlings were grown in an unheated greenhouse in Manchester, UK without supplementary lighting. Gas exchange measurements, chlorophyll fluorescence analysis and chlorophyll content estimation were performed on WS and WS-gpt2 and it showed that both sets of plants could acclimate to fluctuating natural light condition. Therefore, it is suggested that the mechanisms of acclimation in a separate growth light condition is mechanistically distinct than the mechanism under fluctuating natural light condition.

Cite
MLA
Furzani, Pa’ee, et al. “The Influence of Fluctuating Light Condition on Photosynthetic Acclimation in Arabidopsis Thaliana.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42.1 (2018): 87-95.
APA
Furzani, P., & Giles, J.(2018). The Influence of Fluctuating Light Condition on Photosynthetic Acclimation in Arabidopsis Thaliana. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), 87-95.
Chicago
Furzani Pa’ee, and Giles Johnson. “The Influence of Fluctuating Light Condition on Photosynthetic Acclimation in Arabidopsis Thaliana.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42, no. 1 (2018): 87-95.
Harvard
Furzani, P., Giles, J., 2018. The Influence of Fluctuating Light Condition on Photosynthetic Acclimation in Arabidopsis Thaliana. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), pp.87-95.
Vancouver
Furzani P, Giles J. The Influence of Fluctuating Light Condition on Photosynthetic Acclimation in Arabidopsis Thaliana. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;42(1):87-95.

Solubility of CO2 in Piperazine (PZ) Activated Aqueous N-Methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) Solvent under High Pressure
Saleem Nawaz Khan, Sintayehu Mekuria Hailegiorgis, Zakaria Man, Azmi Mohd Shariff
Page 96 – 102

Abstract
In this research work, piperazine (PZ) was used to activate the performance of aqueous N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) solvent for the capturing of CO2 . The solubility experiments were conducted at a temperature and pressure ranges of 303.15 to 333.15 K, and 2 to 50 bar, respectively. The solubility of CO2 was investigated in terms of CO2 loading capacity as the ratio between the quantities of moles of CO2 absorbed to the total amount of moles of solvent used. It was observed that CO2 loading has increased with increasing the partial pressure of CO2 while increasing the temperature has a negative effect as the loading capacity has decreased with increase in system’s temperature. The CO2 loading capacity of the solvent investigated in this research work has demonstrated better performance as compared to conventionally used alkanolamines solvents.

Cite
MLA
Saleem, Nawaz Khan, et al. “Solubility of CO2 in Piperazine (PZ) Activated Aqueous N-Methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) Solvent under High Pressure.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42.1 (2018): 96-102.
APA
Saleem, N. K., Sintayehu, M. H., Zakaria, M., & Azmi, M. S.(2018). Solubility of CO2 in Piperazine (PZ) Activated Aqueous N-Methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) Solvent under High Pressure. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), 96-102.
Chicago
Saleem Nawaz Khan, Sintayehu Mekuria Hailegiorgis, Zakaria Man, and Azmi Mohd Shariff. “Solubility of CO2 in Piperazine (PZ) Activated Aqueous N-Methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) Solvent under High Pressure.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42, no. 1 (2018): 96-102.
Harvard
Saleem, N.K., Sintayehu, M.H., Zakaria, M., Azmi, M.S., 2018. Solubility of CO2 in Piperazine (PZ) Activated Aqueous N-Methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) Solvent under High Pressure. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), pp.96-102.
Vancouver
Saleem NK, Sintayehu MH, Zakaria M, Azmi MS. Solubility of CO2 in Piperazine (PZ) Activated Aqueous N-Methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) Solvent under High Pressure. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;42(1):96-102.
Volume 43, No. 1 (March, 2018)
Aerodynamics of a Trapped Vortex Combustor: A Comparative Assessment of RANS Based CFD Models
Hesham Khalil, Khalid Saqr, Yehia Eldrainy, Walid Abdelghaffar
Page 1 – 19
Abstract
Trapped vortex combustion, TVC, has shown promising results in terms of wide stability range and low pressure drop. However, previous experimental and numerical studies, which were limited to DNS, have provided only global performance assessments. Also, high computational cost limitations of DNS motivated the need for evaluating other lower cost turbulent models. Consequently, three RANS turbulence models were assessed in the present work; RKE, SST-KW, and RSM, using 2D numerical computations. In addition, the effect of inlet flow Re on cavity flow physics and stability was explored for more detailed physical insight. Ansys Fluent 12 has been used in the computations with the steady state compressible pressure based solver. RSM was found to have the least prediction error percentage against experimental data with maximum value of 12.1% for all cases studied compared with 23.9 % demonstrated by the SST-KW which was the least accurate model. Increasing inlet flow Re by order of magnitude had no apparent effect on the main flow structure for the same cavity size. However, the 300 % Re increase from 9229 to 27687 has led to 10 times increase in turbulence levels and 3 times increase in recirculation zone strength which confirms the high stability range of these combustors. Finally, multiple vortex structures, either behind the forebody for smaller cavity sizes of H/Df < 0.6 or behind the afterbody for larger cavity sizes H/Df > 1, were noticed to be the main reason behind increased pressure drop from 0.8 to 1.1%. This study was conducted as a ground base for future TVC analysis.

Cite
MLA
Hesham, Khalil, et al. “Aerodynamics of a Trapped Vortex Combustor: A Comparative Assessment of RANS Based CFD Models.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43.1 (2018): 1-19.
APA
Hesham, K., Khalid, S., Yehia, E., & Walid, A.(2018). Aerodynamics of a Trapped Vortex Combustor: A Comparative Assessment of RANS Based CFD Models. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), 1-19.
Chicago
Hesham Khalil, Khalid Saqr, Yehia Eldrainy, and Walid Abdelghaffar. “Aerodynamics of a Trapped Vortex Combustor: A Comparative Assessment of RANS Based CFD Models.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43, no. 1 (2018): 1-19.
Harvard
Hesham, K., Khalid, S., Yehia, E., Walid, A., 2018. Aerodynamics of a Trapped Vortex Combustor: A Comparative Assessment of RANS Based CFD Models. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), pp.1-19.
Vancouver
Hesham K, Khalid S, Yehia E, Walid A. Aerodynamics of a Trapped Vortex Combustor: A Comparative Assessment of RANS Based CFD Models. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;43(1):1-19.

Volume Displacement Simulation Impact on the Water Hydraulic Hybrid Driveline Performance
Ahmad Anas Yusof, Saiful Akmal Sabaruddin, Mohd Noor Asril Saadun, Faizil Wasbari
Page 20 – 36

Abstract
The impact of volume displacement simulation on the Water Hydraulic Hybrid Driveline performance is presented in this paper. Hydraulic hybrid system vehicles depend on oil based hydraulic fluid. Therefore, natural concerns of environment and safety promote the uses of the water-based hydraulic hybrid system. The focus of this paper is to gather simulation data of the potential on using water hydraulic technology in hydraulic hybrid systems. In this paper, an extensive study on the mathematical modeling and simulation by using Matlab/Simulink has been conducted to determine the feasibility of water compared to oil, HyspinAWS68 in term of the performance of the hydraulic hybrid driveline. The simulation result indicates that the best performance of hydraulic hybrid driveline is at the specification of volumetric displacement of 250 cm3 /rev.

Cite
MLA
Ahmad Anas, Yusof, et al. “Volume Displacement Simulation Impact on the Water Hydraulic Hybrid Driveline Performance.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43.1 (2018): 20-36.
APA
Ahmad Anas, Y., Saiful Akmal, S., Mohd Noor Asril, S., & Faizil, W.(2018). Volume Displacement Simulation Impact on the Water Hydraulic Hybrid Driveline Performance. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), 20-36.
Chicago
Ahmad Anas Yusof, Saiful Akmal Sabaruddin, Mohd Noor Asril Saadun, and Faizil Wasbari. “Volume Displacement Simulation Impact on the Water Hydraulic Hybrid Driveline Performance.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43, no. 1 (2018): 20-36.
Harvard
Ahmad Anas, Y., Saiful Akmal, S., Mohd Noor Asril, S., Faizil, W., 2018. Volume Displacement Simulation Impact on the Water Hydraulic Hybrid Driveline Performance. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), pp.20-36.
Vancouver
Ahmad Anas Y, Saiful Akmal S, Mohd Noor Asril S, Faizil W. Volume Displacement Simulation Impact on the Water Hydraulic Hybrid Driveline Performance. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;43(1):20-36.

Experimental Study of Composites Material Based on Thermal Analysis
Wan Azani Mustafa, Syahrul Affandi Saidi, Mustaffa Zainal, Ragunathan Santiagoo
Page 37 – 44

Abstract
One of the most significant current discussions in material properties is the chemical treatment effect on the proposed materials. In this paper, the effects of NaOH and ?APS silane treatments on the characteristics and thermal analysis of Polypropylene (PP) /Recycled Acrylonitrile Butadiene (NBRr) / Banana Skin Powder (BSP) was studied. The heated two roll mill was used to melt, mix the compositors at a temperature of 180?C to produce six different fibre loading (70/30/5, 70/30/10, 70/30/15, 70/30/20, 70/30/25 and 70/30/30w/w). The effects of NaOH and ?-APS silane treatment on PP/NBRr/BSP composites were analyzed by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Based on the results, the ?-APS silane treated PP/NBRr/BSP composites has higher improvement on mechanical properties compared to the NaOH treated PP/NBRr/BSP composites, followed by the weakest mechanical properties of untreated PP/NBRr/BSP composites. These were due to good compatibility and stronger interaction between Si-O-Si moieties with the surface of fiber for ?-APS silane treated BSP. Both ?-APS silane and NaOH treated PP/NBRr/BSP composites have the same improvement of thermal properties and better than untreated PP/NBRr/BSP composites. DSC results also showed ?-APS silane treated composite has a higher crystalline portion than untreated PP/NBRr/BSP composites. The results presented here may facilitate improvements in the material properties, especially Polypropylene (PP) /Recycle Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBRr) /Banana Skin Powder (Bsp) Composites with NaOH and ?-Aps Silane Treatment.

Cite
MLA
Wan Azani, Mustafa, et al. “Experimental Study of Composites Material Based on Thermal Analysis.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43.1 (2018): 37-44.
APA
Wan Azani, M., Syahrul Affandi, S., Mustaffa, Z., & Ragunathan, S.(2018). Experimental Study of Composites Material Based on Thermal Analysis. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), 37-44.
Chicago
Wan Azani Mustafa, Syahrul Affandi Saidi, Mustaffa Zainal, and Ragunathan Santiagoo. “Experimental Study of Composites Material Based on Thermal Analysis.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43, no. 1 (2018): 37-44.
Harvard
Wan Azani, M., Syahrul Affandi, S., Mustaffa, Z., Ragunathan, S., 2018. Experimental Study of Composites Material Based on Thermal Analysis. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), pp.37-44.
Vancouver
Wan Azani M, Syahrul Affandi S, Mustaffa Z, Ragunathan S. Experimental Study of Composites Material Based on Thermal Analysis. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;43(1):37-44.

Optimization of Moisturizing Clay Soap Containing Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Seed Extract Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design
Siti Salwa Abd Gani, Nor Fadzillah Mokhtar, Uswatun Hasanah Zaidan, Farrah Payyadhah Borhan, Khalijah Talha, Nur Fauwizah Azahar
Page 45 – 57

Abstract
Pitaya seed oil, extracted from red pitaya seeds, was utilized as a major antioxidant source in soap formulation for skin application. Bentonite (grey clay powder) with various beneficial properties also was incorporated in the formulation to enhance the positive effect toward skin’s structure. The influence of the main compositions of soap formulation containing different fatty acid and oils (cocoa butter, virgin coconut oil, olive oil, palm oil) on the hardness of the soap that undergoes saponification process was investigated by employing D-optimal mixture experimental design. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out and the polynomial regression for prepared soap hardness in terms of the six design factors was developed by utilizing the experimental data. Results revealed that the best soap formulation included 9.027% A, 29.098% B, 19.588% C, 9.223% D, 23.860% E and 9.204% F. The results showed that the hardness of the soap was greatly affected by the different in the level of fatty acid and oils in the formulation. Depending on the appropriate level of those six variables, the production of moisturizing clay soap containing pitaya seed extract with the most desirable properties which is much better than those of commercial ones is possible.

Cite
MLA
Siti Salwa, Abd Gani, et al. “Optimization of Moisturizing Clay Soap Containing Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Seed Extract Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43.1 (2018): 45-57.
APA
Siti Salwa, A. G., Nor Fadzillah, M., Uswatun Hasanah, Z., Farrah Payyadhah, B., Khalijah, T., & Nur Fauwizah, A.(2018). Optimization of Moisturizing Clay Soap Containing Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Seed Extract Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), 45-57.
Chicago
Siti Salwa Abd Gani, Nor Fadzillah Mokhtar, Uswatun Hasanah Zaidan, Farrah Payyadhah Borhan, Khalijah Talha, and Nur Fauwizah Azahar. “Optimization of Moisturizing Clay Soap Containing Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Seed Extract Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43, no. 1 (2018): 45-57.
Harvard
Siti Salwa, A.G., Nor Fadzillah, M., Uswatun Hasanah, Z., Farrah Payyadhah, B., Khalijah, T., Nur Fauwizah, A., 2018. Optimization of Moisturizing Clay Soap Containing Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Seed Extract Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), pp.45-57.
Vancouver
Siti Salwa AG, Nor Fadzillah M, Uswatun Hasanah Z, Farrah Payyadhah B, Khalijah T, Nur Fauwizah A. Optimization of Moisturizing Clay Soap Containing Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Seed Extract Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;43(1):45-57.

Biodiesel: A Review on Next Generation Fuels
Jishnu Sreenath, Anand Pai
Page 58 – 66

Abstract
The importance of biodiesel production was studied and analyzed based on research papers and theses published by different authors in various e-journals. The hike in fossil fuel prices with increase in usage demands, has forced the research to find new alternatives to petroleum fuels. Despite this, there is a crucial need to protect the environment from harmful effects of fossil fuels. Biodiesel is a renewable alternate fuel substitute that can be obtained by using various chemical methods such as transesterification, acid-catalyzed methanolysis etc. detailed survey of available literature is taken to review the different research achievements on different aqueous as well as land species for producing biodiesel as an alternative fuel for a compression ignition engine, problems associated with their production, such as the oil quality and quantity and also the methodology used for their production. In addition to this, general properties of oils taken from different natural species as well as techniques of biodiesel production and utilization have been collected.

Cite
MLA
Jishnu, Sreenath, et al. “Biodiesel: A Review on Next Generation Fuels.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43.1 (2018): 58-66.
APA
Jishnu, S., & Anand, P.(2018). Biodiesel: A Review on Next Generation Fuels. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), 58-66.
Chicago
Jishnu Sreenath, and Anand Pai. “Biodiesel: A Review on Next Generation Fuels.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43, no. 1 (2018): 58-66.
Harvard
Jishnu, S., Anand, P., 2018. Biodiesel: A Review on Next Generation Fuels. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), pp.58-66.
Vancouver
Jishnu S, Anand P. Biodiesel: A Review on Next Generation Fuels. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;43(1):58-66.

Slip Effects on Peristaltic Transport of Casson Fluid in an Inclined Elastic Tube with Porous Walls
Manjunatha Gudekote, Rajashekhar Choudhari
Page 67 – 80

Abstract
The present study investigates the combined effects of slip and inclination on peristaltic transport of Casson fluid in an elastic tube with porous walls. The modeled governing equations are solved analytically by considering the long wavelength and small Reynolds number approximations. A parametric analysis has been presented to study the effects of Darcy number, the angle of inclination, elastic parameters, velocity slip, yield stress, amplitude ratio, inlet and outlet radius on volumetric flow rate. The study reveals that an increase in the angle of inclination has a proportional increase in the pressure rise. Also, an increase in the porosity has a significant reduction in the pressure rise.

Cite
MLA
Manjunatha, Gudekote, et al. “Slip Effects on Peristaltic Transport of Casson Fluid in an Inclined Elastic Tube with Porous Walls.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43.1 (2018): 67-80.
APA
Manjunatha, G., & Rajashekhar, C.(2018). Slip Effects on Peristaltic Transport of Casson Fluid in an Inclined Elastic Tube with Porous Walls. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), 67-80.
Chicago
Manjunatha Gudekote, and Rajashekhar Choudhari. “Slip Effects on Peristaltic Transport of Casson Fluid in an Inclined Elastic Tube with Porous Walls.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43, no. 1 (2018): 67-80.
Harvard
Manjunatha, G., Rajashekhar, C., 2018. Slip Effects on Peristaltic Transport of Casson Fluid in an Inclined Elastic Tube with Porous Walls. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), pp.67-80.
Vancouver
Manjunatha G, Rajashekhar C. Slip Effects on Peristaltic Transport of Casson Fluid in an Inclined Elastic Tube with Porous Walls. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;43(1):67-80.

Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Blood Flow in Aorta using OpenFOAM
Mohamad Shukri Zakaria, Farzad Ismail, Masaaki Tamagawa, Ahmad Fazli Abdul Azi, Surjatin Wiriadidjaya, Adi Azrif Basri, Kamarul Arifin Ahmad
Page 81 – 89

Abstract
Understanding of flow pattern behaviour inside the aorta contributes significantly in diseases treatment artificial design. Objective of present study is to simulate the blood flow in patient specific aorta using open source computational fluid dynamics (CFD) platform OpenFOAM. The real geometry was obtained from real male Malaysian patient. There are not much data available in literature incorporate real geometry of aorta due to complex geometry. The validation is done against existing experimental result of the 90 degree curve tube model. It was shown that our method is able to capture complex flow in the curve tube like secondary and separation flow that responsible for development of wall shear stress at the tube wall. These flow physics could have similarity in aorta blood flow. Finally, we apply our method with anatomy human aorta with pulsatile inlet condition. Further comparison is made with unstructured boundary fitted mesh. The final result shows that the detailed flow physics can be captured in an aorta.

Cite
MLA
Mohamad Shukri, Zakaria, et al. “Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Blood Flow in Aorta using OpenFOAM.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43.1 (2018): 81-89.
APA
Mohamad Shukri, Z., Farzad, I., Masaaki, T., Ahmad Fazli, A. A., Surjatin, W., Adi Azrif, B., & Kamarul Arifin Ahmad.(2018). Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Blood Flow in Aorta using OpenFOAM. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), 81-89.
Chicago
Mohamad Shukri Zakaria, Farzad Ismail, Masaaki Tamagawa, Ahmad Fazli Abdul Azi, Surjatin Wiriadidjaya, Adi Azrif Basri, and Kamarul Arifin Ahmad. “Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Blood Flow in Aorta using OpenFOAM.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43, no. 1 (2018): 81-89.
Harvard
Mohamad Shukri, Z., Farzad, I., Masaaki, T., Ahmad Fazli, A.A., Surjatin, W., Adi Azrif, B., Kamarul Arifin, A., 2018. Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Blood Flow in Aorta using OpenFOAM. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), pp.81-89.
Vancouver
Mohamad Shukri Z, Farzad I, Masaaki T, Ahmad Fazli AA, Surjatin W, Adi Azrif B, Kamarul Arifin A. Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Blood Flow in Aorta using OpenFOAM. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;43(1):81-89.

Response Surface Optimization of High Antioxidative Extraction from Curcuma Zedoaria Leaves
Siti Salwa Abd Gani, Nur Fauwizah Azahar, Nor Fadzillah Mokhtar
Page 90 – 103

Abstract
Response surface methodology (RSM) has been fully utilized in this study to model and optimize the extraction conditions for maximum antioxidant compounds activity from Curcuma zedoaria leaves. This work was carried out based on three factor/5 level of central composite rotatable design (CCRD) and three independent variables, namely extraction temperature (60-80? C), processing time (80-120min) and solvent concentration (70-90 v/v %). The experimental data was subjected to total antioxidant activity measured by the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhdrazyl (DPPH)-radical scavenging, ?-carotene bleaching (BCB) inhibition as well as ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). By using the desirability functions, the optimal conditions were found to be at temperature 75 ? C, 92 min and (90:10 v/v%) ethanol concentration for the highest total antioxidants values for DPPH, BCB and FRAP were 85.76%, 81.35 % and 5.08 mM Fe2+ g/DW respectively, which closely agreed with the predicted values of 87.59%, 82.29%, 5.25 mM Fe2+ g/DW respectively. Thus, indicating the suitability of the model employed in RSM to optimizing the extraction conditions.

Cite
MLA
Siti Salwa, Abd Gani, et al. “Response Surface Optimization of High Antioxidative Extraction from Curcuma Zedoaria Leaves.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43.1 (2018): 90-103.
APA
Siti Salwa, A. G., Nur Fauwizah, A., & Nor Fadzillah, M.(2018).Response Surface Optimization of High Antioxidative Extraction from Curcuma Zedoaria Leaves. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), 90-103.
Chicago
Siti Salwa Abd Gani, Nur Fauwizah Azahar, and Nor Fadzillah Mokhtar. “Response Surface Optimization of High Antioxidative Extraction from Curcuma Zedoaria Leaves.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43, no. 1 (2018): 90-103.
Harvard
Siti Salwa, A.G., Nur Fauwizah, A., Nor Fadzillah, M., 2018. Response Surface Optimization of High Antioxidative Extraction from Curcuma Zedoaria Leaves. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), pp.90-103.
Vancouver
Siti Salwa AG, Nur Fauwizah A, Nor Fadzillah M. Response Surface Optimization of High Antioxidative Extraction from Curcuma Zedoaria Leaves. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;43(1):90-103.

Wind Tunnel Measurements on the Effect of Sprayer Speed on the Droplet Size Spectra
Nasir Salim Hassen, Nor Azwadi Che Sidik
Page 104 – 111

Abstract
The quality of agrochemical spraying depends on speed of the sprayer and cross wind. Dynamic spray mechanism was designed and installed in the wind tunnel for simulating the effect of speed of the sprayer and cross wind combinations on droplet spectra classifications (DSC). It is able to generate two dimensional spraying (2D) at uniform sprayer speeds under wind tunnel conditions. Droplet spectra classifications were studied using water sensitive papers (WSPs). The effect of cross wind and sprayer speed on dynamic spray was analysed and compared with reference spraying. The result of the tests showed that there were differences in the DSC when speed of the sprayer and wind speed increased. This spray mechanism was suitable for the assessment of the dynamic spray.

Cite
MLA
Nasir Salim, Hassen, et al. “Wind Tunnel Measurements on the Effect of Sprayer Speed on the Droplet Size Spectra.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43.1 (2018): 104-111.
APA
Nasir Salim, H., & Nor Azwadi, C. S.(2018). Wind Tunnel Measurements on the Effect of Sprayer Speed on the Droplet Size Spectra. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), 104-111.
Chicago
Nasir Salim Hassen, and Nor Azwadi Che Sidik. “Wind Tunnel Measurements on the Effect of Sprayer Speed on the Droplet Size Spectra.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43, no. 1 (2018): 104-111.
Harvard
Nasir Salim, H., Nor Azwadi, C.S., 2018. Wind Tunnel Measurements on the Effect of Sprayer Speed on the Droplet Size Spectra. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), pp.104-111.
Vancouver
Nasir Salim H, Nor Azwadi CS. Wind Tunnel Measurements on the Effect of Sprayer Speed on the Droplet Size Spectra. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;43(1):104-111.

Experimental and Numerical Studies of Porous Media Combustion in Micro Burner
Ayub Ahmed Janvekar, Mohd Zulkifly Abdullah, Zainal Arifin Ahmad, Aizat Abas, Mohammad Zuber, Ahmad Kamal Ismail, Ahmed Hussien, Pramod Kataraki, Mazlan Mohamed, Musavir Bashir, Azmi Husin, Khairil Fadzli
Page 112 – 120

Abstract
Porous media combustion has been key point of interest for researchers from past couple of decades due its numerous advantages, such as remarkable low emission levels without compromising thermal efficiency. In this present work, dual layered micro burner was built with predefined thickness of reaction and preheat layer. Reaction layer was made up of alumina (discrete type) while preheat layer porcelain (foam type) material. Burner was successfully built to undergo both surface and submerged flames. A concept of equivalences ratio was enabled since its premixed combustion with natural air as one of the inlet along with butane. Trials were not just restricted at stoichiometric ratio but also carried out up to ultra-lean region. Additionally, numerical simulation was performed using commercially available computational fluid dynamics package so that porous media combustion phenomenon can be better analyzed and predicted. Finally, Thermal efficiency was calculated at critical equivalence ratios and emission parameters such as NOx and CO was continuously monitored which were under controlled limits.

Cite
MLA
Ayub, Ahmed Janvekar, et al. “Experimental and Numerical Studies of Porous Media Combustion in Micro Burner.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43.1 (2018): 112-120.
APA
Ayub, A. J., Mohd Zulkifly, A., Zainal Arifin, A., Aizat, A., Mohammad Zuber, Ahmad Kamal, I., Ahmed Hussien, Pramod, K., Mazlan, M., Musavir, B., Azmi, H., & Khairil, F.(2018). Experimental and Numerical Studies of Porous Media Combustion in Micro Burner. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), 112-120.
Chicago
Ayub Ahmed Janvekar, Mohd Zulkifly Abdullah, Zainal Arifin Ahmad, Aizat Abas, Mohammad Zuber, Ahmad Kamal Ismail, Ahmed Hussien, Pramod Kataraki, Mazlan Mohamed, Musavir Bashir, Azmi Husin, and Khairil Fadzli. “Experimental and Numerical Studies of Porous Media Combustion in Micro Burner.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43, no. 1 (2018): 112-120.
Harvard
Ayub, A.J., Mohd Zulkifly, A., Zainal Arifin, A., Aizat, A., Mohammad Zuber, Ahmad Kamal, I., Ahmed Hussien, Pramod, K., Mazlan, M., Musavir, B., Azmi, H., Khairil, F., 2018. Experimental and Numerical Studies of Porous Media Combustion in Micro Burner. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), pp.112-120.
Vancouver
Ayub AJ, Mohd Zulkifly A, Zainal Arifin A, Aizat A, Mohammad Zuber, Ahmad Kamal I, Ahmed Hussien, Pramod K, Mazlan M, Musavir B, Azmi H, Khairil F. Experimental and Numerical Studies of Porous Media Combustion in Micro Burner. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;43(1):112-120.

A Proposed Compatibilizer Materials on Banana Skin Powder (BSP) Composites Using Different Temperature
Wan Azani Mustafa, Syahrul Affandi Saidi, Mustaffa Zainal, Ragunathan Santiagoo
Page 121 – 127

Abstract
In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in materials treatment in order to improve the properties. In this study, the effect of recycled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBRr) loadings and compatibilization of polypropylene maleic anhydride (PPMAH) in the polypropylene (PP) / recycled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBRr) / banana skin powder (BSP) composites was analysed. The proposed material involved a few steps such as the Polypropylene (PP) was melt at optimum temperature which is 230 o C. Next, the composites for both uncompatibilized and polypropylene maleic anhydride (PPMAH) compatibilized were mixed using heated two roll mill at specific temperature (180°C) with six different NBRr loadings rate. A few analysis techniques such as tensile properties and Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM) were conducted. The SEM micrographs show good attachment and better distribution of filler in the compatibilizer composite.

Cite
MLA
Wan Azani, Mustafa, et al. “A Proposed Compatibilizer Materials on Banana Skin Powder (BSP) Composites Using Different Temperature.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43.1 (2018): 121-127.
APA
Wan Azani, M., Syahrul Affandi, S., Mustaffa, Z., & Ragunathan, S.(2018). A Proposed Compatibilizer Materials on Banana Skin Powder (BSP) Composites Using Different Temperature. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), 121-127.
Chicago
Wan Azani Mustafa, Syahrul Affandi Saidi, Mustaffa Zainal, and Ragunathan Santiagoo. “A Proposed Compatibilizer Materials on Banana Skin Powder (BSP) Composites Using Different Temperature.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43, no. 1 (2018): 121-127.
Harvard
Wan Azani, M., Syahrul Affandi, S., Mustaffa, Z., Ragunathan, S., 2018. A Proposed Compatibilizer Materials on Banana Skin Powder (BSP) Composites Using Different Temperature. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), pp.121-127.
Vancouver
Wan Azani M, Syahrul Affandi S, Mustaffa Z, Ragunathan S. A Proposed Compatibilizer Materials on Banana Skin Powder (BSP) Composites Using Different Temperature. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;43(1):121-127.

Thermal Comfort Requirements for Different Occupants in Malaysian Hospital In-patient Wards
Waqas Khalid, Sheikh Ahmad Zaki, Hom Bahadur Rijal, Fitri Yakub
Page 128 – 140

Abstract
It is important and challenging to provide suitable thermal comfort conditions in hospital building due to widely varying conditions requirements by different types of occupants. The precise control of temperature and humidity is vital in hot-humid hospitals as these affect diseases, infections and allergies etc. indirectly. A field study comprising of thermal environment evaluation and thermal comfort survey, has been conducted in one Malaysian hospital in-patient wards with 315 respondents. Thermal comfort requirements of patients, visitors and nurses have been investigated. The patient rooms as well as nurse workstations were found bit overcooled by patients, visitors and nurses. Thermal preference of no change by patients and visitors whereas lower temperature was observed by nursing staff in wards. A bit humid air was preferred by all respondents as mean humidity sensation vote was bit drier for all of them. The air movement was acceptable for all respondents in wards as mean percentage of acceptance for every group was more than 91%. Comfort temperatures based on operative temperature for patients, visitors and nurses have been found as 25.7, 25.5 and 23.5°C which can be used as deign guides for hospital HVAC system by local building service engineers and researchers.

Cite
MLA
Waqas, Khalid, et al. ” Thermal Comfort Requirements for Different Occupants in Malaysian Hospital In-patient Wards.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43.1 (2018): 128-140.
APA
Waqas, K., Sheikh, A. Z., Hom Bahadur, R., & Fitri, Y.(2018). Thermal Comfort Requirements for Different Occupants in Malaysian Hospital In-patient Wards. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), 128-140.
Chicago
Waqas Khalid, Sheikh Ahmad Zaki, Hom Bahadur Rijal, and Fitri Yakub. “Thermal Comfort Requirements for Different Occupants in Malaysian Hospital In-patient Wards.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43, no. 1 (2018): 128-140.
Harvard
Waqas, K., Sheikh, A.Z., Hom Bahadur, R., Fitri, Y., 2018. Thermal Comfort Requirements for Different Occupants in Malaysian Hospital In-patient Wards. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), pp.128-140.
Vancouver
Waqas K, Sheikh AZ, Hom Bahadur R, Fitri Y. Thermal Comfort Requirements for Different Occupants in Malaysian Hospital In-patient Wards. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;43(1):128-140.

Experimental Study on Thermal and Tensile Properties on Polypropylene Maleic Anhydride as a Compatibilizer in Polypropylene/Sugarcane Bagasse Composite
Mustaffa Zainal, Muhammad Zaid Aihsan, Wan Azani Mustafa, Ragunathan Santiagoo
Page 141 – 148

Abstract
The effect of polypropylene maleic anhydride (PPMAH) as a compatibilizer in polypropylene (PP)/ sugarcane bagasse (SCB) composite were studied. The composite were prepared through melt mixing at the 180 o C for 7 minutes using 15 rpm rotor speed using heated two roll mill. The mixing was moulded into 1 mm thin sheet by using the hot press machine with temperature at the 180 o C for 10 minutes. Then, the sheet was cut into dumbbell shape for further analysis. The specimens were analysed for thermal and tensile properties. The thermal and tensile strength was found to be decreased with increasing of filler content. However, tensile strength and Young’s modules of the PP/SCB/PPMAH composite were found to increase, while the elongation at break showed the opposite trend as compared to the control composite.

Cite
MLA
Mustaffa, Zainal, et al. “Experimental Study on Thermal and Tensile Properties on Polypropylene Maleic Anhydride as a Compatibilizer in Polypropylene/Sugarcane Bagasse Composite.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43.1 (2018): 141-148.
APA
Mustaffa, Z., Muhammad Zaid, A., Wan Azani, M., & Ragunathan, S.(2018). Experimental Study on Thermal and Tensile Properties on Polypropylene Maleic Anhydride as a Compatibilizer in Polypropylene/Sugarcane Bagasse Composite. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), 141-148.
Chicago
Mustaffa Zainal, Muhammad Zaid Aihsan, Wan Azani Mustafa, and Ragunathan Santiagoo. “Experimental Study on Thermal and Tensile Properties on Polypropylene Maleic Anhydride as a Compatibilizer in Polypropylene/Sugarcane Bagasse Composite.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43, no. 1 (2018): 141-148.
Harvard
Mustaffa, Z., Muhammad Zaid, A., Wan Azani, M., Ragunathan, S., 2018. Experimental Study on Thermal and Tensile Properties on Polypropylene Maleic Anhydride as a Compatibilizer in Polypropylene/Sugarcane Bagasse Composite. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), pp.141-148.
Vancouver
Mustaffa Z, Muhammad Zaid A, Wan Azani M, Ragunathan S. Experimental Study on Thermal and Tensile Properties on Polypropylene Maleic Anhydride as a Compatibilizer in Polypropylene/Sugarcane Bagasse Composite. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;43(1):141-148.

Numerical Study of the Entrance Effects in an Oscillatory Flow of a Standing-Wave Thermoacoustics
Siti Hajar Adni Mustaffa, Fatimah Al-Zahrah Mohd Saat, Ernie Mattokit
Page 149 – 157

Abstract
Entrance effect and formation of the vortex structure play a vital role in understanding the flow physics at the channel entry especially in oscillatory flow inside the channel between thermoacoustic stack plates. The aims of the current study are to investigate the effect of flow frequency on the structure of the vortex shedding at the end of the stack plates and also the effect of the vortex formation at the end of the plates associated with “entrance effect”. The methods used are CFD simulation with ANSYS FLUENT as a solver. The flow was solved using laminar model and two-equation Shear-Stress Transport (SST) k-? turbulence model. The “entrance effect” and vortex flow phenomena has been studied for two drive ratios, DR (defined as ratio of maximum pressure amplitude to mean pressure) which are 0.65% and 1.0% at two frequencies of 13.1 Hz and 23.1 Hz. The results shows that at higher frequency, the entrance length becomes shorter. This can be emphasized that flow frequency plays a significant role as it affected the entrance length and vortex formation and structure of the flow.

Cite
MLA
Siti Hajar Adni, Mustaffa, et al. “Numerical Study of the Entrance Effects in an Oscillatory Flow of a Standing-Wave Thermoacoustics.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43.1 (2018): 149-157.
APA
Siti Hajar Adni, M., Fatimah Al-Zahrah, M. S., & Ernie, M.(2018). Numerical Study of the Entrance Effects in an Oscillatory Flow of a Standing-Wave Thermoacoustics. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), 149-157.
Chicago
Siti Hajar Adni Mustaffa, Fatimah Al-Zahrah Mohd Saat, and Ernie Mattokit. “Numerical Study of the Entrance Effects in an Oscillatory Flow of a Standing-Wave Thermoacoustics.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43, no. 1 (2018): 149-157.
Harvard
Siti Hajar Adni, M., Fatimah Al-Zahrah, M.S., Ernie, M., 2018. Numerical Study of the Entrance Effects in an Oscillatory Flow of a Standing-Wave Thermoacoustics. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), pp.149-157.
Vancouver
Siti Hajar Adni M, Fatimah Al-Zahrah MS, Ernie M. Numerical Study of the Entrance Effects in an Oscillatory Flow of a Standing-Wave Thermoacoustics. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;43(1):149-157.
Volume 44, No. 1 (April, 2018)
Yaw Angle Effect on the Aerodynamic Performance of Hatchback Vehicle Fitted with Combo-Type Spoiler
Kwang-Yhee Chin, See-Yuan Cheng, Shuhaimi Mansor
Page 1 – 11
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of yaw angle on the aerodynamic performance of hatchback vehicle model fitted with a spoiler featuring a configuration combining the wing and strip spoiler designs. To date, majority of the tests performed on spoilers were done in a straight-ahead driving condition. However, the effect of spoiler is most demanded during cornering for stability reason. A RANS-based Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method was used to simulate the flow. Validation of the method was carried out by comparing the numerically obtained results with the experimental data. The findings show that both the drag coefficient, Cd, and lift coefficient, Cl had increased when the vehicle was subjected to higher yaw angle. The wing part of the spoiler did performed in favour of reducing the Cl , but its contribution to the overall Cl was only about 4.28%. The main body parts contributed to the decrease in Cd and Cl are the front and underbody, respectively.

Cite
MLA
Kwang-Yhee, Chin, et al. “Yaw Angle Effect on the Aerodynamic Performance of Hatchback Vehicle Fitted with Combo-Type Spoiler.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44.1 (2018): 1-11.
APA
Kwang-Yhee, C., See-Yuan, C., & Shuhaimi, M.(2018). Yaw Angle Effect on the Aerodynamic Performance of Hatchback Vehicle Fitted with Combo-Type Spoiler. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), 1-11.
Chicago
Kwang-Yhee Chin, See-Yuan Cheng, and Shuhaimi Mansor. “Yaw Angle Effect on the Aerodynamic Performance of Hatchback Vehicle Fitted with Combo-Type Spoiler.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44, no. 1 (2018): 1-11.
Harvard
Kwang-Yhee, C., See-Yuan, C., Shuhaimi, M., 2018. Yaw Angle Effect on the Aerodynamic Performance of Hatchback Vehicle Fitted with Combo-Type Spoiler. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), pp.1-11.
Vancouver
Kwang-Yhee C, See-Yuan C, Shuhaimi M. Yaw Angle Effect on the Aerodynamic Performance of Hatchback Vehicle Fitted with Combo-Type Spoiler. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;44(1):1-11.

Impacts of Temperature on Airborne Particles in A Hospital Operating Room
Nazri Kamsah, Haslinda Mohamed Kamar, Muhammad Idrus Alhamid, Wong Keng Yinn
Page 12 – 23

Abstract
A proper ventilation system is necessary for isolating and reducing airborne particles in a hospital operating room. Most healthcare uses a downward unidirectional (laminar) flow in the area of the operating table to give a sterile environment to the patient. However, the unidirectional downward airflow can easily be deviated due to a buoyancy force induced by heated surfaces such as a person’s and medical lamp’s surfaces. Therefore, the goal of this study is to investigate the effects of lamps and human body surface temperatures on particles distribution in the vicinity of the operating table inside an operating room. A simplified computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the operating room was developed using commercial software. An RNG k-epsilon turbulent flow model was used to simulate the airflow while a discrete phase model (DPM) was used to simulate the movement of the airborne particle of size 5 ?m. Results of CFD simulations show that when the surgical lamp and staff surface temperatures were prescribed at 45°C and 37°C, respectively, a more significant amount of particles appear to be on the floor of the adjacent area of the operating table head section. On average, the particle concentration in the vicinity of the operating table increases by 16%.

Cite
MLA
Nazri, Kamsah, et al. “Impacts of Temperature on Airborne Particles in A Hospital Operating Room.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44.1 (2018): 12-23.
APA
Nazri, K., Haslinda, M. K., Muhammad Idrus, A., & Wong, K. Y.(2018). Impacts of Temperature on Airborne Particles in A Hospital Operating Room. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), 12-23.
Chicago
Nazri Kamsah, Haslinda Mohamed Kamar, Muhammad Idrus Alhamid, and Wong Keng Yinn. “Impacts of Temperature on Airborne Particles in A Hospital Operating Room.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44, no. 1 (2018): 12-23.
Harvard
Nazri, K., Haslinda, M.K., Muhammad Idrus, A., Wong, K.Y., 2018. Impacts of Temperature on Airborne Particles in A Hospital Operating Room. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), pp.12-23.
Vancouver
Nazri K, Haslinda MK, Muhammad Idrus A, Wong KY. Impacts of Temperature on Airborne Particles in A Hospital Operating Room. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;44(1):12-23.

Rudimentary Effects of Emblematic Gust Excitations on the Lift Performance of Coaxial Helicopter Rotor Blades
Ziad Abdul Awal, Mohd Shariff Ammoo, Shuhaimi Mansor, Iskandar Shah Ishak
Page 24 – 35

Abstract
Aerodynamic valuation plays an imperative role in understanding the characteristic response of a helicopter with respect to the airflow. Understanding the airflow around the helicopter is much more challenging compared to the flow field around a fixedwing aircraft. The situation becomes even more convoluted when environmental turbulences are introduced in the scene such as the gust wind loading, which is one of the most catastrophic commotions. Refereeing to the obvious, this study took out this daunting task to actually generate artificial gust and study its effects on the main rotor airflow physiognomies of a coaxially configured subscale helicopter. Quantitative data congregated by measuring the rotor induced airspeed underneath the rotor blades, which is quintessentially the lift/thrust, have revealed intriguing outcomes. The implementations of various strengths of active robust gust have caused the helicopter to experience half-hearted rolling motion pared with the incremental loss of altitude during hover. For forward flight, this investigation reveals the helicopter distinctively lost cruising speed along with the altitude as well when subjected to the gust. During hover and forward flight conditions, results depict that lift is decreased about 33% when subjected to the gust. These findings are alleged to be valuable for future research and development in the rotorcraft industry.

Cite
MLA
Ziad, Abdul Awal, et al. “Rudimentary Effects of Emblematic Gust Excitations on the Lift Performance of Coaxial Helicopter Rotor Blades.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44.1 (2018): 24-35.
APA
Ziad, A. A., Mohd Shariff, A., Shuhaimi, M., & Iskandar Shah, I.(2018). Rudimentary Effects of Emblematic Gust Excitations on the Lift Performance of Coaxial Helicopter Rotor Blades. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), 24-35.
Chicago
Ziad Abdul Awal, Mohd Shariff Ammoo, Shuhaimi Mansor, and Iskandar Shah Ishak. “Rudimentary Effects of Emblematic Gust Excitations on the Lift Performance of Coaxial Helicopter Rotor Blades.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44, no. 1 (2018): 24-35.
Harvard
Ziad, A.A., Mohd Shariff, A., Shuhaimi, M., Iskandar Shah, I., 2018. Rudimentary Effects of Emblematic Gust Excitations on the Lift Performance of Coaxial Helicopter Rotor Blades. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), pp.24-35.
Vancouver
Ziad AA, Mohd Shariff A., Shuhaimi M, Iskandar Shah I. Rudimentary Effects of Emblematic Gust Excitations on the Lift Performance of Coaxial Helicopter Rotor Blades. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;44(1):24-35.

Reducing Flow Separation in T-Junction Pipe Using Vortex Generator: CFD Study
A Hamad, Syed Mohammed Aminuddin Aftab, Kamarul Arifin Ahmad
Page 36 – 46

Abstract
Water Distribution Networks (WDN’s) are used for providing water to residential areas. These networks have various junctions and interconnections spanning hundreds of kilometers. In the current work CFD simulation is carried out initially to determine the location of flow separation and recirculation inside a T-junction. Furthermore a parametric study is carried out to reduce this separation by implementing Vortex Generators (VG’s). VG’s are most commonly used in aircrafts to reduce the flow separation. A parametric analysis is carried out considering three VG configurations and later an upgrade is carried out. Simulations are carried out using ANSYS Fluent. The results show that, implementation of VG’s effectively reduces the reverse flow and thus provides a solution to existing problem in Water Distribution Networks (WDN).

Cite
MLA
A Hamad, et al. “Reducing Flow Separation in T-Junction Pipe Using Vortex Generator: CFD Study.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44.1 (2018): 36-46.
APA
A Hamad, Syed Mohammed Aminuddin, A., & Kamarul Arifin, A.(2018). Reducing Flow Separation in T-Junction Pipe Using Vortex Generator: CFD Study. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), 36-46.
Chicago
A Hamad, Syed Mohammed Aminuddin Aftab, and Kamarul Arifin Ahmad. “Reducing Flow Separation in T-Junction Pipe Using Vortex Generator: CFD Study.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44, no. 1 (2018): 36-46.
Harvard
A Hamad, Syed Mohammed Aminuddin, A., Kamarul Arifin, A., 2018. Reducing Flow Separation in T-Junction Pipe Using Vortex Generator: CFD Study. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), pp.36-46.
Vancouver
A Hamad, Syed Mohammed Aminuddin A, Kamarul Arifin A. Reducing Flow Separation in T-Junction Pipe Using Vortex Generator: CFD Study. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;44(1):36-46.

Effect of Screen Geometry on the Vortex Formation behind a Circular Cylinder
Azlin Mohd Azmi, Tongming Zhou
Page 47 – 54

Abstract
The wake region of a circular cylinder with and without shroud was experimentally investigated using smoke-wire flow visualization. The shrouds were made of screen cylinders, constructed from various screen meshes. The shroud-to-cylinder diameter ratio, D/d were 1.56 and 2.0 and the flow Reynolds number based on the cylinder diameter, Red was approximately 1000. The vortex formation process was investigated and the formation length, Lf was estimated from the flow visualization. The effect of a new dimensionless parameter, ?.dw/d (where ? is the screen porosity and dw is the mesh wire diameter) on the vortex formation length was also examined. Results showed that the formation length was greater at gap ratio of 2.0 than that at 1.6, with smaller wake width observed in the former in comparison to that in the latter. The formation length also increased with increased non-dimensional parameter ?.dw/d after its critical value was reached.

Cite
MLA
Azlin, Mohd Azmi, et al. “Effect of Screen Geometry on the Vortex Formation behind a Circular Cylinder.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44.1 (2018): 47-54.
APA
Azlin, M. A., & Tongming, Z.(2018). Effect of Screen Geometry on the Vortex Formation behind a Circular Cylinder. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), 47-54.
Chicago
Azlin Mohd Azmi, and Tongming Zhou. “Effect of Screen Geometry on the Vortex Formation behind a Circular Cylinder.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44, no. 1 (2018): 47-54.
Harvard
Azlin, M.A., Tongming, Z., 2018. Effect of Screen Geometry on the Vortex Formation behind a Circular Cylinder. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), pp.47-54.
Vancouver
Azlin MA, Tongming Z. Effect of Screen Geometry on the Vortex Formation behind a Circular Cylinder. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;44(1):47-54.

Piston Surface Pressure of Piston- Cylinder System with Finite Piston Speed
Siti Nurul Akmal Yusof, Yutaka Asako, Tan Lit Ken, Nor Azwadi Che Sidik
Page 55 – 65

Abstract
Understanding the thermodynamics’ fundamental are important for the advance of energy and environmental technologies. The study aims to derive an expression of the average pressure on the piston surface, ps p in an adiabatic piston-cylinder system during an irreversible process with finite piston speed using the kinetic molecular theory. Expressions for the average pressure on the piston surface, ps p are derived from the change of momentum and change of energy. The MaxwellBoltzmann distribution is used to estimate the gas molecule velocities. The piston surface pressure obtained from the change of momentum is 37.18% lower than that obtained by the previous study. The piston surface pressure obtained from the change of energy is 26.94% lower than that obtained by the previous study.

Cite
MLA
Siti Nurul Akmal, Yusof, et al. “Piston Surface Pressure of Piston- Cylinder System with Finite Piston Speed.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44.1 (2018): 55-65.
APA
Siti Nurul Akmal, Y., Yutaka, A., Tan, L. K., & Nor Azwadi, C. S.(2018). Piston Surface Pressure of Piston- Cylinder System with Finite Piston Speed. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), 55-65.
Chicago
Siti Nurul Akmal Yusof, Yutaka Asako, Tan Lit Ken, and Nor Azwadi Che Sidik. “Piston Surface Pressure of Piston- Cylinder System with Finite Piston Speed.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44, no. 1 (2018): 55-65.
Harvard
Siti Nurul Akmal, Y., Yutaka, A., Tan, L.K., Nor Azwadi, C.S., 2018. Piston Surface Pressure of Piston- Cylinder System with Finite Piston Speed. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), pp.55-65.
Vancouver
Siti Nurul Akmal Y, Yutaka A, Tan LK, Nor Azwadi CS. Piston Surface Pressure of Piston- Cylinder System with Finite Piston Speed. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;44(1):55-65.

Critical Failure Strain of Oxide Scale in Boiler Austenitic Tubes
Yeo Wei Hong, Mohamed Hairol Mohd Ali, Zuruzi Abu Samah, Ahmad Syamaizar Ahmad Sabli, Mohd Asri Muhammad, Siti Mazulianawati Majid, Ahmad Shamil Abd Rahman, Judha Purbolaksono
Page 66 – 72

Abstract
Exfoliation of oxide scales is known to be associated with the stress and strain developed during the oxide growth. This paper presents a simple procedure to estimate the oxide scale growths and critical failure strains in boiler austenitic tubes over a period of time. In this work, a classical heat flow formula and the relationship between the Larson Miller Parameter (LMP) and the scale thickness were utilized. An approach called Advance Oxide Scale Failure Diagram (A-OSFD) was adopted. The oxide scale failure diagram would provide a general guidance to the power plant engineers to estimate the critical strains.The technique may be used as a supplementary condition monitoring tool for oxide scale growths and to evaluate the critical failure strains.

Cite
MLA
Yeo, Wei Hong, et al. “Critical Failure Strain of Oxide Scale in Boiler Austenitic Tubes.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44.1 (2018): 66-72.
APA
Yeo, W. H., Mohamed Hairol, M. A., Zuruzi, A. S., Ahmad Syamaizar, A. S., Mohd Asri, M., Siti Mazulianawati, M., Ahmad Shamil, A. R., & Judha, P.(2018). Critical Failure Strain of Oxide Scale in Boiler Austenitic Tubes. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), 66-72.
Chicago
Yeo Wei Hong, Mohamed Hairol Mohd Ali, Zuruzi Abu Samah, Ahmad Syamaizar Ahmad Sabli, Mohd Asri Muhammad, Siti Mazulianawati Majid, Ahmad Shamil Abd Rahman, and Judha Purbolaksono. “Critical Failure Strain of Oxide Scale in Boiler Austenitic Tubes.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44, no. 1 (2018): 66-72.
Harvard
Yeo, W.H., Mohamed Hairol, M.A., Zuruzi, A.S., Ahmad Syamaizar, A.S., Mohd Asri, M., Siti Mazulianawati, M., Ahmad Shamil, A.R., Judha, P., 2018. Critical Failure Strain of Oxide Scale in Boiler Austenitic Tubes. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), pp.66-72.
Vancouver
Yeo WH, Mohamed Hairol MA, Zuruzi AS, Ahmad Syamaizar AS, Mohd Asri M, Siti Mazulianawati M, Ahmad Shamil AR, Judha P. Critical Failure Strain of Oxide Scale in Boiler Austenitic Tubes. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;44(1):66-72.

Assessing and Quality Tests of New PVC Electrical Cables Outer Sheath by Accelerated Thermal Ageing
M’hamed Beriache, Djelloul Saïh Merzouk, Nor Azwadi Che Sidik
Page 73 – 84

Abstract
In Algeria, XLPE and PVC are the most widely used materials in cable insulation industries. The severe climate conditions in Algeria, plus tremendous factors in stressing cables insulations and shorten their lifetime. This study presents results of a tested material (PVC ST2 IRIS) on medium and low voltage cable outer sheath using different experimental techniques, especially; elongation at break (EAB), hot stretching test, Thermal shock test and weight loss method and the thermomechanical properties to determine how valid and safe are the proposed outer sheath materials used in cables manufacturing. The obtained results show that, the mechanical properties after accelerated thermal aging are affected by less than 9% with those before aging. These results are conformed to the standard CEI recommendations. The findings of the present experimental work show that the new tested (PVC ST2 IRIS) material passed all the approval mechanical tests successfully, and has approved to be marketed and operated in practice.

Cite
MLA
M’hamed, Beriache, et al. “Assessing and Quality Tests of New PVC Electrical Cables Outer Sheath by Accelerated Thermal Ageing.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44.1 (2018): 73-84.
APA
M’hamed, B., Djelloul Saïh, M., & Nor Azwadi, C. S.(2018). Assessing and Quality Tests of New PVC Electrical Cables Outer Sheath by Accelerated Thermal Ageing. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), 73-84.
Chicago
M’hamed Beriache, Djelloul Saïh Merzouk, and Nor Azwadi Che Sidik. “Assessing and Quality Tests of New PVC Electrical Cables Outer Sheath by Accelerated Thermal Ageing.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44, no. 1 (2018): 73-84.
Harvard
M’hamed, B., Djelloul Saïh, M., Nor Azwadi, C.S., 2018. Assessing and Quality Tests of New PVC Electrical Cables Outer Sheath by Accelerated Thermal Ageing. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), pp.73-84.
Vancouver
M’hamed B, Djelloul Saïh M, Nor Azwadi CS. Assessing and Quality Tests of New PVC Electrical Cables Outer Sheath by Accelerated Thermal Ageing. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;44(1):73-84.

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Thermosyphon Heat Pipe Performance at Various Inclination Angles
Bala Abdullahi, Ahmed El-Sayed, Raya Khalid Al-Dadah, Sa’ad Mahmoud, Abdel Fateh Mahrous, Nura Mu’az Muhammad, Sa’idu Bello Abbakar
Page 85 – 98

Abstract
Interest in the use of heat pipes in solar applications is increasing due to their role in improving the heat transfer performance of solar collectors. In order to effectively utilise heat pipes, their performance under various operating conditions and inclination angles need to be investigated. In this work, numerical and experimental studies were carried out to investigate the effects of heat input and inclination angle on the wall temperature distributions and thermal resistance of thermosyphon heat pipe. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was developed using ANSYS Fluent to simulate the flow and mass transfer using volume of fluid (VOF) approach together with user – defined function (UDF) to simulate the phase change processes at various inclination angles. Experiments were carried out to validate the CFD model at heat inputs of 81.69W and 101.55W with temperature distribution results showing good agreement of ±4.2% average deviation. Also the predicted thermal resistance at different inclination angles showed good agreement with the experimental ones with maximum deviation of ±5.7%. Results showed that as the heat input increases, the heat pipe wall temperature increases and the thermal resistance decreases. Experimental and numerical results showed that increasing the inclination angle will improve the thermosyphon heat pipe performance to reach its maximum value at 90o, but this effect decreases as the heat input increases.

Cite
MLA
Bala, Abdullahi, et al. “Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Thermosyphon Heat Pipe Performance at Various Inclination Angles.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44.1 (2018): 85-98.
APA
Bala, A., Ahmed, E., Raya Khalid, A., Sa’ad, M., Abdel Fateh, M., Nura Mu’az, M., & Sa’idu Bello, A.(2018). Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Thermosyphon Heat Pipe Performance at Various Inclination Angles. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), 85-98.
Chicago
Bala Abdullahi, Ahmed El-Sayed, Raya Khalid Al-Dadah, Sa’ad Mahmoud, Abdel Fateh Mahrous, Nura Mu’az Muhammad, and Sa’idu Bello Abbakar. “Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Thermosyphon Heat Pipe Performance at Various Inclination Angles.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44, no. 1 (2018): 85-98.
Harvard
Bala, A., Ahmed, E., Raya Khalid, A., Sa’ad, M., Abdel Fateh, M., Nura Mu’az, M., Sa’idu Bello, A., 2018. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Thermosyphon Heat Pipe Performance at Various Inclination Angles. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), pp.85-98.
Vancouver
Bala A, Ahmed E, Raya Khalid A, Sa’ad M, Abdel Fateh M, Nura Mu’az M, Sa’idu Bello A. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Thermosyphon Heat Pipe Performance at Various Inclination Angles. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;44(1):85-98.

Parametric Study to Determine Optimum HVAC in a Hospital Operation Theatre
Muneera Abs Farj, Syed Mohammed Aminuddin Aftab, Kamarul Arifin Ahmad
Page 99 – 122

Abstract
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation inside an Operation Theatre (OT), considering real world conditions such as temperature and airflow movement in the OT environment is carried out. Simulation is carried out using Phoenics software to predict the flow velocity and temperature distribution inside the OT. Parametric study is done to determine the most suitable inlet and outlet configuration. Only one out of the six cases provided the required cooling and reduced recirculation. Results indicated that the entire ceiling inlet with eight outlets was the best case, for further studies to be carried out considering contaminants.

Cite
MLA
Muneera, Abs Farj, et al. “Parametric Study to Determine Optimum HVAC in a Hospital Operation Theatre.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44.1 (2018): 99-122.
APA
Muneera, A. F., Syed Mohammed Aminuddin, A., & Kamarul, A. A.(2018). Parametric Study to Determine Optimum HVAC in a Hospital Operation Theatre. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), 99-122.
Chicago
Muneera Abs Farj, Syed Mohammed Aminuddin Aftab, and Kamarul Arifin Ahmad. “Parametric Study to Determine Optimum HVAC in a Hospital Operation Theatre.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44, no. 1 (2018): 99-122.
Harvard
Muneera, A.F., Syed Mohammed Aminuddin, A., Kamarul, A.A., 2018. Parametric Study to Determine Optimum HVAC in a Hospital Operation Theatre. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), pp.99-122.
Vancouver
Muneera AF, Syed Mohammed Aminuddin A, Kamarul AA. Parametric Study to Determine Optimum HVAC in a Hospital Operation Theatre. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;44(1):99-122.

Heat Transport at Solid-Liquid Interfaces between Face-Centered Cubic Lattice and Liquid Alkanes
Abdul Rafeq Saleman, Fudhail Abdul Munir, Mohd Rody Mohammad Zin, Mohd Shukri Yob, Gota Kikugawa, Taku Ohara
Page 123 – 130

Abstract
Solid-liquid (S-L) interfaces is widely used in lubrication and coating systems, in which the heat transport is the main problem for the system. In the recent years, lubrication and coating systems have been investigated up to the molecular scale to solve the problem of heat transport due to wear and friction. In molecular scale, the characteristics of heat transport are different from the conventional one. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to specifically investigate the characteristics of heat transport in the molecular scale at the S-L interfaces. The prime concern in this numerical investigation is the surface structure of solid and the type of liquid molecules. The characteristics of heat transport at the S-L interfaces are evaluated based on the temperature jump (TJ) and thermal boundary resistance (TBR) at the interfaces. It is found that the different TJs and TBRs can be observed for variation of the surface structures and the length of liquid molecules. The obtained results show that the surface structures and length of liquid molecules significantly affect the characteristics of heat transport at S-L interfaces.

Cite
MLA
Abdul Rafeq, Saleman, et al. “Heat Transport at Solid-Liquid Interfaces between Face-Centered Cubic Lattice and Liquid Alkanes.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44.1 (2018): 123-130.
APA
Abdul Rafeq, S., Fudhail, A. M., Mohd Rody, M. Z., Mohd Shukri, Y., Gota, K., & Taku, O.(2018). Heat Transport at Solid-Liquid Interfaces between Face-Centered Cubic Lattice and Liquid Alkanes. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), 123-130.
Chicago
Abdul Rafeq Saleman, Fudhail Abdul Munir, Mohd Rody Mohammad Zin, Mohd Shukri Yob, Gota Kikugawa, and Taku Ohara. “Heat Transport at Solid-Liquid Interfaces between Face-Centered Cubic Lattice and Liquid Alkanes.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44, no. 1 (2018): 123-130.
Harvard
Abdul Rafeq, S., Fudhail, A.M., Mohd Rody, M.Z., Mohd Shukri, Y., Gota, K., Taku, O., 2018. Heat Transport at Solid-Liquid Interfaces between Face-Centered Cubic Lattice and Liquid Alkanes. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), pp.123-130.
Vancouver
Abdul Rafeq S, Fudhail AM, Mohd Rody MZ, Mohd Shukri Y, Gota K, Taku O. Heat Transport at Solid-Liquid Interfaces between Face-Centered Cubic Lattice and Liquid Alkanes. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;44(1):123-130.

Effect of MHD and Porosity on Exact Solutions and Flow of a Hybrid Casson-Nanofluid
Sidra Aman, Syazwani Mohd Zokri, Zulkhibri Ismail, Mohd Zuki Salleh, Ilyas Khan
Page 131 – 139

Abstract
In this work, a novel hybrid nanofluid model with advanced thermophysical properties is considered for Casson fluid. The exact solutions are evaluated for noninteger derivative equations via Laplace technique. The unsteady flow, MHD, radiation and porous medium are considered. For the hybrid concept, alumina and copper nanoparticles are used in this research investigation. The problem is modeled using Caputo definition of non-integer derivatives. The influence of concerned parameters is depicted physically and graphically on the heat, concentration and flow of the hybrid nanofluid. The effect of volume fraction of both the nanoparticles on flow of hybrid nanofluids is observed. It is found that velocity increases with increasing values of Gr, ? and k, whereas M decreases.

Cite
MLA
Sidra, Aman, et al. “Effect of MHD and Porosity on Exact Solutions and Flow of a Hybrid Casson-Nanofluid.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44.1 (2018): 131-139.
APA
Sidra, A., Syazwani, M. Z., Zulkhibri, I., Mohd Zuki, S., & Ilyas, K.(2018). Effect of MHD and Porosity on Exact Solutions and Flow of a Hybrid Casson-Nanofluid. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), 131-139.
Chicago
Sidra Aman, Syazwani Mohd Zokri, Zulkhibri Ismail, Mohd Zuki Salleh, and Ilyas Khan. “Effect of MHD and Porosity on Exact Solutions and Flow of a Hybrid Casson-Nanofluid.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44, no. 1 (2018): 131-139.
Harvard
Sidra, A., Syazwani, M.Z., Zulkhibri, I., Mohd Zuki, S., Ilyas, K., 2018. Effect of MHD and Porosity on Exact Solutions and Flow of a Hybrid Casson-Nanofluid. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), pp.131-139.
Vancouver
Sidra A, Syazwani MZ, Zulkhibri I, Mohd Zuki S, Ilyas K. Effect of MHD and Porosity on Exact Solutions and Flow of a Hybrid Casson-Nanofluid. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;44(1):131-139.

Flow Past Two Interlocking Squares Cylinder at Low Reynolds Number
Muhamad Hafiz Md Jamal, Azlin Mohd Azmi
Page 140 – 148

Abstract
Flow past two interlocking squares cylinder is largely unexplored in the field of bluff body wake. This paper aims to investigate the wake region behind this body at Re=150. The study was carried out numerically using ANSYS-Fluent solver with viscous-laminar model. The results obtained were compared with that of a square cylinder. It was observed that the flow separation was delayed at the downstream sharp corner of the two interlocking squares cylinder, resulting in an early interaction between the shear layers behind its wake. The maximum vorticity magnitude was slightly higher (of about 6%), indicating a higher intensity of vortices in the two interlocking squares wake than that of the square cylinder wake, consistent with the spectral analysis. A larger lift fluctuation with higher amplitude was also observed in the former in comparison to that in the latter.

Cite
MLA
Muhamad Hafiz, Md Jamal, et al. “Flow Past Two Interlocking Squares Cylinder at Low Reynolds Number.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44.1 (2018): 140-148.
APA
Muhamad Hafiz, M. J., & Azlin, M. A.(2018). Flow Past Two Interlocking Squares Cylinder at Low Reynolds Number. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), 140-148.
Chicago
Muhamad Hafiz Md Jamal, and Azlin Mohd Azmi. “Flow Past Two Interlocking Squares Cylinder at Low Reynolds Number.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44, no. 1 (2018): 140-148.
Harvard
Muhamad Hafiz, M.J., Azlin, M.A., 2018. Flow Past Two Interlocking Squares Cylinder at Low Reynolds Number. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), pp.140-148.
Vancouver
Muhamad Hafiz MJ, Azlin MA. Flow Past Two Interlocking Squares Cylinder at Low Reynolds Number. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;44(1):140-148.

Simulation Study of Combustion Characteristics of Diesel-Ethanol-Palm Oil Methyl Ester Blends in Diesel Engine
Norhidayah Mat Taib, Mohd Radzi Abu Mansor, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan Mahmood, Nik Rosli Abdullah
Page 149 – 156

Abstract
Diesel-ethanol-palm methyl ester (PME) blends are believed to be able to improve the combustion characteristics since diesel, ethanol, and PME have different fuel characteristics. This paper is aimed to study the combustion characteristics of pure diesel and diesel-ethanol-PME blends with different compositions through simulation works and to estimate the best fuel composition that can be used in real engine applications. A simulation work was conducted using seven different diesel-ethanolPME blends for a combustion based on a compression ignition Yanmar TF90 engine parameter by using a CONVERGE CFD software. Seven diesel-ethanol-PME blends (10 vol% to 40 vol%) PME were mixed in ethanol together with 50 vol% diesel fuel operated at 1600 RPM. High PME percentage increased the heat release rate (HRR). However, due to non-uniform chemical energy release from the reaction, the blends of 25 vol% PME with 25 vol% ethanol blends released the highest HRR. A high percentage of ethanol reduced the temperature and increased the heat release. From the cumulative heat release, ignition delay occurred for blends that had more than 15 vol% ethanol. In conclusion, blending ethanol and PME in diesel increased the combustion heat release rate to have better engine efficiency. However, the blend that contained more than 35 vol% ethanol was not suitable to be used in direct injection compressed ignition engine without any modification since the temperature and HRR of the blends is very low.

Cite
MLA
Norhidayah, Mat Taib, et al. “Simulation Study of Combustion Characteristics of Diesel-Ethanol-Palm Oil Methyl Ester Blends in Diesel Engine.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44.1 (2018): 149-156.
APA
Norhidayah, M. T., Mohd Radzi, A. M., Wan Mohd Faizal, W. M., & Nik Rosli, A.(2018). Simulation Study of Combustion Characteristics of Diesel-Ethanol-Palm Oil Methyl Ester Blends in Diesel Engine. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), 149-156.
Chicago
Norhidayah Mat Taib, Mohd Radzi Abu Mansor, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan Mahmood, and Nik Rosli Abdullah. “Simulation Study of Combustion Characteristics of Diesel-Ethanol-Palm Oil Methyl Ester Blends in Diesel Engine.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44, no. 1 (2018): 149-156.
Harvard
Norhidayah, M.T., Mohd Radzi, A.M., Wan Mohd Faizal, W.M., Nik Rosli, A., 2018. Simulation Study of Combustion Characteristics of Diesel-Ethanol-Palm Oil Methyl Ester Blends in Diesel Engine. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), pp.149-156.
Vancouver
Norhidayah MT, Mohd Radzi AM, Wan Mohd Faizal WM, Nik Rosli A. Simulation Study of Combustion Characteristics of Diesel-Ethanol-Palm Oil Methyl Ester Blends in Diesel Engine. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;44(1):149-156.

The Effect of Single and Double Air Inlets on Swirling Flow in a Reactor of a Fluidized Bed Gasifier
Wasu Suksuwan, Makatar Wae-hayee, Maizirwan Mel
Page 157 – 166

Abstract
In this work, the effect of single and double air inlets on swirling flow in a reactor of fluidized bed gasifier was studied numerically. The reactor diameter (D) was 20 cm, and the reactor length was 7.5D. The geometry of the reactor bottom was conical. In order to generate swirling flow in the reactor, the air inlet pipe with inner diameter of 46.8 mm was assembled tangentially to the bottom of the reactor. The comparison of the effect of single and double air inlets were studied based on the same mass flow rate. A 3-D numerical model of the reactor was created using a commercial software of ANSYS Ver.15.0 (Fluent). The results showed that swirling flow at the bottom of the reactor for the case of double inlets was more uniform than that of single inlets. Therefore, double air inlets were applied to design and fabricate a swirling fluidized bed gasifier.

Cite
MLA
Wasu, Suksuwan, et al. “The Effect of Single and Double Air Inlets on Swirling Flow in a Reactor of a Fluidized Bed Gasifier.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44.1 (2018): 157-166.
APA
Wasu, S., Makatar, W., & Maizirwan, M. (2018). The Effect of Single and Double Air Inlets on Swirling Flow in a Reactor of a Fluidized Bed Gasifier. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), 157-166.
Chicago
Wasu Suksuwan, Makatar Wae-hayee, and Maizirwan Mel. “The Effect of Single and Double Air Inlets on Swirling Flow in a Reactor of a Fluidized Bed Gasifier.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44, no. 1 (2018): 157-166.
Harvard
Wasu, S., Makatar, W., Maizirwan, M., 2018. The Effect of Single and Double Air Inlets on Swirling Flow in a Reactor of a Fluidized Bed Gasifier. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), pp.157-166.
Vancouver
Wasu S, Makatar W, Maizirwan M. The Effect of Single and Double Air Inlets on Swirling Flow in a Reactor of a Fluidized Bed Gasifier. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;44(1):157-166.
Volume 45, No. 1 (May, 2018)
Review on Preparation Techniques, Properties and Performance of Hybrid Nanofluid in Recent Engineering Applications
Hong Wei Xian, Nor Azwadi Che Sidik, Siti Rahmah Aid, Tan Lit Ken, Yutaka Asako
Page 1 – 13

Experimental Evaluation of Kolmogorov’s -5/3 and 2/3 Power Laws in the Developing Turbulent Round Jet
Mohd Rusdy Yaacob, Rasmus Korslund Schlander, Preben Buchhave, Clara M.Velte
Page 14 – 21

Influence of Octane Number Rating on Performance, Emission and Combustion Characteristics in Spark Ignition Engine
Yew Heng Teoh, Heoy Geok How, Kok Hwa Yu, Hun Guan Chuah, Wai Loon Yin
Page 22 – 34

Development of Mini Pilot Fluidized Bed Gasifier for Industrial Approach: Preliminary Study Based on Continuous Operation
Wasu Suksuwan, Makatar Wae-hayee, Maizirwan Mel
Page 35 – 43

CFD Analysis on the Effect of Winglet Cant Angle on Aerodynamics of ONERA M6 Wing
Adnan Munshi, Erwin Sulaeman, Norfazzila Omar, Mohammad Yeakub Ali
Page 44 – 54

Numerical Study on Heat Transfer Performance Enhancement of Phase Change Material by Nanoparticles: A Review
Tung Hao Kean, Nor Azwadi Che Sidik, Yutaka Asako, Tan Lit Ken, Siti Rahmah Aid
Page 55 – 63

Flow Behaviour of a Feeder at Dendrite Coherency Point In Metal Castings
Nadiah Ahmad, Jerald Brevick
Page 64 – 72

Impact of Gasoline RON on Engine Vibration, Knock and Sound Level in a Single-Cylinder SI Engine
Heoy Geok How, Yew Heng Teoh, Kok Hwa Yu, Hun Guan Chuah, Kai Wen Samson Lim
Page 73 – 81

Study of Heat Transfer Characteristics on Sharp Turn Channels for Solar Collectors
Ahmad Syuhada, Muhammad Ilham Maulana
Page 82 – 91

Unsteady Natural Convection of Sodium Alginate Viscoplastic Casson Based Nanofluid Flow over a Vertical Plate with Leading Edge Accretion/Ablation
Abid Hussanan, Sidra Aman, Zulkhibri Ismail, Mohd Zuki Salleh, Basuki Widodo
Page 92 – 98

Development of High Temperature High Pressure (HTHP) Water Based Drilling Mud using Synthetic Polymers, and Nanoparticles
Mansoor Ali Khan, Hikmat Said Al-Salim, Leila Niloofar Arsanjani
Page 99 – 108

Numerical Investigation on the Influence of Gas Area Fraction on Developing Flow in a Pipe Containing Superhydrophobic Transverse Grooves
Kok Hwa Yu, Yew Heng Teoh, Mohd Azmi Ismail, Chih Fang Lee, Farzad Ismail
Page 109 – 115

Performance Comparison of NACA 6509 and 6712 on Pico Hydro Type Cross-Flow Turbine by Numerical Method
Dendy Adanta, Budiarso, Warjito, Ahmad Indra Siswantara, Aji Putro Prakoso
Page 116 – 127

Flow Pattern and Particle Contamination in Fluid Flow through Mitre Bend
Ainaa Maya Munira Ismail, Fazila Mohd Nawawi, Jamaludin Md. Sheriff
Page 128 – 140

The Developing Plane Channel Flow over Water-Repellent Surface Containing Transverse Grooves and Ribs
Kok Hwa Yu, Yan Xu Tan, Mohd Sharizal Abdul Aziz, Mohd Zulkifly Abdullah
Page 141 – 148

Analysing the Thermal Performance of Heat Pipe Using Copper Nanofluids
Aklilu Tesfamichael Baheta, Ahmed N. Oumer, Sintayehu M. Hailegiorgis
Page 149 – 155

CFD Simulation of Temperature and Air Flow Distribution inside Industrial Scale Solar Dryer
Arina Mohd Noh, Sohif Mat, Mohd Hafidz Ruslan
Page 156 – 164

A Comprehensive Review on Numerical and Experimental Study of Nanofluid Performance in Microchannel Heatsink (MCHS)
Wan Mohd Arif Aziz Japar, Nor Azwadi Che Sidik, Siti Rahmah Aid, Yutaka Asako, Tan Lit Ken
Page 165 – 176

Volume 46, No. 1 (June, 2018)
Nanoparticles: A Review on their Synthesis, Characterization and Physicochemical Properties for Energy Technology Industry
Ahmad Tajuddin Mohamad, Jesbains Kaur, Nor Azwadi Che Sidik, Saidur Rahman
Page 1 – 10

Acid-Modified Adsorbents from Sustainable Green-based Materials for Crude Oil Removal
Nazlina Zulbadli, Nabilah Zaini, Lim Yew Soon, Teng Yong Kang, Ahmed Abdulkarim Ali Al-Harf, Noor Shawal Nasri, Khairul Sozana Nor Kamarudin
Page 11 – 20

Assessment of Turbulence Modelling for Numerical Simulations into Pico Hydro Turbine
Dendy Adanta, Budiarso, Warjito, Ahmad Indra Siswantara
Page 21 – 31

Analytical Investigation of Thermoelectric Performance for Cooling Application
Looi Kar Kin, Aklilu Tesfamichael Baheta, Khairul Habib
Page 32 – 40

Effect of Calcium Carbonate Solution on Drag Reduction in a Pentagon Spiral Pipe
Sealtial Mau, Yanuar
Page 41 – 48

Applications of Nanofluids and Various Minichannel Configurations for Heat Transfer Improvement: A Review of Numerical Study
Nura Mu’az Muhammad, Nor Azwadi Che Sidik
Page 49 – 61

The Effect of Ventilation Hole Number on Flow Behavior and Heat Transfer of Rotary Drum Dryer
Sherly Hanifarianty, Thanansak Theppaya, Chayut Nuntadusit, Makatar Wae-Hayee
Page 62 – 72

The Stress Strain Behaviour Envelope for Granitic Residual Soil in Mobilised Shear Strength Perceptive
Abdul Samad Abdul Rahman, Mohd Jamaludin Md Noor, Ismacahyadi Bagus Mohd Jais, Mohd Raizamzamani Md Zain
Page 73 – 87

Lipid and Protein from Black Soldier Fly Larvae Fed with Self-Fermented Coconut Waste Medium
Siti Nuraini Mohd Noor, Jun Wei Lim, Man Kee Lam, Yoshimitsu Uemura, Thiam Leng Chew, Yeek Chia Ho, Mardawani Mohamad
Page 88 – 95

Energy Efficiency through Building Envelope in Malaysia and Singapore
Harimi Djamila, Mariani Rajin, Ahmad Nurfaidhi Rizalman
Page 96 – 105

Sugarcane Bagasse-based Adsorbent as an Alternative to Enhance the Harvesting Process of Chlorella vulgaris Biomass
Wan Nurain Farahah Wan Basri, Jun-Wei Lim, Mohamed Hasnain Isa, Lavania Baloo, Yoshimitsu Uemura, Mohammed J.K. Bashir, Yen-Cheong Lee, Dennis Ling Chuan Ching
Page 106 – 113

Estimated of Energy Saving from the Application of Roof Shade on the Refrigerated Container Storage Yard
Muhammad Arif Budiyanto, Takeshi Shinoda, Sunaryo, Firman Ady Nugroho, B Wibowo
Page 114 – 121

Seashell Structure under Binder Influence
Kamarul Azhar Kamarudin, Mohamed Nasrul Mohamed Hatta, Ranjhini Anpalagan, Al Emran Ismail, Noor Wahida Ab Baba, Mohd Khir Mohd Noor, Rosniza Hussin, Ahmad Sufian Abdullah
Page 122 – 128

Microwave Induced Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Biomass by using Layer Microwave Absorber in Reverse Flow Double Cylinder Reactor
Guan Sem Ho, Hasan Mohd Faizal, Farid Nasir Ani
Page 129 – 138

Structural Analysis and Morphological Study of Al2O3 nanofluids in Microchannel Heat Sink
Azlizul Aizat Razali, Azmahani Sadikin, Sallehuddin Shah Ayop
Page 139 – 146

Multiphase Flow in Solder Paste Stencil Printing Process using CFD approach
Mohd Syakirin Rusdi, Mohd Zulkifly Abdullah, Mohd Sharizal Abdul Aziz, Muhammad Khalil Abdullah@Harun, Srivalli Chellvarajoo, Azmi Husin, Parimalam Rethinasamy, Sivakumar Veerasamy
Page 147 – 152

Analysis of Water Hammer in Water-based Hydraulic Actuator System
Syarizal Bakri, Ahmad Anas Yusof, Saiful Akmal Sabarudin, Faizil Wasbari, Mohd Syafiq Husni
Page 153 – 160

Parametric Study of Thermoacoustic System using DeltaE
Dahlia Johari, Ernie Mattokit, Fatimah Al Zahrah Mohd Saat
Page 161 – 168

Comparison between Carbon Nanofiber (CNF) Nanofluid with Deionized Water on Tool Life and Surface Roughness in Turning of D2 Steel
Pay Jun Liew, Ainusyafiqah Shaaroni, Jeefferie Abd Razak, Mohd Hadzley Abu Bakar
Page 169 – 174

Turbulent Vortex Shedding across Internal Structure in Thermoacoustic Oscillatory Flow
Siti Hajar Adni Mustaffa, Fatimah Al Zahrah Mohd Saat, Ernie Mattokit
Page 175 – 184

Volume 47, No. 1 (July, 2018)
Advances in High Efficiency Photovoltaic Thermal Solar Collectors
Kamaruzzaman Sopian, Ali H.A. Alwaeli, Husam Abdulrasool Hasan, Ali Najah Al-Shamani
Page 1 – 7

Preparation and Characterization of Natural Fiber Filled Asphalt Based Damping Material
Qumrul Ahsan, Wong Teng Hui, Intan Sharhida Othman, Liew Pay Jun, Azma Putra
Page 8 – 15

Part II: Enhanced Performance of Concentrating Photovoltaic-Thermal Air Collector with Fresnel Lens and Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC)
Baljit Singh Sarban Singh, Chan Hoy Yen, Saleem Hussain Zaidi, Kamaruzzaman Sopian
Page 16 – 24

Microwatt Energy Harvesting by Exploiting Flow-Induced Vibration
Zinnyrah Methal, Mohamed Sukri Mat Ali, Nurshafinaz Mohd Maruai, Rasli Abd Ghani
Page 25 – 34

Exploration to Find Green Building Materials from Recycled Solid Wastes
Abdul Talib Din, Norzawahir Mohd Hafiz, Anika Zafiah Mohd Rus
Page 35 – 44

Combustion Performance of Firing Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil in an Oil Burner
Mohammad Nazri Mohd Ja’afar, Anis Athirah Mohd Azli, Muhammad Amirul Faiz Mohd Azman, Mazlan Said
Page 45 – 55

The Effects of Reynolds Number on Flow Separation of Naca Aerofoil
Muhammad Syahmi Abdul Hakim, Mastura Ab Wahid, Norazila Othman, Shabudin Mat, Shuhaimi Mansor, Md. Nizam Dahalan, Wan Khairuddin Wan Ali
Page 56 – 68

Kinematic and Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of an Underwater Manipulator Arm in Streamline and Blunt Body Arrangement
Ahmad Anas Yusof, Mohd Khairi Mohamad Nor, Shamsul Anuar Shamsudin, Mohd Rizal Alkahari
Page 69 – 88

Effect of Agar on Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Thermoplastic Sugar Palm Starch: Thermal Behavior
Ridhwan Jumaidin, Mohd Sapuan Salit, Mohamed Saiful Firdaus, Ahmad Fuad Ab Ghani, Mohd Yuhazri Yaakob, Nazri Huzaimi Zakaria, Fudhail Abdul Munir, Azrul Abidin Zakaria, Norhisyam Jenal
Page 89 – 96

Aerodynamic Noise Measurement In Anechoic Wind Tunnel of Rod-Airfoil With Leading Edge Serrations
Siti Ruhliah Lizarose Samion, Mohamed Sukri Mat Ali
Page 97 – 107

Numerical Study of Aerodynamic Performance of Hatchback Vehicle Fitted with a Strip Spoiler: Effect of Yaw Angle
See-Yuan Cheng, Shuhaimi Mansor, Mohd Azman Abdullah, Mohamad Shukri Zakaria
Page 108 – 118

Effect of Steel Fibre Volume Fraction on Thermal Performance of Lightweight Foamed Mortar (LFM) at Ambient Temperature
Md Azree Othuman Mydin, Mohd Nasrun Mohd Nawi, Muhammad Arkam Che Munaaim, Noridah Mohamad, Abdul Aziz Abdul Samad, Izwan Johari
Page 119 – 126

Determination of Thermal Properties of Lightweight Cellular Mortar (LCM) of Different Density Through Guarded Hot Plate Method
Md Azree Othuman Mydin, Mohd Nasrun Mohd Nawi, Muhammad Arkam Che Munaaim, Abdul Aziz Abdul Samad, Noridah Mohamad, Izwan Johari
Page 127 – 135

Simulation and Experimentation of Water Hydraulics Technology for Automatic Traditional Cookies Production
Ahmad Anas Yusof, Suhaimi Misha, Mohamed Hafiz Md Isa, Faizil Wasbari, Mohd Qadafie Ibrahim, Mohd Shahir Kasim
Page 136 – 150

Mesoporous Materials Synthesized by Novel Reflux Synthesis Method
Thiam Leng Chew, Cheng Kong Choy, Yin Fong Yeong, Jun Wei Lim, Abdul Latif Ahmad, Chii Dong Ho
Page 151 – 158

An Analysis of Occupants Response to Thermal Discomfort in Green and Conventional Buildings in Malaysia
Nurul Sakina Mokhtar Azizi, Suzanne Wilkinson, Mokhtar Azizi Mohd Din, Nuzaihan Aras Agus Salim
Page 159 – 171

Development of High Temperature Pressure (HTHP) Water Based Drilling Mud Using Synthetic Polymers, and Nanoparticles
Mansoor Ali Khan, Hikmat Said Al-Salim, Leila Niloofar Arsanjani
Page 172 – 182

Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Conversion Device Response Spectra
Brad Stappenbelt
Page 183 – 189

Numerical Studies On Unsteady Helicopter Main-Rotor-Hub Assembly Wake
Iskandar Shah Ishak, Shuhaimi Mansor, Tholudin Mat Lazim, Muhammad Riza Abd Rahman
Page 190 – 200

Analytical Solutions on the Flow of blood with the Effects of Hematocrit, Slip and TPMA in a porous tube
Rajashekhar Choudhari, Manjunatha Gudekote, Naveen Choudhari
Page 201 – 208

Volume 48, No. 1 (August, 2018)
Modelling and Simulation of Car Radiator: Effects of Fins under the Atmospheric Condition of Kano, Nigeria
Kabir Bashir Shariff, Bala Abdullahi, Saidu Bello Abubakar
Page 1 – 16

Evaluation of a Large Eddy Simulation on Thermal Boundary Condition in Underground Car Park
Ahmad Faiz Tharima, Mohd Zamri Yusoff, Md Mujibur Rahman
Page 17 – 24

Feasibility of Using Kaolin Suspension as Synthetic Sludge Sample
Qabas Marwan Abdulazeez, Mohammed Saedi Jami, Md Zahangir Alam
Page 25 – 39

Analysis of Stagnation Point flow of an Incompressible Viscous Fluid between Porous Plates with Velocity Slip
Ashwini Bhat, Nagaraj N Katagi
Page 40 – 52

A Review on Various Techniques and Recent Advances in Polymeric Additives to Mitigate Wax Problems in Crude Oil
SM Anisuzzaman, Yeow Wai Fong, Merlela Madsah
Page 53 – 64

Effect of Hot Pressing Temperature and Varying Veneer Density on the Properties of Oil Palm Sandwich Board
Anis Mokhtar, Mohd Shamim Ahmad, Kamarudin Hassan, Fazliana Abdul Hamid, Zawawi Ibrahim, Astimar Abdul Aziz
Page 65 – 79

Analysis of Porous Eliptical Slider through Semi-Analytical Technique
VS Sampath Kumar, NP Pai
Page 80 – 90

Development of Temperature Preference Learning System to Optimize the Energy Consumption in the Building
Khalil Azha Mohd Annuar, Jit Shen Quah, Muhammad Fahmi Miskon, Mohd Razali Mohamad Sapiee
Page 91 – 99

Effect of Cooling Load on the Performance of R22 Residential Split Air Conditioner when Retrofitted with Hydrocarbon Refrigerant (HCR22)
Azridjal Aziz, Thalal, Afdhal Kurniawan Mainil
Page 100 – 108

Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Hydrogen Rate and Loading Towards Engine Performance and Exhaust Emission
Mohamad Nordin Mohamad Norani, Tee Boon Tuan, Muhammad Zulfattah Zakaria
Page 109 – 116

Volume 48, No. 2 (August, 2018)
Effect of Silica (SiO2) Filler on Thermal Stability of Polysiloxane Composites
M. Azham Azmi, S. M. Yahya, S. Ahmad, S. Mahzan, M. Taib, H. A. Rahman, H. Taib
Page 117 – 124

A Review on Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma Actuator in Aeronautics Applications
Farah Ayiesya Zainuddin, Nazri Md Daud
Page 125 – 132

A Preliminary Study of BNT-BT Ceramics Prepared by Solid State Reaction
Nurul Jannah Mohamad, Umar Al-Amani Azlan, Mohammad Haniff Harun
Page 133 – 140

Intermediate Phases Formed during Synthesis of ?-Tricalcium Phosphate via Wet Precipitation and Hydrothermal Methods
Radzali Othman, Zaleha Mustafa, Nor Fatiha Ishak, Pham Trung Kien, Zurina Shamsudin, Zulkifli Mohd Rosli, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd Noor
Page 141 – 147

Surface Finish and Mechanical Properties of FDM Part After Blow Cold Vapor Treatment
Siti Nur Humaira Mazlan, Mohd Rizal Alkahari, Faiz Redza Ramli, Nurul Ain Maidin, Mohd Nizam Sudin, Ardzatul Ruziah Zolkaply
Page 148 – 155

Effect of Number of Baffles on Flow and Pressure Drop in a Shell Side of a Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
A. Sadikin, N. Y. Khian, Y. P. Hwey, H. Y. Al-Mahdi, I. Taib, A. N. Sadikin, S. Md Salleh, S. S. Ayop
Page 156 – 164

Analysis of Porous Eliptical Slider through Semi-Analytical Technique
Ahmad Adzlan Fadzli Khairi, Mohamed Sukri Mat Ali
Page 165 – 175

Thermal Degradation of Malaysian Domestic Wastewater Sludge (DWS) Using Thermogravimetric Analysis Method
Mohd Safuan Zakaria, Suhaimi Hassan, Mohd Faizairi Mohd Noor
Page 176 – 182

Numerical Study For Flow Over A Realistic Generic Model, DrivAer, Using URANS
Nur Haziqah Shaharuddin, Mohamed Sukri Mat Ali, Shuhaimi Mansor, Sallehuddin Muhamad, Sheikh Ahmad Zaki
Page 183 – 195

Photovoltaic Thermal /Solar (PVT) Collector (PVT) System Based on Fluid Absorber Design: A Review
A.L. Abdullah, S. Misha, N. Tamaldin, M.A.M. Rosli, F.A. Sachit
Page 196 – 208

Volume 49, No. 1 (September, 2018)
Comparison of Univariate and Bivariate Parametric Model for Wind Energy Analysis
Nortazi Sanusi, Azami Zaharim, Sohif Mat, Kamaruzzaman Sopian
Page 1 – 10

Effects of Wall Thickness on Flame Stabilization Limits for Combustors with Wire Mesh
Fudhail Abdul Munir, Muhmmad Ikhwan Muazzam, Abdel Gader, Masato Mikami, Herman Saputro, Laila Fitriana
Page 11 – 17

Portable Grease Trap for Wastewater Management System: A Conceptual Design Approach
Mohamed Saiful Firdaus Hussin, Mohd Afdhal Shamsuddin, Ridhwan Jumaidin, Azrul Abidin Zakaria, Norhisyam Jenal
Page 18 – 24

Comparative Study on Energy Management and Efficiency Category in Sustainable Building Rating Schemes
Abdullahi Mohammed Usman, Kamil Abdullah, Mohd Faizal Mohideen Batcha
Page 25 – 35

Evaluation of Ozonolysis Pre-treatment for Xylose Production through Enzymatic Hydrolysis
Efri Mardawati, Herlin Herliansah, Qisthy Adillah, In In Hanidah, Robi Andoyo, Imas Siti Setiasih
Page 36 – 47

Phase Inversion and Pore Formation of PVDF Membrane with Silica as Additive
Charlene Sharmini Fernandes, Nik Abdul Hadi Md Nordin, Muhammad Roil Bilad, Aqsha Aqsha, Mohd Dzul Hakim Wirzal, Zulfan Adi Putra
Page 48 – 54

Performance of Sludge Palm Oil Combustion Using Waste Oil Burner
Muhammad Ahmar Zuber, Ahmad Muhsin Ithnin, Wira Jazair Yahya, Ahmad Danish Abd Wahab, Mohamad Azrin Ahmad
Page 55 – 61

Water Content Determination of Steam Generated Water-In-Diesel Emulsion
Dhani Avianto Sugeng, Ahmad Muhsin Ithnin, Nur Salsabilla Mohd Syahril Amri, Mohamad Azrin Ahmad, Wira Jazair Yahya
Page 62 – 68

Influence of Heat Treatment on the Isothermal Oxidation of Fe-40Ni-24Cr Alloy
Noraziana Parimin, Esah Hamzah, Astuty Amrin
Page 69 – 76

A Study on the Potential of Peltier in Generating Electricity Using Heat Loss at Engine and Exhaust Vehicle
Mohamad Haniff Harun, Muhammad Wahyuddin Nor Azmi, Mohd Shahrieel Mohd Aras, Umar Al-Amani Azlan, Arman Hadi Azahar, Khalil Azha Mohd Annuar, Mohd Firdaus Mohd Ab Halim, Muhamad Faizal Yaakub, Amar Faiz Zainal Abidin
Page 77 – 84

Volume 49, No. 2 (September, 2018)
The Effects of Different Carbonization Temperatures on the Properties of Electrospun Carbon Nanofibre from Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) Precursor
Nurain Abdul Munajat, Abdul Hamid Nurfaizey, Mohd Haizal Mohd Husin, Siti Hajar Sheikh Md. Fadzullah, Ghazali Omar, Mohd Azli Salim
Page 85 – 91

The Application of Calcium Oxide from Waste Cockle for Biodiesel Production from Used Cooking Oil via Microwave Heating System
Mahanum Mohd Zamberi, Farid Nasir Ani, Mohd Fadzli Abdollah
Page 92 – 100

Numerical Simulation on Wind-Driven Cross Ventilation in Square Arrays of Urban Buildings with Different Opening Positions
Sheikh Ahmad Zaki, Nur Farhana Mohamad Kasim, Naoki Ikegaya, Aya Hagishima, Mohamed Sukri Mat Ali
Page 101 – 114

Effect of the Blade Curvature Angle to Power Generation on the Drag Type Horizontal Axis Water Turbine
Muh Alwan Rosyidi, Arif Hidayat Purwono, Dominicus Danardono Dwi Prija Tjahjana, Eko Prasetya Budiana, Syamsul Hadi
Page 115 – 120

Flow Behavior and Injectability of SS17-4PH with PS and PE Binders in Powder Injection Molding
Najla Nazihah Mas’ood, Abu Bakar Sulong, Norhamidi Muhamad, Intan Fadhlina Mohamed, Farhana Mohd Foudzi, Mohd Ikram Ramli, Farrahshaida Mohd Salleh
Page 121 – 125

Correlation of Absorb Energy with PSD Energy and Area under Strain-Time Graph
Nurlaela Muhammad Said, Mohd Basri Ali, Kamarul Ariffin Zakaria
Page 126 – 137

Small Scale Hydro Turbines for Sustainable Rural Electrification Program
Masjuri Musa, Juhari Ab Razak, Musthafah Mohd Tahir, Imran Syakir Mohamad, Md Nazri Othman
Page 138 – 145

Simulation Study on the Effect of Rear-Wing Spoiler on the Open Aerodynamic Performance of Sedan Vehicle
Muhammad Zaid Nawam, Mohd Afzanizam Mohd Rosli, Nor Azwar Syahila Rosli
Page 146 – 154

Process Optimization of Biogas Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent: A Case Study of a Crude Palm Oil Factory in Muaro Jambi, Indonesia
Nazaruddin Sinaga, Syukran Bestari Nasution, Maizirwan Mel
Page 155 – 169

Impacts of Corrugation Profiles on The Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics in Trapezoidal Corrugated Channel Using Nanofluids
Raheem Kadhim Ajeel, Wan Saiful-Islam Wan Salim, Khalid Hasnan
Page 170 – 179

Volume 50, No. 1 (October, 2018)
Effect of Current Density and Fly Ash Composition on Nickel Grain Size and Hardness of Nickel-Fly Ash Composite Coating Deposited on Aluminum Alloy 6061
Intan Sharhida Othman, Muhamad Khaizaki Ahmad, Muhammad Zaimi Zainal Abidin, Qumrul Ahsan, Noraiham Mohamad, Syahrul Azwan Sundi
Page 1 – 9

Effectiveness of Corn Cob as a Thermal Isolation Material
Suhaila Sahat, Nor Farah Atiqah Ahmad, Siti Noor Aiin Mohd Razali, Masiri Kaamin, Mardiha Mokhtar, Nor Baizura Hamid, Norhayati Nyadiman
Page 10 – 15

Optimization of the Antioxidant Properties of the Polyherbal Formulations
Nur Fazira Abdul Rahim, Norhayati Muhammad, Norazlin Abdullah, Balkis A Talip, Nur Jihan Shahirah Dusuki
Page 16 – 25

Combined Adsorption and Biological Treatment for Landfill Leachate Management
Er Xin Yi, Seow Ta Wee, Chi Kim Lim, Zaharah Ibrahim, Ngai Weng Chan
Page 26 – 31

Extrinsic Activation Energy for Enhanced Solid-State Metallic Diffusion for Electrical Conductive Ink
Intan Fatihah Ahmad, Ghazali Omar, Mohd Azli Salim
Page 32 – 39

Structure Analysis on Polypropylene Maleic Anhydride (PPMAH) / Polypropylene (PP) / Recycled Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBRr) / Banana Skin Powder (BSP) Composites Treatment
Wan Azani Mustafa, Mustaffa Zainal, Ragunathan Santiagoo, Azlinda Abdul Ghani, Nurul Syazwani Othman, Ranggita Dwi Affandi
Page 40 – 46

The Effect of Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (Aps-Silane) on Polypropylene(PP)/Recycled Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber(NBRr)/Palm Pressed Fiber (PPF) Composite
Wan Azani Mustafa, Mustaffa Zainal, Mohamad Nur Khairul Hafizi Rohani, Ragunathan Santiagoo
Page 47 – 54

Numerical Solution of Micropolar Casson Fluid Behaviour on Steady MHD Natural Convective Flow about A Solid Sphere
Hamzeh Taha Alkasasbeh
Page 55 – 66

Thermal Analysis of a Solar Absorption Cooling System with Hot and Cold Storage Tanks
Maki Haj Zaidan, Hameed Jassim Khalaf, Basil Abdullah Ahmed
Page 67 – 80

Flows Generated by Critical Opposing Thermosolutal Convection in Fluid Annular Cavities
Brahim El moustaine, Abdelkhalek Cheddadi
Page 81 – 88

Volume 50, No. 2 (October, 2018)
Wear Element Monitoring by Spectrometric Analysis in Automatic Transmission Bus
Norhanifah Abdul Rahman, Matzaini Katon
Page 89 – 96

The Effect of Fluidity of Palm Kernel Oil with Pour Point Depressant on Coefficient Of Friction Using Fourball Tribotester
Muhammad Arif Dandan, Wan Mohamad Aiman Wan Yahaya, Syahrullail Samion
Page 97 – 107

Effects of Dissipation and Radiation on Heat Transfer Flow of a Convective Rotating Cuo-Water Nano-fluid in a Vertical Channel
Madduleti Nagasasikala, Bommanna Lavanya
Page 108 – 117

Haemodynamics Study in Subject-Specific Abdominal Aorta with Renal Bifurcation using CFD – A Case Study
Shah Mohammed Abdul Khader, Adi Azriff, Raghuvir Pai, Mohammed Zubair, Kamarul Arifin Ahmad, Zanuldin Ahmad, Koteshwara Prakashini
Page 118 – 121

Study on Water Hammer Effect in Turbulent Flow through the Pipe System
Mohamad Nor Musa, Syahrullail Samion, Mohd Kameil Abdul Hamid, Wan Mohamad Aiman Wan Yahya, Eriza Paiman
Page 122 – 133

A Comparative Study of Levelized Cost of Electricity Between Photovoltaic and Concentrated Solar Powered Power Plants in Malaysia
Faizal Baharum, Muhamad Hanif Hassan, Mohd Dzulkarnaen Sudirman, Mohd Nasrun Mohd Nawi, Siti Halipah Ibrahim
Page 134 – 145

Factors Influencing Thermal Stress Development in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
Noor Shieela Kalib, Andanastuti Muchtar, Mahendra Rao Somalu, Ahmad Kamal Ariffin Mohd Ihsan, Nurul Ashikin Mohd Nazrul Aman, Nurul Akidah Baharuddin
Page 146 – 152

Fabrication Process of Cathode Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
Wan Nor Anasuhah Wan Yusoff, Nur Wardah Norman, Abdullah Abdul Samat, Mahendra Rao Somalu, Andanastuti Muchtar, Nurul Akidah Baharuddin
Page 153 – 160

Building Energy Performance: A Case Study at G2 Building UTHM
Mohammad Kamil Abdullah, Mohd Hafiz Mohamad
Page 161 – 169

Effect of Reaction Temperature on Steam Methane Reforming’s yield over Coated Nickel Aluminide (Ni3Al) Catalyst in Micro Reactor
Rais Hanizam Madon, Mas Fawzi, Khairul Ilman Sarwani, Shahrul Azmir Osman, Mohd Azahari Razali, Abdul Wahab Mohammad
Page 170 – 177

Volume 51, No. 1 (November, 2018)
The Potential of Micro Hydro Generator Embedded at 100,000PE Sewerage Treatment Plant
Muhammad Arkam Che Munaaim, Thiri Zaw, Afizah Ayob, Norazmawati Md Sani, Md Azree Othuman Mydin
Page 1 – 7

Design and Optimizing of Geometric for Solar Updraft Tower using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
Mohd Noor Asril Saadun, Nor Azwadi Che Sidik
Page 8 – 18

Thermoelectric Combined Heat and Power Generation System Integrated with Liquid-Fuel Stove
Mustafa Sabah Mahdi, Jasim Abdulateef, Ammar Mohammed Abdulateef
Page 19 – 30

Aerodynamic Analysis of a Dragonfly
Shiva Prasad Uppu, Dindigala Manisha, Gudey Dharani Devi, Pranav Chengalwa, Boppana Vaishnavi Devi
Page 31 – 41

Numerical study three-dimensional of mixed convection in a cavity: Influence of Reynolds and Grashof numbers
Razik Benderradji, Hamza Gouidmi, Djedid Taloub, Abdelhadi Beghidja
Page 42 – 52

A Comparison of Openflume Turbine Designs with Specific Speeds (Ns) Based on Power and Discharge Functions
Sanjaya Baroar Sakti Nasution, Warjito, Budiarso, Dendy Adanta
Page 53 – 60

Friction Factor Analysis of SiO2 and Al2O3 Nanofluids dispersed in 60 EGW and 40 EGW Base Fluids
Seshu Kumar Vandrangi, Sampath Emani, Korada Viswanatha Sharma, Gurunadh Velidi
Page 61 – 70

Numerical Investigation of Microjet Impingement of Water for Cooling Photovoltaic Solar Cell
Husam Abdulrasool Hasan, Kamaruzzaman Sopian, Kayser Aziz Ameen
Page 71 – 79

Haemodynamics Behaviour in Normal and Stenosed Renal Artery using Computational Fluid Dynamics
Shah Mohammed Abdul Khader, Adi Azriff, Cherian Johny, Raghuvir Pai, Mohammad Zuber, Kamarul Arifin Ahmad, Zanuldin Ahmad
Page 80 – 90

Numerical Study of Haemodynamics Behaviour in Normal and Single Stenosed Renal Artery using Fluid – Structure Interaction
Adi Azriff Basri, Shah Mohammed Abdul Khader, Cherian Johny, Raghuvir Pai, Muhammad Zuber, Kamarul Arifin Ahmad, Zanuldin Ahmad
Page 91 – 98

Volume 51, No. 2 (November, 2018)
Numerical Study on Vascular Grafts Prototypes
Shah Mohammed Abdul Khader, Goutam Thakur, Raghuvir Pai, Mahima Kapoor, Soujata Borbaruah, Keshava Ragavendra
Page 99 – 107

Optimised Biofuel Production via Catalytic Cracking of Residual Palm Oil Recovered from Spent Bleaching Earth (SBE) over Ni/HZSM-5 Zeolite
Mohd Lukman Musa, Ramli Mat, Tuan Amran Tuan Abdullah
Page 108 – 123

Effect of Viscosity and Heat Transfer on The Developed Marine Fuel Preheating System Utilizing Diesel Engine Exhaust
Ralph Martin Castellano, Antonio-Abdu Sami Magomnang, Eliseo Villanueva
Page 124 – 144

Heat Transfer Enhancement Using Nanofluids For Cooling A Central Processing Unit (CPU) System
Husam Abdulrasool Hasan, Zainab Alquziweeni, Kamaruzzaman Sopian
Page 145 – 157

Combined Effect of Piezo-Viscous Dependency and Non-Newtonian Couple Stresses in Porous Squeeze-Film Circular Plate
Vasanth Kumar, Hanumagowda Bannihalli Naganagowda, Jogyalla Santhosh Kumar, Raju Buchanahalli Thimmaiah
Page 158 – 168

Evaluation of Specific Heat Capacity and Density for Cellulose Nanocrystal-based Nanofluid
Kaaliarasan Ramachandran, Kumaran Kadirgama, Devarajan Ramasamy, Mahendran Samykano, Lingenthiran Samylingam, Faris Tarlochan, Gholamhassan Najafi
Page 169 – 186

PI/NCC-Based Tubular Carbon Membrane: Influence of Aging Times Towards Oxygen Separation Performance
Norazlianie Sazali, Wan Norhayati Wan Salleh, Ahmad Fauzi Ismail, Kumaran Kadirgama, Mahendran Samykano, Gholamhassan Najafi, Nur Izwanne Mahyon
Page 187 – 196

Thermal and Fluid Simulation of a New Diesel Engine Cooling Exhaust Gas Recirculation System to Reduce Exhaust Gas Emissions
Seyed Salar Hoseini, Gholamhassan Najafi, Barat Ghobadian
Page 197 – 208

Storage System Manufacturability, Portability and Modularity for a Pico Hydro Turbine
Dwijaya Febriansyah, Budiarso, Warjito, Keizo Watanabe, Dendy Adanta
Page 209 – 214

Effect of Holes System Designing for Low Energy Stove Using Coffee Husk Bio-Pellet as Solid Fuel
Soni Sisbudi Harsono, Prayogo B, Tasliman, Maizirwan Mel, Fabrobi Ridha
Page 215 – 226

Interconnect Development for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Application
Isyraf Aznam, Andanastuti Muchtar, Mahendra Rao Somalu, Mariyam Jameelah Ghazali, Joelle Chia Wen Mah, Nurul Akidah Baharuddin
Page 227 – 233

Water Transport Properties of Bio-Nanocomposites Reinforced by Sugar Palm (Arenga Pinnata) Nanofibrillated Cellulose
Rushdan Ahmad Ilyas, Salit Mohd Sapuan, Mohamad Ridzwan Ishak, Edi Syams Zainudin
Page 234 – 246

Effects of Air-Induced Duct Diameter on Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Multiple Impinging Jets
Kirttayoth Yeranee, Makatar Wae-hayee, Yu Rao, Chayut Nuntadusit
Page 247 – 258

Embodied Energy and CO2 Analysis of Industrialised Building System (IBS) and Conventional Building System
Siti Halipah Ibrahim, Nadia Zaini, Azhaili Baharun, Afzan Ahmad Zaini, Dona Rose Amer Koesmeri, Mohd Nasrun Mohd Nawi, Faizal Baharum
Page 259 – 266

Volume 52, No. 1 (December, 2018)
Material Treatment of Polypropylene (PP) / Recycle Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBrr) and Banana Skin Powder (BSP) using Thermal Mixing Techniques
Azlinda Abdul Ghani, Wan Azani Mustafa, Mohamad Nur Khairul Hafizi Rohani, Ragunathan Santiagoo, Mustaffa Zainal, Nurul Syazwani Othman
Page 1 – 11

Simulation Study of Computational Fluid Dynamics on Photovoltaic Thermal Water Collector with Different Designs of Absorber Tube
Mohd Afzanizam Mohd Rosli, Yap Joon Ping, Suhaimi Misha, Mohd Zaid Akop, Kamaruzzaman Sopian, Sohif Mat, Ali Najah Al-Shamani, Muhammad Asraf Saruni
Page 12 – 22

Factors Affecting the in-Situ Hydrolysis of Empty Fruit Bunches in Ionic Liquid Compatible Cellulase System
Amal Ahmed Elgharbawy, Md Zahangir Alam, Mohammed Moniruzzaman, Nassereldeen Ahmed Kabbashi, Parveen Jamal
Page 23 – 32

Numerical Investigation of Forced Convection Flow over Backward Facing Step Affected By A Baffle Position
Aadel Abdul Razzaq Alkumait, Maki Haj Zaidan, Thamir Khalil Ibrahim
Page 33 – 45

Mechanical Properties of Bamboo as Green Materials to Reduce the Global Warming Effect
Iskandar Yasin, Zainul Faizien Haza, Widarto Sutrisno
Page 46 – 54

Transformation of Carbon Dioxide into Methanol
Nurjehan Ezzatul Ahmad, Maizirwan Mel, Fatin Nabilah Murad, Nur Amalina Ramli, Zulaika Muhamad Sade, Ima Shahanaz Ahmad Zailani, Mohd Sharul Amri Rosmadi, Hamzah Mohd Salleh
Page 55 – 62

Peristaltic Flow of Herschel-Bulkley Fluid in an Elastic Tube with Slip at Porous Walls
Rajashekhar Choudhari, Manjunatha Gudekote, Hanumesh Vaidya, Kerehalli Vinayaka Prasad
Page 63 – 75

Preliminary Study on Designing and Development of a Synthesis Gas Analyser in the Process of Gasification
Muhamad Farhan Mohd Pu’ad, Khairul Azami Sidek, Maizirwan Mel
Page 76 – 84

Interactive Effect of Temperature, pH and Light Intensity on Biodesalination of Seawater by Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 and on the Cyanobacteria Growth
Azlin Suhaida Azmi, Fazrizatul Shakilla Sani, Fathilah Ali, Maizirwan Mel
Page 85 – 93

Taguchi Analysis of Combustion of Diesel and Bio-Diesel Blend utilizing Homogeneous Reactor Model
Anand Pai, Vaibhav Kumar Singh, Shailesh Suthar, Harshit Sharma
Page 94 – 103

Particle Separation using Acoustic Wave Device for Microfluidic Applications
Norazreen Abd Aziz, Mimie Asmiera Mohd Zain, Muhamad Ramdzan Buyong
Page 104 – 114

Volume 52, No. 2 (December, 2018)
A Short Review on the Proton Conducting Electrolytes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications
Nur Wardah Norman, Mahendra Rao Somalu, Andanastuti Muchtar
Page 115 – 122

Comparison on Thermal Resistance Performance of YSZ and Rare-Earth GZ Multilayer Thermal Barrier Coating at 1250?C Gas Turbine Combustor Liner
Salmi Mohd Yunus, Azril Dahari Johari, Shuib Husin
Page 123 – 128

A Study of Drying Uniformity in a New Design of Tray Dryer
Suhaimi Misha, Sohif Mat, Mohd Hafidz Ruslan, Elias Salleh, Kamaruzzaman Sopian
Page 129 – 138

Thermally Produced Nano Catalyst for Biodiesel Production: A Review
Nor Azyan Farrah Adila Zik, Sarina Sulaiman, Parveen Jamal
Page 139 – 147

Controllers Capabilities with Computational Tuning Algorithm in Nonlinear Electro-Hydraulic Actuator System
Chong Chee Soon, Rozaimi Ghazali, Chong Shin Horng, Chai Mau Shern, Yahaya Md. Sam, Ahmad Anas Yusof
Page 148 – 160

Application of Box-Behnken Design with Response Surface to Optimize Ventilation System in Underground Shelter
Azfarizal Mukhtar, Mohd Zamri Yusoff, Khai Ching Ng, Mohamad Fariz Mohamed Nasir
Page 161 – 173

Overview of Computational Fluid Dynamics Modelling in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
Nurul Ashikin Mohd Nazrul Aman, Andanastuti Muchtar, Mahendra Rao Somalu, Masli Irwan Rosli, Noor Shieela Kalib
Page 174 – 181

A Comprehensive Review on Palm Oil and the Challenges using Vegetable Oil as Lubricant Base-Stock
Muhammad Arif Dandan, Wan Mohamad Aiman Wan Yahaya, Syahrullail Samion, Mohamad Nor Musa
Page 182 – 197

Numerical Simulation of Spark Ignition Engine with Pre Combustion Chamber (PCC)
Muhammad Ikhwan Muazzam, Fudhail Abdul Munir, Adnan Roseli, Mohd Shukri Yob, Ridhwan Jumaidin
Page 198 – 204

Illuminance Uniformity Using Public Works Department (PWD) Standard Design for Public Schools Classroom Design in Malaysia
Anselm Dass Mathalamuthu, Nik Lukman Nik Ibrahim, Vignes Ponniah, Mohd Wira Mohd Shafiei, Radzi Ismail
Page 205 – 214

Study on The Effect of Bluff Body with Slit in the Micro-Channel Combustor
W. M. A. W. Shuib, Azam Che Idris, Mohd Rashdan Saad, Mohd Faizal Hasan, Mohd Rosdzimin Abdul Rahman
Page 215 – 222

Effect of Thermal Cycles on Physical and Tensile Properties of Newly Modified NR/EPDM Blend
Noraiham Mohamad, K. Karim, R. L Lim, Hairul Effendy Ab Maulod, Jeefferie Abd Razak, Mohd Asyadi Azam, Mohd Shahir Kasim, Raja Izamshah
Page 223 – 231

Investigation of three Organic Fluids Effects on Exergy Analysis of a Combined Cycle: Organic Rankine Cycle / Vapor Compression Refrigeration
Rabah Touaibi, Hasan Köten, Michel Feidt, Ozlem Boydak
Page 232 – 245

The Effects of CO2 Variation on Hydrodynamic and Thermal Diffusive Stability of Biogas–Air Flame
Mohd Suardi Suhaimi, Aminuddin Saat, Mazlan Abdul Wahid, Mohd Fairus Mohd Yasin
Page 246 – 258

Formulating Water Based Paint with Red Natural Dyes
Moh. Thoyib, Catur Harsito, Basuki, Suyitno, Syamsul Hadi
Page 259 – 265

Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Surface Properties of Copper-Based Leadframe
Nadlene Razali, Ghazali Omar, Siti Rahmah Esa, Solehah Jasmee, Anita Akmar Kamarolzaman
Page 266 – 273

A Two-Phase Pressure Drop Model for Homogenous Separated Flow for Circular Tube Condenser, Examined with Four Modern Refrigerants
Akeel Mohammed Ali Morad
Page 274 – 287

Volume 53, No. 1 (January, 2019)
Effect Of Using Various Longitudinal Fin Number In Finned Channel Heat Exchangers On Heat Flow Characteristics
Wadhah Hussein Al Doori
Page 1 – 10
Abstract
This paper presents the air-side overall heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop characteristics for finned channel with various longitudinal fins number. The computational fluid dynamics analysis with ANSYS Fluent software was applied for the analysis of the heat transfer. Numerical simulation was performed for the different longitudinal fins number of (4, 8 and 12), at air flow speeds of 3 m/s to 7 m/s and validated with available correlations. The numerical simulations results, with respect to the pressure drop and exchanged heat were verified by the correlations available in the literature and compared to the simulation results for plain channel. The results indicated that maximum enhancement in Nusselt number of 265%, 221% and 153% credited to the finned channel with 12, 8, and 4 fins respectively. Moreover, the increase in fins number led to significant improvement for both Nusselt number and Euler number. The results showed good agreement with the existing correlations with a maximum deviation of 10% and 12% for Nusselt number and Euler number respectively for all case.

Cite
MLA
Wadhah Hussein, Al Doori. "Effect Of Using Various Longitudinal Fin Number In Finned Channel Heat Exchangers On Heat Flow Characteristics." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53.1 (2019): 1-10.
APA
Wadhah Hussein, A. D.(2019). Effect Of Using Various Longitudinal Fin Number In Finned Channel Heat Exchangers On Heat Flow Characteristics. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 53(1), 1-10.
Chicago
Wadhah Hussein Al Doori."Effect Of Using Various Longitudinal Fin Number In Finned Channel Heat Exchangers On Heat Flow Characteristics." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 53, no. 1 (2019): 1-10.
Harvard
Wadhah Hussein A.D.,2019. Effect Of Using Various Longitudinal Fin Number In Finned Channel Heat Exchangers On Heat Flow Characteristics. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53(1), pp. 1-10.
Vancouver
Wadhah Hussein AD. Effect Of Using Various Longitudinal Fin Number In Finned Channel Heat Exchangers On Heat Flow Characteristics. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;53(1): 1-10.

Measurement of Liquid Holdup by Using Conductance Probe Sensor in Horizontal Annular Flow
Andriyanto Setyawan, Indarto, Deendarlianto
Page 11 - 24

Abstract
An experimental study by using flush-mounted conductance probe sensors has been carried out in an air-water horizontal annular flow. The experiment was arranged in a 26-mm diameter pipe with superficial gas velocity of 10 to 40 m/s and superficial liquid velocity of 0.025 to 0.4 m/s. The probe detects the liquid film thickness at 7 circumferential positions from the bottom part to the top of the pipe and the liquid holdup is determined from the average of the circumferential liquid film thickness. A range of liquid holdup form 0.022 to 0.21 is resulted from the experiment. A decrease of liquid holdup is resulted with the increase superficial gas velocity and decrease of superficial liquid velocity. Conversely, the liquid holdup increases with the decrease of the gas velocity and the increase of liquid velocity. Examination of the experimental data by using 7 previous available correlations results in a reasonably good agreement.

Cite
MLA
Andriyanto, Setyawan, et al. "Measurement of Liquid Holdup by Using Conductance Probe Sensor in Horizontal Annular Flow." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53.1 (2019): 11-24.
APA
Andriyanto, S., Indarto, and Deendarlianto.(2019). Measurement of Liquid Holdup by Using Conductance Probe Sensor in Horizontal Annular Flow. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 53(1), 11-24.
Chicago
Andriyanto Setyawan, Indarto, and Deendarlianto."Measurement of Liquid Holdup by Using Conductance Probe Sensor in Horizontal Annular Flow." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 53, no. 1 (2019): 11-24.
Harvard
Andriyanto, S., Indarto, and Deendarlianto.,2019. Measurement of Liquid Holdup by Using Conductance Probe Sensor in Horizontal Annular Flow. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53(1), pp. 11-24.
Vancouver
Andriyanto S, Indarto, Deendarlianto. Measurement of Liquid Holdup by Using Conductance Probe Sensor in Horizontal Annular Flow. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;53(1): 11-24.

Experimental Analysis of The Thermal Effect of The Magneto-Mechanical Behavior of Viscoelastic Elastomer
Mohamed Tourab, Salah Aguib
Page 25 - 34

Abstract
This paper is devoted to an experimental of the thermal effect of the magneto-mechanical behavior of elastomer; the latter is loaded with 25% of ferromagnetic particles of micrometric size; developed under the action of a magnetic field. The characterization of the rheological properties and the interaction between the micron size ferromagnetic particles as a function of the intensity of the magnetic field are studied under the effect of different temperatures. The results obtained clearly show the high energy dissipation properties of the composite, accentuated by the structure modified under the thermal effect, which gives properties of viscoelastic structures that can be adjusted as a function of the intensity of the magnetic field.

Cite
MLA
Mohamed Tourab, Salah Aguib. "Experimental Analysis of The Thermal Effect of The Magneto-Mechanical Behavior of Viscoelastic Elastomer." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53.1 (2019): 25-34.
APA
Mohamed, T., and Salah, A.(2019). Experimental Analysis of The Thermal Effect of The Magneto-Mechanical Behavior of Viscoelastic Elastomer. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 53(1), 25-34.
Chicago
Mohamed Tourab, and Salah Aguib."Experimental Analysis of The Thermal Effect of The Magneto-Mechanical Behavior of Viscoelastic Elastomer." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 53, no. 1 (2019): 25-34.
Harvard
Mohamed, T., and Salah, A.,2019. Experimental Analysis of The Thermal Effect of The Magneto-Mechanical Behavior of Viscoelastic Elastomer. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53(1), pp. 25-34.
Vancouver
Mohamed T, Salah A. Experimental Analysis of The Thermal Effect of The Magneto-Mechanical Behavior of Viscoelastic Elastomer. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;53(1): 25-34.

The Effects of Soret and Dufour on Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow of a Porous Media along a Permeable Surface filled with a Nanofluid and Radiation
Shahirah Abu Bakar, Norihan Md Arifin, Fadzilah Md Ali, Norfifah Bachok
Page 35 - 46

Abstract
An investigation of mixed convection flow in a boundary layer saturated by a nanofluid and lodged in a porous medium with the existence of Soret and Dufour numbers, suction and thermal radiation is numerically studied. By employed a similarity transformation technique, the governing set of ordinary differential equations has been conducted from a non-linear partial differential equations system, where we apply a Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method in order to numerically solved the final equations for a group of variety metallic and nonmetallic nanoparticles in a water base fluid consisting of copper (Cu), aluminium oxide (Al2O3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2). Numerous values of presented parameters such as thermal radiation coefficient, suction parameters, as well as Dufour and Soret numbers are graphically presented and discussed on the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration distributions profiles.

Cite
MLA
Shahirah, Abu Bakar, et al. "The Effects of Soret and Dufour on Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow of a Porous Media along a Permeable Surface filled with a Nanofluid and Radiation." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53.1 (2019): 35-46.
APA
Shahirah, A. B., Norihan, M. A., Fadzilah, M. A., & Norfifah, B.(2019). The Effects of Soret and Dufour on Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow of a Porous Media along a Permeable Surface filled with a Nanofluid and Radiation. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 53(1), 35-46.
Chicago
Shahirah Abu Bakar, Norihan Md Arifin, Fadzilah Md Ali, and Norfifah Bachok."The Effects of Soret and Dufour on Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow of a Porous Media along a Permeable Surface filled with a Nanofluid and Radiation." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 53, no. 1 (2019): 35-46.
Harvard
Shahirah, A.B., Norihan, M.A., Fadzilah, M.A., and Norfifah, B.,2019. The Effects of Soret and Dufour on Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow of a Porous Media along a Permeable Surface filled with a Nanofluid and Radiation. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53(1), pp. 35-46.
Vancouver
Shahirah AB, Norihan MA, Fadzilah MA, Norfifah B. The Effects of Soret and Dufour on Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow of a Porous Media along a Permeable Surface filled with a Nanofluid and Radiation. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;53(1): 35-46.

Analysis of Aerosol Optical Depth for Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore from Satellite and Sunphotometer during 2011-2017
Rusmadee Sabooding, Juntakan Taweekun, Mas Fawzi
Page 47 - 52

Abstract
Aerosols are particles in the air floating the atmospheric. They can have a huge impact about climate and human health point of view. The impact on the physical environment may be of importance as they are the capable to both scattering and absorbing incident irradiance. In this work, aerosol optical depth (AOD) of 500 nm for Nakhon-pathom, Chiang-mai and Songkhla of Thailand Penang and Sarawak in Malaysia Singapore for Singapore in the case daily average aerosol optical depth. The investigation was based on the solar spectrum of sun-photometers measured at six positions: Chiang Mai meteorological station (18.77°N 98.97°E) Nakhon Pathom(13.82°N 100.04°E) Songkhla meteorological station (7.18°N 100.60°E) Penang (5.36°N 100.04°E) Sarawak (1.49°N 110.35°E) and Singapore (1.30°N 103.78°E).When comparing AOD data from these sites for 7-years.The results show tolerances in case of the root mean square error (RMSE) between the daily retrieval of aerosol optical depth from Aqua satellite and that from the AERONET ground measurement were from the ranged of 5.34% to 18.73%. As the number of aerosol optical depth monitoring station in Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore are still very limited, it is recommended that number of the stations be increased in order to obtain more spatial coverage of information on aerosol optical depth.

Cite
MLA
Rusmadee, Sabooding, et al. "Analysis of Aerosol Optical Depth for Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore from Satellite and Sunphotometer during 2011-2017." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53.1 (2019): 47-52.
APA
Rusmadee, S., Juntakan, T., & Mas Fawzi.(2019). Analysis of Aerosol Optical Depth for Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore from Satellite and Sunphotometer during 2011-2017. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 53(1), 47-52.
Chicago
Rusmadee Sabooding, Juntakan Taweekun, and Mas Fawzi."Analysis of Aerosol Optical Depth for Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore from Satellite and Sunphotometer during 2011-2017." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 53, no. 1 (2019): 47-52.
Harvard
Rusmadee, S., Juntakan, T., and Mas Fawzi.,2019. Analysis of Aerosol Optical Depth for Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore from Satellite and Sunphotometer during 2011-2017. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53(1), pp. 47-52.
Vancouver
Rusmadee S, Juntakan T, Mas Fawzi. Analysis of Aerosol Optical Depth for Thailand, Malaysia and Singapore from Satellite and Sunphotometer during 2011-2017. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;53(1): 47-52.

The Aerodynamics of a Formula One Car Front Cascade Wing during Cornering
Ahmed T. Raheem, Azwan Sapit, Akmal Nizam Mohammed
Page 53 - 60

Abstract
The design for the aerodynamics of front wing based on cornering angle of a Formula-One car plays an important role on the car’s performance. The cascade elements above the main front wing is enhanced with new and the deep winglets that manage the airflow for the rest of the car. The front wing cascades are attached with end plates at the extremities of the front wing to reduce turbulence. However, when the car turns, the airflow behaviour on these cascades wings changes significantly. This paper presents the aerodynamic characteristics resulting from the cornering forces subjected on Formula One styled cascade wings. The study attempts to predict the down-force and drag-force acting on the front wing under the effect of airflow change in this area. In order to investigate the airflow behaviour, computational fluid dynamics (specifically the ANSYS software) was used to simulate selected cases with specific surface definitions and boundary conditions defined in a 3D domain. It can be observed that with the increase in the car’s yaw angle during turning, the down force and the drag force decrease in an inversely proportional manner.

Cite
MLA
Ahmed, T. Raheem, et al. "The Aerodynamics of a Formula One Car Front Cascade Wing during Cornering." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53.1 (2019): 53-60.
APA
Ahmed, T. R., Azwan, S., & Akmal Nizam, M.(2019). The Aerodynamics of a Formula One Car Front Cascade Wing during Cornering. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 53(1), 53-60.
Chicago
Ahmed T. Raheem, Azwan Sapit, and Akmal Nizam Mohammed."The Aerodynamics of a Formula One Car Front Cascade Wing during Cornering." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 53, no. 1 (2019): 53-60.
Harvard
Ahmed, T.R., Azwan, S., and Akmal Nizam, M.,2019. The Aerodynamics of a Formula One Car Front Cascade Wing during Cornering. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53(1), pp. 53-60.
Vancouver
Ahmed TR, Azwan S, Akmal Nizam M. The Aerodynamics of a Formula One Car Front Cascade Wing during Cornering. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;53(1): 53-60.

Numerical and Experimental Study on the Effect Of Cab-Extender on the Flow Characteristics of a Tractor-Trailer
Jaffar Syed Mohamed Ali, Ashraf Ali Omer, Mohd Faiz Diuzzaman Nasikin
Page 61 - 68

Abstract
The aerodynamic drag on trucks can be reduced by use of active and passive techniques. In this work a passive method of using a cab-extender that is attached to the rear of the tractor is attempted. This cab-extender will help in reducing the drag force that act on the truck by minimizing the gap between the tractor and trailer. In this study, a tractor-trailer model was fabricated and tested in a low speed wind tunnel for its aerodynamics characteristics and the effect of cab-extender was also studied. Later Solid Works CFD package was used to study numerically the effect of this cab-extender on the aerodynamics of the truck and the results were validated against the experimental results. Finally using CFD approach the best angle of the cab-extender was reported for minimum drag.

Cite
MLA
Jaffar Syed, Mohamed Ali, et al. "Numerical and Experimental Study on the Effect Of Cab-Extender on the Flow Characteristics of a Tractor-Trailer." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53.1 (2019): 61-68.
APA
Jaffar Syed, M. A., Ashraf, A. O., & Mohd Faiz, D. N.(2019). Numerical and Experimental Study on the Effect Of Cab-Extender on the Flow Characteristics of a Tractor-Trailer. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 53(1), 61-68.
Chicago
Jaffar Syed Mohamed Ali, Ashraf Ali Omer, and Mohd Faiz Diuzzaman Nasikin."Numerical and Experimental Study on the Effect Of Cab-Extender on the Flow Characteristics of a Tractor-Trailer." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 53, no. 1 (2019): 61-68.
Harvard
Jaffar Syed, M.A., Ashraf, A.O., and Mohd Faiz, D.N.,2019. Numerical and Experimental Study on the Effect Of Cab-Extender on the Flow Characteristics of a Tractor-Trailer. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53(1), pp. 61-68.
Vancouver
Jaffar Syed MA, Ashraf AO, Mohd Faiz DN. Numerical and Experimental Study on the Effect Of Cab-Extender on the Flow Characteristics of a Tractor-Trailer. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;53(1): 61-68.

Effect of Acoustic Excitation toward Jet Flame: An Experimental Design
Azwan Sapit, Mohd Azahari Razali, Mohd Faisal Hushim, Amir Khalid, Md Norrizam Mohmad Ja'at, Muhammad Fauzi Samsubaha, Tuan Mohamad Kamarul Hisyam Tuan A Talib
Page 69 - 74

Abstract
Direct imaging technique is always used to obtain correlation of flame height or any other parameter of the visible portions of the flame. This is one of the important methods used in the combustion community to determine the characteristic of flame. Recently, the imaging technique has been developed and enhanced to provide more accurate data. However the utilization of the technology, such as the used of laser-based technique and acquiring sensor, increased the complexity of the process and also increased the amount of cost practically. This paper presents the results of an acoustic excitation towards a Liquid petroleum gaseous flame by using the direct visualizing technique. The direct visualizing technique is used to acquire the flame image and the images will be analyzed by using image analysis software. Results show the flame length at the flame core decreases when the amount of acoustic gradually increases. The effect of excitation towards the flame core is being investigated due to its significant influence toward the overall flame characteristic.

Cite
MLA
Azwan, Sapit, et al. "Effect of Acoustic Excitation toward Jet Flame: An Experimental Design." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53.1 (2019): 69-74.
APA
Azwan, S., Mohd Azahari, R., Mohd Faisal, H., Amir, K., Md Norrizam, M. J., Muhammad Fauzi, S., & Tuan Mohamad Kamarul Hisyam, T. A. T.(2019). Effect of Acoustic Excitation toward Jet Flame: An Experimental Design. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 53(1), 69-74.
Chicago
Azwan Sapit, Mohd Azahari Razali, Mohd Faisal Hushim, Amir Khalid, Md Norrizam Mohmad Ja'at, Muhammad Fauzi Samsubaha, and Tuan Mohamad Kamarul Hisyam Tuan A Talib."Effect of Acoustic Excitation toward Jet Flame: An Experimental Design." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 53, no. 1 (2019): 69-74.
Harvard
Azwan, S., Mohd Azahari, R., Mohd Faisal, H., Amir, K., Md Norrizam, M.J., Muhammad Fauzi, S., and Tuan Mohamad Kamarul Hisyam, T.A.T.,2019. Effect of Acoustic Excitation toward Jet Flame: An Experimental Design. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53(1), pp. 69-74.
Vancouver
Azwan S, Mohd Azahari R, Mohd Faisal H, Amir K, Md Norrizam MJ, Muhammad Fauzi S, Tuan Mohamad Kamarul Hisyam TAT. Effect of Acoustic Excitation toward Jet Flame: An Experimental Design. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;53(1): 69-74.

Spray Formation in the Multi-Hole Nozzle of Twin-Fluid Atomizers
Amir Khalid, Shahrin Hisham Amirnordin, Uthayakumar Vasuthavan, Azian Hariri, Mas Fawzi
Page 75 - 81

Abstract
The atomization of internal-mixing twin-fluid atomizers is highly dependent on the internal geometry of the mixing chamber. Many studies have been conducted on the air entrance geometry influencing the air-fuel mixing. This paper aims to determine the effects of a multi-circular jet (MCJ) plate on the spray formation of twin-fluid atomizers. Plates 1, 2 and 3 with different open area ratios were used in the experiments. A swirler was used for comparison. The spray images were captured at different equivalence ratios using a direct photography method. ImageJ software was used to analyse the breakup length of spray formation. Results corroborate that, as the open area ratio of an MCJ plate increases, the break-up length decreases. The opening area for primary air entrance into the mixing chamber contributes to the air-fuel mixing, thereby affecting the spray performance of twin-fluid atomizers.

Cite
MLA
Amir, Khalid, et al. "Spray Formation in the Multi-Hole Nozzle of Twin-Fluid Atomizers." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53.1 (2019): 75-81.
APA
Amir, K., Shahrin Hisham, A., Uthayakumar, V., Azian, H., & Mas Fawzi.(2019). Spray Formation in the Multi-Hole Nozzle of Twin-Fluid Atomizers. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 53(1), 75-81.
Chicago
Amir Khalid, Shahrin Hisham Amirnordin, Uthayakumar Vasuthavan, Azian Hariri, and Mas Fawzi."Spray Formation in the Multi-Hole Nozzle of Twin-Fluid Atomizers." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 53, no. 1 (2019): 75-81.
Harvard
Amir, K., Shahrin Hisham, A., Uthayakumar, V., Azian, H., and Mas Fawzi.,2019. Spray Formation in the Multi-Hole Nozzle of Twin-Fluid Atomizers. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53(1), pp. 75-81.
Vancouver
Amir K, Shahrin Hisham A, Uthayakumar V, Azian H, Mas Fawzi. Spray Formation in the Multi-Hole Nozzle of Twin-Fluid Atomizers. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;53(1): 75-81.

Heat Transfer Enhancement in Semicircle Corrugated Channel: Effect of Geometrical Parameters and Nanofluid
Raheem Kadhim Ajeel, Wan Saiful-Islam Wan Salim, Khalid Hasnan
Page 82 - 94

Abstract
Numerical investigations of forced turbulent convective flow and heat transfer in a symmetry semicircle-corrugated channel with SiO2-water nanofluid as the working fluid are carried out in this investigation. The algebraic continuity, momentum, and energy equations were solved by means of a finite volume method (FVM). The top and bottom walls of the corrugated channel are heated at constant heat flux boundary conditions. The effects of geometrical parameters including corrugation height and pitch on the thermal and hydraulic characteristics are studied. The corrugated channel with four different corrugated heights of 0.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mm with a different corrugation longitudinal pitch of 15.0, 25.0 and 35.0 mm are tested. This investigation covers Reynolds number and nanoparticles volume fraction in the range of 10000–30,000 and 0-8%, respectively. The results show that the average Nusselt number enhances with increase in Reynolds number and with the height of the corrugated channel, but this enhancement accompanied by increases in pressure drop. In addition, as the corrugation pitch decreases, the average Nusselt number increases and the pressure drop decreases. The numerical results indicate that the corrugated height of 2.5 mm with a corrugation longitudinal pitch of 15.0 mm are the optimum parameters and have shown significant improvement in heat transfer.

Cite
MLA
Raheem Kadhim, Ajeel, et al. "Heat Transfer Enhancement in Semicircle Corrugated Channel: Effect of Geometrical Parameters and Nanofluid." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53.1 (2019): 82-94.
APA
Raheem Kadhim, A., Wan Saiful-Islam, W. S., & Khalid, H.(2019). Heat Transfer Enhancement in Semicircle Corrugated Channel: Effect of Geometrical Parameters and Nanofluid. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 53(1), 82-94.
Chicago
Raheem Kadhim Ajeel, Wan Saiful-Islam Wan Salim, and Khalid Hasnan."Heat Transfer Enhancement in Semicircle Corrugated Channel: Effect of Geometrical Parameters and Nanofluid." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 53, no. 1 (2019): 82-94.
Harvard
Raheem Kadhim, A., Wan Saiful-Islam, W.S., and Khalid, H.,2019. Heat Transfer Enhancement in Semicircle Corrugated Channel: Effect of Geometrical Parameters and Nanofluid. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53(1), pp. 82-94.
Vancouver
Raheem Kadhim A, Wan Saiful-Islam WS, Khalid H. Heat Transfer Enhancement in Semicircle Corrugated Channel: Effect of Geometrical Parameters and Nanofluid. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;53(1): 82-94.

Experimental Study of the Effect of Piccolo Tube Pipe on the Air-Conditioning Experimental Rig
Pravinth Balthazar, Mohd Azmi Ismail, A. S. B. A. Soberi, Muhammad Iftishah Ramdan, Hussin Mamat
Page 95 - 105

Abstract
Air-Conditioning system plays vital role in Indoor Air Quality. Low humidity in atmosphere cost crucial consequence to human skin and nasal passages. Installing ultrasonic humidifier to air conditioning system is one of the options to make up lost humidity. An experimental HVAC rig is combined with ultrasonic humidifier to humidify the system by using a piccolo tube. This paper presents experimental study of humidity profile in an experimental rig at different air velocity and piccolo holes diameter. Experiment results show that, under fixed inlet air velocity and mist flow rate, relative humidity (RH) increased with piccolo holes diameter. RH of 12mm holes diameter piccolo tube is 7.4% higher than 5 mm holes diameter piccolo tube for 3ms-1 air velocity. Similarly, under fixed piccolo holes diameter and mist flow rate, RH is decreased with increasing air velocity. RH of 5ms-1 velocity is 13.4% lower than 1ms-1 velocity for RH change. Rate of humidity added to the HVAC system by ultrasonic humidifier also increased with respect to holes diameter size and air velocity. 3ms-1 and 12 mm piccolo holes diameter shows highest gradient humidity mixing rate.

Cite
MLA
Pravinth, Balthazar, et al. "Experimental Study of the Effect of Piccolo Tube Pipe on the Air-Conditioning Experimental Rig." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53.1 (2019): 95-105.
APA
Pravinth, B., Mohd Azmi, I., Soberi, A. S. B. A., Muhammad Iftishah, R., & Hussin, M.(2019). Experimental Study of the Effect of Piccolo Tube Pipe on the Air-Conditioning Experimental Rig. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 53(1), 95-105.
Chicago
Pravinth Balthazar, Mohd Azmi Ismail, A. S. B. A. Soberi, Muhammad Iftishah Ramdan, and Hussin Mamat."Experimental Study of the Effect of Piccolo Tube Pipe on the Air-Conditioning Experimental Rig." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 53, no. 1 (2019): 95-105.
Harvard
Pravinth, B., Mohd Azmi, I., Soberi, A.S.B.A., Muhammad Iftishah, R., and Hussin, M.,2019. Experimental Study of the Effect of Piccolo Tube Pipe on the Air-Conditioning Experimental Rig. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53(1), pp. 95-105.
Vancouver
Pravinth B, Mohd Azmi I, Soberi ASBA, Muhammad Iftishah R, Hussin M. Experimental Study of the Effect of Piccolo Tube Pipe on the Air-Conditioning Experimental Rig. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;53(1): 95-105.

New Development of the Metal Volume Thermal Expansion
Fazrul Mohd Nor, Abd Rahman Tamuri, Abd Khamim Ismail
Page 106 - 110

Abstract
Volume thermal expansion measurement of the solid is one of the most challenging issue in material industry especially when the solid is in big size. The existing instruments such as dilatometer has a limitation to determine the volume thermal expansion of material. Therefore, a new and precise system has been proposed to determine the volume thermal expansion. In this study, several samples such as gold and tungsten were used to determine its volume thermal expansion by using custom made hydrostatic weighing system (HWS) where the experimental results show that the HWS can determine the volume thermal expansion. Volume thermal expansion value for gold rod and tungsten rod are 1.5×10-4 °C-1 and 7.7×10-5 °C-1 respectively. The expanded uncertainty obtained using HWS was 0.0003 °C-1. To assure the quality of the HWS, inter-instrument comparison between HWS and dilatometer was performed. The results of the comparison show that the En ? 1 indicates the performance of the HWS is acceptable. Thus, this study will demonstrate on how the volume thermal expansion of the material is precisely and accurately measured using HWS. Furthermore, it is cheaper than dilatometer with reasonable accuracy and it was traceable to SI unit.

Cite
MLA
Fazrul, Mohd Nor, et al. "New Development of the Metal Volume Thermal Expansion." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53.1 (2019): 106-110.
APA
Fazrul, M. N., Abd Rahman, T., & Abd Khamim, I.(2019). New Development of the Metal Volume Thermal Expansion. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 53(1), 106-110.
Chicago
Fazrul Mohd Nor, Abd Rahman Tamuri, and Abd Khamim Ismail."New Development of the Metal Volume Thermal Expansion." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 53, no. 1 (2019): 106-110.
Harvard
Fazrul, M.N., Abd Rahman, T., and Abd Khamim, I.,2019. New Development of the Metal Volume Thermal Expansion. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53(1), pp. 106-110.
Vancouver
Fazrul MN, Abd Rahman T, Abd Khamim I. New Development of the Metal Volume Thermal Expansion. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;53(1): 106-110.

Micro-bubble Drag Reduction by Multi Discrete Hole Plate on Self Propelled Barge Ship Model
Yanuar, Kurniawan T. Waskito, Gunawan, Bagus D. Candra, Aufa Y. Perdana
Page 111 - 121

Abstract
Ship resistance is one of the main problems dealing with ship performance and fuel consumption. Microbubble Drag Reduction System (MBDRS) which is applied by injecting air onto the bottom of the hull is a promising technique of active method which it has been developing in various ways. The particular applications of these methods in relatively bottom displacement flat hull (self-propelled barge) are significant to support other available data. Moreover, the complex relation of the ship speeds, injection rates, and hull form take into account in this paper and need to be studied further in which show the optimization between the injection rate and ship speed at the particular cases as well as the bubble and air layer effects account for these results. The injected air bubbles to the bottom of the ships are supposed to modify the turbulent boundary layer properties in which can reduce the hull friction. The objective of this research is to identify the effect of microbubble injection on a self-propelled barge (SPB) model with main dimensions: L = 2000 mm, B = 521.6 mm and T = 52.5 mm. The optimum injector location and injection ratio at each ship speed can be obtained by conducting a towing tank test microbubble injection of self-propelled barge ship model at the after bow (0.35L) and after midship (-0.025L) sections at Fn range 0.11 – 0.31 and injection ratio 0.2 – 0.6. Bubble size distribution for each case describes the phenomena of the results obtained. There is the pilling-up effect of the microbubble during the propagation covering the bottom surface hull and so does in this experimental results visualization. Sometimes the size seems bigger in the after side due to the interaction between different injection rate and different model speed. The size of the microbubble in micro size while come out from the porous media as shown in the scale bar of bubble visualization. The test results show that after bow injection area gives the lowest drag reduction compares to the after midship injection with different optimum injection ratio for each case.

Cite
MLA
Yanuar, et al. "Micro-bubble Drag Reduction by Multi Discrete Hole Plate on Self Propelled Barge Ship Model." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53.1 (2019): 111-121.
APA
Yanuar, Kurniawan, T. W., Gunawan, Bagus, D. C., & Aufa, Y. P.(2019). Micro-bubble Drag Reduction by Multi Discrete Hole Plate on Self Propelled Barge Ship Model. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 53(1), 111-121.
Chicago
Yanuar, Kurniawan T. Waskito, Gunawan, Bagus D. Candra, and Aufa Y. Perdana.."Micro-bubble Drag Reduction by Multi Discrete Hole Plate on Self Propelled Barge Ship Model." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 53, no. 1 (2019): 111-121.
Harvard
Yanuar, Kurniawan, T.W., Gunawan, Bagus, D.C., and Aufa, Y.P.,2019. Micro-bubble Drag Reduction by Multi Discrete Hole Plate on Self Propelled Barge Ship Model. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53(1), pp. 111-121.
Vancouver
Yanuar, Kurniawan TW, Gunawan, Bagus DC, Aufa YP. Micro-bubble Drag Reduction by Multi Discrete Hole Plate on Self Propelled Barge Ship Model. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;53(1): 111-121.

Heat Transfer Performance of a Synthetic Jet Generated by Diffuser-Shaped Orifice
Azmi Husin, Mohd Zulkifly Abdullah, Azmi Ismail, Ayub Ahmed Janvekar, Mohd Syakirin Rusdi, Wan Mohd Amri Wan Mamat Ali
Page 122 - 128

Abstract
Synthetic jet impingement cooling has been identified to be an advanced cooling technique in a variety of applications such as turbine blade cooling, paper drying, and electronic cooling. The high heat removal capabilities with a simple construction of the device, demonstrate the advantage of synthetic jet compared to other methods. In the present work, the 3D numerical simulation using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is carried out to predict the heat transfer performance of synthetic jet produced by speaker actuator with the diffuser-shape orifice. Numerical predictions are made for an orifice diameter of 6 mm with several opening angles. The excitation frequency of the speaker diaphragm is fixed at 100 Hz. Three vibration amplitude are used to investigate the effect of the different velocity of synthetic jet. The results showed that the opening angle of 90o is better than 45o and the heat transfer enhancement using a diffuser shaped orifice is more significant at a higher vibration amplitude. Also, the increment of vibration amplitude more than 0.6mm may not increase the cooling performance of synthetic jet.

Cite
MLA
Azmi, Husin, et al. "Heat Transfer Performance of a Synthetic Jet Generated by Diffuser-Shaped Orifice." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53.1 (2019): 122-128.
APA
Azmi, H., Mohd Zulkifly, A., Azmi, I., Ayub, A. J., Mohd Syakirin, R., & Wan Mohd Amri, W. M. A.(2019). Heat Transfer Performance of a Synthetic Jet Generated by Diffuser-Shaped Orifice. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 53(1), 122-128.
Chicago
Azmi Husin, Mohd Zulkifly Abdullah, Azmi Ismail, Ayub Ahmed Janvekar, Mohd Syakirin Rusdi, and Wan Mohd Amri Wan Mamat Ali."Heat Transfer Performance of a Synthetic Jet Generated by Diffuser-Shaped Orifice." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 53, no. 1 (2019): 122-128.
Harvard
Azmi, H., Mohd Zulkifly, A., Azmi, I., Ayub, A.J., Mohd Syakirin, R., and Wan Mohd Amri, W.M.A.,2019. Heat Transfer Performance of a Synthetic Jet Generated by Diffuser-Shaped Orifice. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53(1), pp. 122-128.
Vancouver
Azmi H, Mohd Zulkifly A, Azmi I, Ayub AJ, Mohd Syakirin R, Wan Mohd Amri WMA. Heat Transfer Performance of a Synthetic Jet Generated by Diffuser-Shaped Orifice. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;53(1): 122-128.

Discrete Tonal Noise of NACA0015 Airfoil at Low Reynolds Number
Amelda Dianne Andan, Duck-Joo Lee
Page 129 - 145

Abstract
This paper is a pilot study of the effect of external forcing and passive control on the generation of airfoil whistle noise. Interaction between instability travelling inside laminar boundary layer with the airfoil trailing edge produces discrete tonal noise. This phenomenon commonly found at low-to-moderate Reynolds numbers. The characteristics and behavior of tonal emissions at low Reynolds number differs from that at higher Reynolds number. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to study the discrete tonal noise generated by laminar boundary layer instability at low Reynolds number as well as at a variation of angle of attack. Experimental testing on NACA0015 was done in the anechoic wind tunnel to measure the sound spectrum at Reynolds number of Re~104 and angle of attack of 0°???5°. This work is intended to provide additional information to the tonal behavior of NACA series airfoil. Flow separation without reattachment occurs on the suction side within the selected Reynolds number and angle of attack. No tonal sound was found if fs falls below 40dB. At low Reynolds number, airfoil discrete tone consists of high intensity fs accompanied by more pronounced fn as freestream velocity increases. Airfoil tonal noise gradually decreases as angle of attack increases from ?=0^° before disappearing beyond ?=5°. Moreover, previously proposed empirical models to predict fs were found to have limitation in predicting tonal frequency at low Reynolds number at a variation of angle of attack. In addition, general observation shows fn has a velocity dependency of ~U0.8 while f_s is prone to exhibit ladder structure behavior with velocity dependency of ~U1.3.

Cite
MLA
Amelda Dianne, Andan, Duck-Joo, Lee. "Discrete Tonal Noise of NACA0015 Airfoil at Low Reynolds Number." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53.1 (2019): 129-145.
APA
Amelda Dianne, A., & Duck-Joo, L.(2019). Discrete Tonal Noise of NACA0015 Airfoil at Low Reynolds Number. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 53(1), 129-145.
Chicago
Amelda Dianne Andan, and Duck-Joo Lee."Discrete Tonal Noise of NACA0015 Airfoil at Low Reynolds Number." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 53, no. 1 (2019): 129-145.
Harvard
Amelda Dianne, A., and Duck-Joo, L.,2019. Discrete Tonal Noise of NACA0015 Airfoil at Low Reynolds Number. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53(1), pp. 129-145.
Vancouver
Amelda Dianne A, Duck-Joo L. Discrete Tonal Noise of NACA0015 Airfoil at Low Reynolds Number. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;53(1): 129-145.

Volume 53, No. 2 (January, 2019)
A Short Review on Biodiesel Production and Costing
Muhammad Farhan Mirus, Nurul Fitriah Nasir, Ishkrizat Taib, Azian Hariri, Normayati Nordin, Norasikin Mat Isa
Page 146 – 156
Abstract
Biodiesel has been introduced to reduce the dependency on fossil fuel. It is derived from vegetable oil, alcohol with the presence of a catalyst. One of the most significant issues in biodiesel market is the selling price. This paper will review the research conducted on the production of biodiesel, including the equipment, raw materials and cost. These three elements are crucial to reduce the price and enable biodiesel to be a competitive alternative fuel in the market. This paper also discusses recent developments in production, market values and suggestions for improving the biodiesel process. The results presented in this review may facilitate improvements in biodiesel production and costing.

Cite
MLA
Muhammad Farhan, Mirus, et al. "A Short Review on Biodiesel Production and Costing." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53.2 (2019): 146-156.
APA
Muhammad Farhan, M., Nurul Fitriah, N., Ishkrizat, T., Azian, H., Normayati, N., & Norasikin, M. I.(2019). A Short Review on Biodiesel Production and Costing. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 53(2), 146-156.
Chicago
Muhammad Farhan Mirus, Nurul Fitriah Nasir, Ishkrizat Taib, Azian Hariri, Normayati Nordin, and Norasikin Mat Isa."A Short Review on Biodiesel Production and Costing." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 53, no. 2 (2019): 146-156.
Harvard
Muhammad Farhan, M., Nurul Fitriah, N., Ishkrizat, T., Azian, H., Normayati, N., and Norasikin, M.I.,2019. A Short Review on Biodiesel Production and Costing. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53(2), pp. 146-156.
Vancouver
Muhammad Farhan M, Nurul Fitriah N, Ishkrizat T, Azian H, Normayati N, Norasikin MI. A Short Review on Biodiesel Production and Costing. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;53(2): 146-156.

Maximum Power Point Tracking in PV Device: Material, Efficiency and Models to Supply Non-Linear DC Power Supply
Noor Hafidzah Jabarullah, Pusparini Dewi Abd Aziz, Shahani Aman Shah
Page 157 - 164

Abstract
The depletion of fossil fuel and coal has set a worrying trend in recent times. In addition, emissions have reached worrying heights leading to phenomenon of global warming. Thus, the need for development in the technology for renewable energy has been at the center stage of scientific development. Current developments point towards solar energy as the most promising and reliable potential to replace fossil fuel and coal in the long-term. This study analyzes solar photovoltaic technology based on cell material, efficiency levels as well as models of array. In addition, the ability of PV cells to supply DC is also evaluated.

Cite
MLA
Noor Hafidzah, Jabarullah, et al. "Maximum Power Point Tracking in PV Device: Material, Efficiency and Models to Supply Non-Linear DC Power Supply." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53.2 (2019): 157-164.
APA
Noor Hafidzah, J., Pusparini Dewi, A. A., & Shahani, A. S.(2019). Maximum Power Point Tracking in PV Device: Material, Efficiency and Models to Supply Non-Linear DC Power Supply. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 53(2), 157-164.
Chicago
Noor Hafidzah Jabarullah, Pusparini Dewi Abd Aziz, and Shahani Aman Shah."Maximum Power Point Tracking in PV Device: Material, Efficiency and Models to Supply Non-Linear DC Power Supply." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 53, no. 2 (2019): 157-164.
Harvard
Noor Hafidzah, J., Pusparini Dewi, A.A., and Shahani, A.S.,2019. Maximum Power Point Tracking in PV Device: Material, Efficiency and Models to Supply Non-Linear DC Power Supply. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53(2), pp. 157-164.
Vancouver
Noor Hafidzah J, Pusparini Dewi AA, Shahani AS. Maximum Power Point Tracking in PV Device: Material, Efficiency and Models to Supply Non-Linear DC Power Supply. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;53(2): 157-164.

Experimental and Numerical Study on the Aerodynamics and Stability Characteristics of a Canard Aircraft
Jaffar Syed Mohamed Ali, M. Mubin Saleh
Page 165 - 174

Abstract
Modern day fighter aircrafts are mostly canard configured because of its advantages over conventional configuration. The primary objective of this work is to investigate the low speed aerodynamic and stability characteristics of a canard configured aircraft. Using CFD -ANSYS Fluent package, numerical flow simulations were carried out for a typical canard configuration such as Burt Rutan’s VariEze, a composite homebuilt canard aircraft. To validate the numerical results, wind tunnel testing of a scaled model was carried out. Finally the effect of horizontal location of canard on the aerodynamics and stability characteristics was studied.

Cite
MLA
Jaffar Syed, Mohamed Ali, and M. Mubin, Saleh. "Experimental and Numerical Study on the Aerodynamics and Stability Characteristics of a Canard Aircraft." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53.2 (2019): 165-174.
APA
Jaffar Syed, M. A., & Mubin Saleh, M.(2019). Experimental and Numerical Study on the Aerodynamics and Stability Characteristics of a Canard Aircraft. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 53(2), 165-174.
Chicago
Jaffar Syed Mohamed Ali, and M. Mubin Saleh."Experimental and Numerical Study on the Aerodynamics and Stability Characteristics of a Canard Aircraft." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 53, no. 2 (2019): 165-174.
Harvard
Jaffar Syed, M.A., and Mubin Saleh, M.,2019. Experimental and Numerical Study on the Aerodynamics and Stability Characteristics of a Canard Aircraft. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53(2), pp. 165-174.
Vancouver
Jaffar Syed MA, Mubin Saleh M. Experimental and Numerical Study on the Aerodynamics and Stability Characteristics of a Canard Aircraft. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;53(2): 165-174.

Potential Consumer Assessment on the Usage of Diesel-CNG Dual Fuel Vehicle in Malaysia
Ammelina Dayana Mohd Fazil, Mas Fawzi, Shahrul Azmir Osman, Muammar Mukhsin Ismail, Mohd Farid Muhamad Said
Page 175 - 184

Abstract
A Diesel-CNG dual fuel vehicle is a modified diesel vehicle that is capable of running two fuels. It may have future potential in Malaysia because of its promising cleaner exhaust emissions and lower fuel cost. Thus, a study on its prospective implementation was executed based on three objectives. First is to evaluate potential consumer acceptance of Diesel-CNG Dual Fuel application in Malaysia. Second is to analyse the public awareness on Diesel-CNG Dual Fuel vehicles, and third is to estimate economic gains of using the Diesel-CNG Dual Fuel vehicle. This study focused on consumers that are using light and medium duty diesel vehicles in Malaysia. A quantitative method was applied to obtain the data in the study. A survey was conducted and the set of questionnaires were circulated through two methods, personal interviews and an online response medium. All data from the survey was analysed based on the sampling size obtained from Transport Statistics Malaysia. The survey result shows a total of 63% respondents are interested in installing the DDF system to their vehicle in order to lower their fuel cost and help in conserving the environment. In addition, 70% respondents stated that the main cause that preventing them from installing the DDF system is lack of NGV stations and shop services. Level of awareness on Diesel-CNG Dual Fuel vehicle in Malaysia is still low with only 40% of the respondents know the existence of this system. However, they have shown that their awareness on the current environmental issues is very high.

Cite
MLA
Ammelina Dayana, Mohd Fazil, et al. "Potential Consumer Assessment on the Usage of Diesel-CNG Dual Fuel Vehicle in Malaysia." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53.2 (2019): 175-184.
APA
Ammelina Dayana, M. F., Mas Fawzi, Shahrul Azmir, O., Muammar Mukhsin, I., & Mohd Farid, M. S.(2019). Potential Consumer Assessment on the Usage of Diesel-CNG Dual Fuel Vehicle in Malaysia. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 53(2), 175-184.
Chicago
Ammelina Dayana Mohd Fazil, Mas Fawzi, Shahrul Azmir Osman, Muammar Mukhsin Ismail, and Mohd Farid Muhamad Said."Potential Consumer Assessment on the Usage of Diesel-CNG Dual Fuel Vehicle in Malaysia." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 53, no. 2 (2019): 175-184.
Harvard
Ammelina Dayana, M.F., Mas Fawzi, Shahrul Azmir, O., Muammar Mukhsin, I., and Mohd Farid, M. S.,2019. Potential Consumer Assessment on the Usage of Diesel-CNG Dual Fuel Vehicle in Malaysia. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53(2), pp. 175-184.
Vancouver
Ammelina Dayana MF, Mas Fawzi, Shahrul Azmir O, Muammar Mukhsin I, Mohd Farid MS. Potential Consumer Assessment on the Usage of Diesel-CNG Dual Fuel Vehicle in Malaysia. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;53(2): 175-184.

Grooved Cavity as a Passive Controller behind Backward Facing Step
Sher Afghan Khan, Abdulrahman Abdulla Al Robaian, Mohammed Asadullah, Abdul Mohsin Khan
Page 185 - 193

Abstract
A semicircular grooved cavity is designed for controlling the base pressure and hence the base drag in case of a backward facing step. This paper presents the effect of the continuous grooved cavity to control the base pressure for various compressible subsonic flow to minimize the base drag. Grooved cavity of 1.5 mm radius at 45o along pitch circular diameter of 23 mm in the base region is employed as passive controller. The test is conducted for Mach 0.6, 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9. The square nozzle of side 10 mm with an angle of incidence as 150 on all four side from which the flow suddenly expands to a square duct of side 25 mm acts as backward facing step model. The experimental investigation is carried out for three ducts of length equivalent to 4, 6 and 8 times width. The results of this investigation provide grooved cavity at 45o as a very effective passive control mechanism to regulate the base flows, further at higher Mach numbers it may be associated with minor effect on the main flow field.

Cite
MLA
Sher Afghan, Khan, et al. "Grooved Cavity as a Passive Controller behind Backward Facing Step." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53.2 (2019): 185-193.
APA
Sher Afghan, K., Abdulrahman Abdulla, A. R., Mohammed, A., & Abdul Mohsin, K.(2019). Grooved Cavity as a Passive Controller behind Backward Facing Step. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 53(2), 185-193.
Chicago
Sher Afghan Khan, Abdulrahman Abdulla Al Robaian, Mohammed Asadullah, and Abdul Mohsin Khan."Grooved Cavity as a Passive Controller behind Backward Facing Step." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 53, no. 2 (2019): 185-193.
Harvard
Sher Afghan, K., Abdulrahman Abdulla, A.R., Mohammed, A., and Abdul Mohsin, K.,2019. Grooved Cavity as a Passive Controller behind Backward Facing Step. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53(2), pp. 185-193.
Vancouver
Sher Afghan K, Abdulrahman Abdulla AR, Mohammed A, Abdul Mohsin K. Grooved Cavity as a Passive Controller behind Backward Facing Step. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;53(2): 185-193.

Threaded Spikes for Bluff Body Base Flow Control
Sher Afghan Khan, Abdulrahman A. Alrobaian, Mohammed Asadullah, Aswin
Page 194 - 203

Abstract
Although the demand for rockets and missiles has increased exponentially but the problems of the gas dynamics related to these vehicles remains to be a challenge. The main problem is high-pressure associated with the shock wave in front and low-pressure recirculation bubble attached behind the vehicle at the blunt base. This barrier of wave drag due to the shock waves and the drag due to the bubble leads to a huge amount of the fuel consumption and high fluctuations in the flow field of the enlarged duct. This paper focuses mainly on the base drag and experimentally investigated the effect of the passive control in the form of the threaded spikes for bluff bodies as the base flow controller. Two threaded spikes of length 40 mm opposite to each other and attached to a control plate of diameter 80 mm and thickness 1 mm are at pitch circular diameter of 23 mm and slot of 10 mm X 10 mm at the center, placed between the nozzle and the duct to act as the passive controller. The Mach numbers considered for the investigation in the subsonic regime were 0.6, 0.7 and in the transonic regime were 0.8, 0.9 for the enlarged duct cross-sectional area of 625 mm2 and the exit area of the nozzle considered was 100 mm2. The lengths of the enlarged duct were 100 mm, 150 mm and 200 mm. The passive control and regulating the base pressure by threaded spikes were found very efficient without any adverse effect on the flow field of the enlarged duct.

Cite
MLA
Sher Afghan, Khan, et al. "Threaded Spikes for Bluff Body Base Flow Control." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53.2 (2019): 194-203.
APA
Sher Afghan, K., Abdulrahman, A. A., Mohammed, A., & Aswin.(2019). Threaded Spikes for Bluff Body Base Flow Control. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 53(2), 194-203.
Chicago
Sher Afghan Khan, Abdulrahman A. Alrobaian, Mohammed Asadullah, and Aswin."Threaded Spikes for Bluff Body Base Flow Control." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 53, no. 2 (2019): 194-203.
Harvard
Sher Afghan, K., Abdulrahman, A.A., Mohammed, A., and Aswin.,2019. Threaded Spikes for Bluff Body Base Flow Control. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53(2), pp. 194-203.
Vancouver
Sher Afghan K, Abdulrahman AA, Mohammed A, Aswin. Threaded Spikes for Bluff Body Base Flow Control. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;53(2): 194-203.

Estimation of Carbon Dioxide Emissions in a Waste Collection Vehicle Routing Problem
Fazlini Hashim, Aida Mauziah Benjamin, Syariza Abdul-Rahman
Page 204 - 212

Abstract
Recently there has been increasing concern regarding environmental impacts due to carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions caused by waste collection activities, apart from the active industrialization efforts. In this context, evaluation of environmental impacts in Waste Collection Vehicle Routing Problem (WCVRP) is highlighted. As such, this paper investigated CO2 emissions based on solution derived from a prior study of the benchmark waste collection problem. With that, the fuel-based and distance-based methods had been employed to estimate CO2 emissions. Both methods were selected due to their applicability and suitability in the estimation of CO2 for WCVRP. The results showed that the distance-based method produced less value of CO2 emissions (approximately 7.1 % decrement) and lower value of fuel consumption (approximately 1.77 % of fuel saving), when compared to the fuel-based method. Besides, it is important to note that the reduction of CO2 emitted depends on distance travelled, fuel consumption, and emission factors. Thus, reduction in travelled distances and fuel usage do aid in mitigating vehicle emissions.

Cite
MLA
Fazlini, Hashim, et al. "Estimation of Carbon Dioxide Emissions in a Waste Collection Vehicle Routing Problem." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53.2 (2019): 204-212.
APA
Fazlini, H., Aida Mauziah, B., & Syariza, A. R.(2019). Estimation of Carbon Dioxide Emissions in a Waste Collection Vehicle Routing Problem. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 53(2), 204-212.
Chicago
Fazlini Hashim, Aida Mauziah Benjamin, and Syariza Abdul-Rahman."Estimation of Carbon Dioxide Emissions in a Waste Collection Vehicle Routing Problem." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 53, no. 2 (2019): 204-212.
Harvard
Fazlini, H., Aida Mauziah, B., and Syariza, A.R.,2019. Estimation of Carbon Dioxide Emissions in a Waste Collection Vehicle Routing Problem. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53(2), pp. 204-212.
Vancouver
Fazlini H, Aida Mauziah B, Syariza AR. Estimation of Carbon Dioxide Emissions in a Waste Collection Vehicle Routing Problem. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;53(2): 204-212.

Study of The Influence of External Parameters On Thermal Performance of a Solar Water Collector
Djedid Taloub, Abdelkarim Bouras, Zied Driss
Page 213 - 222

Abstract
The purpose of this work is to show the effect of external parameters: albedo and wind speed) on a solar collector inclined plane. The method used consists in cutting the collector into fictitious slices (05 meshes) of length ?x in the direction of the flow of the heat transfer fluid and writing the balance sheets of the exchanges which intervene at the levels of the 06 nodes: from the outside of the glass, the inside of the glass, the absorber, in the peddler fluid as well as the inside and the outside of the insulation. It is convenient for this to use the analogies that exist between the transfer of heat and electricity, the results obtained are the temperatures at the nodes.

Cite
MLA
Djedid, Taloub, et al. "Study of The Influence of External Parameters On Thermal Performance of a Solar Water Collector." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53.2 (2019): 213-222.
APA
Djedid, T., Abdelkarim, B., & Zied, D.(2019). Study of The Influence of External Parameters On Thermal Performance of a Solar Water Collector. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 53(2), 213-222.
Chicago
Djedid Taloub, Abdelkarim Bouras, and Zied Driss."Study of The Influence of External Parameters On Thermal Performance of a Solar Water Collector." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 53, no. 2 (2019): 213-222.
Harvard
Djedid, T., Abdelkarim, B., and Zied, D.,2019. Study of The Influence of External Parameters On Thermal Performance of a Solar Water Collector. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53(2), pp. 213-222.
Vancouver
Djedid T, Abdelkarim B, Zied D. Study of The Influence of External Parameters On Thermal Performance of a Solar Water Collector. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;53(2): 213-222.

Laminar Natural Convection Study in a Horizontal Half-Elliptical Enclosure Using Heater on Horizontal Wall
Abdelkarim Bouras, Djedid Taloub, Abdelhadi Beghidja, Zied Driss
Page 223 - 233

Abstract
A numerical analysis of laminar natural convection in a horizontal annulus between an internal heated plane and an external cold half-elliptical was investigated using approximation of Boussinesq. Both internal and external walls are maintained at the constant temperature and air is the working fluid. Numerical solutions are obtained using a commercial computational fluid dynamics package, FLUENT, using the finite volume method. Effects of the Rayleigh number, Rat, on the Nusselt number, Nu, as well as velocity and temperature fields are investigated for the range of Rat from 1.0 103 to 5.0 105. The results show that for a small thermal Rayleigh number, the heat transfer within the annulus is essentially controlled by the conduction process. As the thermal Rayleigh number increases (Rat ? 104), the role of convection becomes predominant. Also the heat transfer rate increases. The aim of this study is to observe the effects of thermal Rayleigh numberon the structure of the flow and the distribution of the temperature.

Cite
MLA
Abdelkarim, Bouras, et al. "Laminar Natural Convection Study in a Horizontal Half-Elliptical Enclosure Using Heater on Horizontal Wall." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53.2 (2019): 223-233.
APA
Abdelkarim, B., Djedid, T., Abdelhadi, B., & Zied, D.(2019). Laminar Natural Convection Study in a Horizontal Half-Elliptical Enclosure Using Heater on Horizontal Wall. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 53(2), 223-233.
Chicago
Abdelkarim Bouras, Djedid Taloub, Abdelhadi Beghidja, Zied Driss."Laminar Natural Convection Study in a Horizontal Half-Elliptical Enclosure Using Heater on Horizontal Wall." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 53, no. 2 (2019): 223-233.
Harvard
Abdelkarim, B., Djedid, T., Abdelhadi, B., and Zied, D.,2019. Laminar Natural Convection Study in a Horizontal Half-Elliptical Enclosure Using Heater on Horizontal Wall. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53(2), pp. 223-233.
Vancouver
Abdelkarim B, Djedid T, Abdelhadi B, Zied D. Laminar Natural Convection Study in a Horizontal Half-Elliptical Enclosure Using Heater on Horizontal Wall. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;53(2): 223-233.

Study On the Effects of Rotational and Transverse Speed On Temperature Distribution Through Friction Stir Welding of AA2024-T3 Aluminum Alloy
Ataalah Hussain Jassim, Nageeb Salman Abtan, Mustafa Shakir Marmoos
Page 234 - 248

Abstract
A nonlinear three-dimensional thermal process was studied experimentally and numerically. The present study aims to investigate the distribution of temperature in the joint of aluminum AA2024-T3 plates throughout the friction stirred butt. The experiments were conducted at a constant tool tilted angle of 3 under various rotational speeds (690, 1130, 2000 rpm) and feed rates (20, 32, 45 mm/min). The highest temperature of 860 K was obtained at the experimental condition of 2000 rpm, 20 mm/min, 20 dwell times, and 3 tilt angle. This value was less than the melting point temperature of Al 2024 alloy (911 K). The comparison between the numerical and experimental results of temperature distribution showed a good agreement. The deviation between the theoretical and experimental results for the maximum and minimum rotational speed and feed rate was (7, 10 %) and (5, 12 %), respectively.

Cite
MLA
Ataalah, Hussain Jassim, et al. "Study On the Effects of Rotational and Transverse Speed On Temperature Distribution Through Friction Stir Welding of AA2024-T3 Aluminum Alloy." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53.2 (2019): 234-248.
APA
Ataalah, H. J., Nageeb, S. A., & Mustafa, S. M.(2019). Study On the Effects of Rotational and Transverse Speed On Temperature Distribution Through Friction Stir Welding of AA2024-T3 Aluminum Alloy. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 53(2), 234-248.
Chicago
Ataalah Hussain Jassim, Nageeb Salman Abtan, and Mustafa Shakir Marmoos."Study On the Effects of Rotational and Transverse Speed On Temperature Distribution Through Friction Stir Welding of AA2024-T3 Aluminum Alloy." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 53, no. 2 (2019): 234-248.
Harvard
Ataalah, H.J., Nageeb, S.A., and Mustafa, S.M.,2019. Study On the Effects of Rotational and Transverse Speed On Temperature Distribution Through Friction Stir Welding of AA2024-T3 Aluminum Alloy. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53(2), pp. 234-248.
Vancouver
Ataalah HJ, Nageeb SA, Mustafa SM. Study On the Effects of Rotational and Transverse Speed On Temperature Distribution Through Friction Stir Welding of AA2024-T3 Aluminum Alloy. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;53(2): 234-248.

Numerical Simulations and Analysis of Viscous Incompressible Flow in Conduit With a Complex Transversal Section
Bennoud Salim and Fatma I Belheouane
Page 249 - 258

Abstract
The paper presents simulations of a viscous incompressible flow which through conduits having a complex section. The finite element method was applied because of its adaptation for complex geometries. The solution of chosen system gives a distribution of flow velocity profile through the studied section, and from the velocity values, others parameters can be deduced such as: the maximal velocity, Reynolds number, the volume of considered flow, the friction force to exert on the wall, as well as the shear stress. The validation was made with a comparison between obtained solutions and results given by analytical solutions with reference to cases of a simple section such as the circular section. Developed code and analysis can be used, as helpful tool, in many technological and engineering applications related to construction and installation of conduits, and in particular when users are interested in modifications of conduits section. In this study, special attention has been given to effects of section form on the distribution of flow velocity profile, to have results and necessary data according to the geometry of the selected conduits which permit to determinate the performances of desired system.

Cite
MLA
Fatma, I Belheouane, and Bennoud, Salim. "Numerical Simulations and Analysis of Viscous Incompressible Flow in Conduit With a Complex Transversal Section." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53.2 (2019): 249-258.
APA
Fatma, I. B., & Bennoud, S.(2019). Numerical Simulations and Analysis of Viscous Incompressible Flow in Conduit With a Complex Transversal Section. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 53(2), 249-258.
Chicago
Fatma I Belheouane, and Bennoud Salim."Numerical Simulations and Analysis of Viscous Incompressible Flow in Conduit With a Complex Transversal Section." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 53, no. 2 (2019): 249-258.
Harvard
Fatma, I.B., and Bennoud, S.,2019. Numerical Simulations and Analysis of Viscous Incompressible Flow in Conduit With a Complex Transversal Section. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 53(2), pp. 249-258.
Vancouver
Fatma IB, Bennoud S. Numerical Simulations and Analysis of Viscous Incompressible Flow in Conduit With a Complex Transversal Section. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;53(2): 249-258.

Volume 54, No. 1 (February, 2019)
Experimental Correlation for Flow-boiling Heat Transfer in a Micro-gap Evaporator with Internal Micro-fins
Shugata Ahmed, Ahmad Faris Ismail, Erwin Sulaeman, Muhammad Hasibul Hasan
Page 1 – 8
Abstract
Micro-gap evaporators are prospective candidates for cooling of micro-electronic devices. Heat transfer with phase change in a micro-gap heat sink is efficient for high heat flux applications. Micro-fins induce turbulence escalating two-phase heat transfer rate in the micro-gap evaporator. However, no correlation has been developed so far for fin-induced pseudo-turbulence and heat transfer rate in micro-gap heat sink. The scope of this paper is to develop a correlation for dimensionless heat transfer rate in a micro-finned micro-gap heat sink for refrigerant 134a. The correlation signifies the effect of evaporation rate on thermal resistance of the heat sink. For this purpose, a micro-gap evaporator was fabricated with a gap height adjusted to accommodate 48 rectangular shaped micro-fins. A heater at the bottom of the heat sink provides variable heat flux. The evaporator is installed in a test section along with a heat pump in the outer circuit. The frequency of the compressor is varied using a variable frequency drive. A pre-heater is used to vary inlet temperature of refrigerant. In the developed correlation, dimensionless heat flux is function of calculated vapor Reynolds number and Biot number. Results calculated from the correlation show maximum 2.7% error in comparison to actual results.

Cite
MLA
Shugata, Ahmed, et al. "Experimental Correlation for Flow-boiling Heat Transfer in a Micro-gap Evaporator with Internal Micro-fins." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54.1 (2019): 1-8.
APA
Shugata, A., Ahmad Faris, I., Erwin, S., & Muhammad Hasibul, H.(2019). Experimental Correlation for Flow-boiling Heat Transfer in a Micro-gap Evaporator with Internal Micro-fins. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 54(1), 1-8.
Chicago
Shugata Ahmed, Ahmad Faris Ismail, Erwin Sulaeman, and Muhammad Hasibul Hasan."Experimental Correlation for Flow-boiling Heat Transfer in a Micro-gap Evaporator with Internal Micro-fins." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 54, no. 1 (2019): 1-8.
Harvard
Shugata, A., Ahmad Faris, I., Erwin, S., and Muhammad Hasibul, H.,2019. Experimental Correlation for Flow-boiling Heat Transfer in a Micro-gap Evaporator with Internal Micro-fins. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54(1), pp. 1-8.
Vancouver
Shugata A, Ahmad Faris I, Erwin S, Muhammad Hasibul H. Experimental Correlation for Flow-boiling Heat Transfer in a Micro-gap Evaporator with Internal Micro-fins. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;54(1): 1-8.

Two-phase Thermosyphon Filled with R410A Refrigerant Operating at Low Evaporator Temperature
Rajeanderan Revichandran, A. K. M. Mohiuddin
Page 9 - 20

Abstract
The thermal performances of a R410A filled thermosyphon subjected to low heat flux from 1882 W/m2 to 4423 W/m2 and evaporator wall temperatures between 20 °C and 50 °C with fill ratios 1.00 and 0.75 and at different inclinations from 45°, 68° and 90° were investigated. The axial temperature distribution of the thermosyphon was found to be uniform for all temperatures difference of evaporator at all power inputs. The performance of the thermosyphon which is determined from the heat transfer capability of the thermosyphon was found to be dependent of inclination angle and fill ratio. Experimental results show that heat transfer coefficient increases as the heat input increase while thermal resistance decreases exponentially with increasing input power. Increase in fill ratio and inclination angle at various heat input contributed to a better thermosyphon performance, at where heat transfer was highest at fill ratio 1.00 and inclination angle of 68°. In addition experimental and application measured readings have a percentage error less than 10%.

Cite
MLA
Rajeanderan Revichandran, and A. K. M. Mohiuddin. "Two-phase Thermosyphon Filled with R410A Refrigerant Operating at Low Evaporator Temperature." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54.1 (2019): 9-20.
APA
Rajeanderan, R., & Mohiuddin, A. K. M. (2019). Two-phase Thermosyphon Filled with R410A Refrigerant Operating at Low Evaporator Temperature. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 54(1), 9-20.
Chicago
Rajeanderan Revichandran, and A. K. M. Mohiuddin."Two-phase Thermosyphon Filled with R410A Refrigerant Operating at Low Evaporator Temperature." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 54, no. 1 (2019): 9-20.
Harvard
Rajeanderan, R., and Mohiuddin, A.K.M.,2019. Two-phase Thermosyphon Filled with R410A Refrigerant Operating at Low Evaporator Temperature. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54(1), pp. 9-20.
Vancouver
Rajeanderan R, Mohiuddin AKM. Two-phase Thermosyphon Filled with R410A Refrigerant Operating at Low Evaporator Temperature. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;54(1): 9-20.

Effects of Temperatures and Strain Rate on the Mechanical Behaviour of Commercial Aluminium Alloy AA6061
Norzarina Ma’at, Mohd Khir Mohd Nor, Choon Sin Ho, Noradila Abdul Latif, Al Emran Ismail, Kamarul-Azhar Kamarudin, Saifulnizan Jamian, Mohd Norihan Ibrahim@Tamrin, Muhamad Khairudin Awang
Page 21 - 26

Abstract
Aluminium alloy are widely used in the design of structural parts in the automotive and aircraft components due to their good mechanical properties. Numerous applications are related to high strain rate deformation and adiabatic heating require further intention. The strain-rate effects and temperature effects have not been well studied experimentally. Therefore, the effect of temperature and strain rate on the mechanical behaviour of aluminium alloys (AA6061) is critically examined in this work. The specimen was tested in the longitudinal direction from quasi-static to high strain rates (0.08, 0.8 and 8 mm/min) while temperature was varied from room to elevated temperatures (24, 140, 200 and 250ºC). From the results, it show that the flow stress increase with increasing the strain rate and decrease when increasing temperature. Which means, increasing strain rate and temperature affect the saturation stress of the materials.

Cite
MLA
Norzarina, Ma’at, et al. "Effects of Temperatures and Strain Rate on the Mechanical Behaviour of Commercial Aluminium Alloy AA6061." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54.1 (2019): 21-26.
APA
Norzarina, M., Mohd Khir, M. N., Choon, S. H., Noradila, A. L., Al Emran, I., Kamarul-Azhar, K., Saifulnizan, J., Mohd Norihan, I., & Muhamad Khairudin, A.(2019). Effects of Temperatures and Strain Rate on the Mechanical Behaviour of Commercial Aluminium Alloy AA6061. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 54(1), 21-26.
Chicago
Norzarina Ma’at, Mohd Khir Mohd Nor, Choon Sin Ho, Noradila Abdul Latif, Al Emran Ismail, Kamarul-Azhar Kamarudin, Saifulnizan Jamian, Mohd Norihan Ibrahim@Tamrin, and Muhamad Khairudin Awang."Effects of Temperatures and Strain Rate on the Mechanical Behaviour of Commercial Aluminium Alloy AA6061." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 54, no. 1 (2019): 21-26.
Harvard
Norzarina, M., Mohd Khir, M.N., Choon, S.H., Noradila, A.L., Al Emran, I., Kamarul-Azhar, K., Saifulnizan, J., Mohd Norihan, I., and Muhamad Khairudin, A.,2019. Effects of Temperatures and Strain Rate on the Mechanical Behaviour of Commercial Aluminium Alloy AA6061. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54(1), pp. 21-26.
Vancouver
Norzarina M, Mohd Khir MN, Choon SH, Noradila AL, Al Emran I, Kamarul-Azhar K, Saifulnizan J, Mohd Norihan I, Muhamad Khairudin A. Effects of Temperatures and Strain Rate on the Mechanical Behaviour of Commercial Aluminium Alloy AA6061. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;54(1): 21-26.

The Effect of Fluid Temperature and Crack Size toward Stress Intensity Factor on Geothermal Pipe Installations
Khairul Anam, Anindito Purnowidodo, Hastono Wijaya
Page 27 - 36

Abstract
A pipe is a fundamental component of the geothermal power plants to drain the water vapor from the inside of the earth. Structural durability is the main focus of geothermal pipe which is affected by the thermal stress caused by internal pressure and fluid temperature. In the present study, the stress intensity factor for mode I was investigated under variations of fluid temperature and crack size. A commercial finite element analysis (FEA) was used to find the highly stressed regions in the geothermal pipe by using solid-fluid interaction model and calculate the stress intensity factors. Variations used in this study are a fluid temperature in pipes of 80oC, 115oC, and 150oC and surface crack size of 1 mm, 3 mm, and 5 mm. This study used ASTM A106-B steel material which is geothermal pipe standard. The result showed that the fluid temperature and crack size in the pipe installation affects the stress intensity factor. The stress intensity factor increased with increasing the fluid temperature in the pipe and crack size. Furthermore, the pipe installation with 5mm crack size and fluid temperature in pipes 115oC and 150oC has stress intensity factor value that exceeds the fracture toughness value of the material. This condition will lead the crack to propagate along the pipe.

Cite
MLA
Khairul, Anam, et al. "The Effect of Fluid Temperature and Crack Size toward Stress Intensity Factor on Geothermal Pipe Installations." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54.1 (2019): 27-36.
APA
Khairul, A., Anindito, P., & Hastono, W.(2019). The Effect of Fluid Temperature and Crack Size toward Stress Intensity Factor on Geothermal Pipe Installations. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 54(1), 27-36.
Chicago
Khairul Anam, Anindito Purnowidodo, and Hastono Wijaya."The Effect of Fluid Temperature and Crack Size toward Stress Intensity Factor on Geothermal Pipe Installations." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 54, no. 1 (2019): 27-36.
Harvard
Khairul, A., Anindito, P., and Hastono, W.,2019. The Effect of Fluid Temperature and Crack Size toward Stress Intensity Factor on Geothermal Pipe Installations. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54(1), pp. 27-36.
Vancouver
Khairul A, Anindito P, Hastono W. The Effect of Fluid Temperature and Crack Size toward Stress Intensity Factor on Geothermal Pipe Installations. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;54(1): 27-36.

Catalytic Treatment of Biomass Tar Models Over Upgraded Y-Zeolite Via Microwave Irradiation
Hafnee Lateh, Juntakan Taweekun, Kittinan Maliwan, Zainal Alimuddin Zainal Alauddin, Sukritthira Rattanawilai
Page 37 - 43

Abstract
Biomass tar is the major problem for biomass gasification that can create many problems in the system such as blockages, catalyst deactivation, and pipe corrosion can be impact to producer gas as well. The tar removal system is necessary to assure in economic cost and effective on fuel gas utilization. In this article, the catalytic activity of the Ni/Mg/Y-Zeolite as the upgraded catalyst was investigated in the removal of tar model compounds as toluene and naphthalene via microwave irradiation. The results founded that the tar treatment system via microwave irradiation which is low energy consumption, swiftly, and efficient has been successfully improved catalytic decomposition of tar models. The temperature of 900 °C can simply to assess within 20 minutes of irradiation under MW power at 0.7 kW, gas flow rate at 10 L/min and bed height of 12 cm. Ni/Mg/Y-Zeolite shows high catalytic activity due to lower coke deposited on catalyst surface compared with the previous study.

Cite
MLA
Hafnee, Lateh, et al. "Catalytic Treatment of Biomass Tar Models Over Upgraded Y-Zeolite Via Microwave Irradiation." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54.1 (2019): 37-43.
APA
Hafnee, L., Juntakan, T., Kittinan, M., Zainal Alimuddin, Z. A., & Sukritthira, R.(2019). Catalytic Treatment of Biomass Tar Models Over Upgraded Y-Zeolite Via Microwave Irradiation. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 54(1), 37-43.
Chicago
Hafnee Lateh, Juntakan Taweekun, Kittinan Maliwan, Zainal Alimuddin Zainal Alauddin, and Sukritthira Rattanawilai."Catalytic Treatment of Biomass Tar Models Over Upgraded Y-Zeolite Via Microwave Irradiation." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 54, no. 1 (2019): 37-43.
Harvard
Hafnee, L., Juntakan, T., Kittinan, M., Zainal Alimuddin, Z.A., and Sukritthira, R.,2019. Catalytic Treatment of Biomass Tar Models Over Upgraded Y-Zeolite Via Microwave Irradiation. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54(1), pp. 37-43.
Vancouver
Hafnee L, Juntakan T, Kittinan M, Zainal Alimuddin ZA, Sukritthira R. Catalytic Treatment of Biomass Tar Models Over Upgraded Y-Zeolite Via Microwave Irradiation. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;54(1): 37-43.

Parametric Study and Multi-Objective Optimization of Vapor Compression Heat Pump System by Using Environmental Friendly Refrigerant
Nyayu Aisyah, M Idrus Alhamid, Nasruddin, Sholahuddin, Arnas Lubis, Kiyoshi Saito
Page 44 - 56

Abstract
This study proposes the parameter study and multi-objective optimization of a vapor compression heat pump system using environmentally friendly refrigerant, R1224yd(Z). The effect of three design parameters including refrigerant mass flow rate, evaporation temperature, and condensation temperature on compressor work, cooling load in the evaporator, heat rejected by the condenser, and exergy of the system are investigated through parameter studies. A multi-objective optimization was then performed. Exergy efficiency and exergoenvironmental value are the objectives of this optimization scenario. The purpose of the optimization is to obtain the optimum value of three design parameters in terms of exergy and environmental point of views so that the heat pump system has maximum exergy efficiency and minimum effect to the environment. The result showed that the system will be in the optimum condition at Te = 287.98 K, Tc= 315.56 K and refrigerant mass flow rate = 0.0321 kg/s with the exergy efficiency of 38.48% and exergoenvironmental value of 200.98 mPts/h.

Cite
MLA
Nyayu, Aisyah, et al. "Parametric Study and Multi-Objective Optimization of Vapor Compression Heat Pump System by Using Environmental Friendly Refrigerant." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54.1 (2019): 44-56.
APA
Nyayu, A., M Idrus, A., Nasruddin, Sholahuddin, Arnas, L., & Kiyoshi, S.(2019). Parametric Study and Multi-Objective Optimization of Vapor Compression Heat Pump System by Using Environmental Friendly Refrigerant. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 54(1), 44-56.
Chicago
Nyayu Aisyah, M Idrus Alhamid, Nasruddin, Sholahuddin, Arnas Lubis, and Kiyoshi Saito."Parametric Study and Multi-Objective Optimization of Vapor Compression Heat Pump System by Using Environmental Friendly Refrigerant." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 54, no. 1 (2019): 44-56.
Harvard
Nyayu, A., M Idrus, A., Nasruddin, Sholahuddin, Arnas, L., and Kiyoshi, S.,2019. Parametric Study and Multi-Objective Optimization of Vapor Compression Heat Pump System by Using Environmental Friendly Refrigerant. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54(1), pp. 44-56.
Vancouver
Nyayu A, M Idrus A, Nasruddin, Sholahuddin, Arnas L, Kiyoshi S. Parametric Study and Multi-Objective Optimization of Vapor Compression Heat Pump System by Using Environmental Friendly Refrigerant. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;54(1): 44-56.

Bionanofluid Flow Through a Moving Surface Adapting Convective Boundary Condition: Sensitivity Analysis
Sze Qi Chan, Fazlina Aman, Syahira Mansur
Page 57 - 69

Abstract
The paper discusses a sensitivity analysis on a water-based bionanofluid having nanoparticles and living microorganisms flows over a moving surface. Mathematical model is constructed on the basis of Buongiorno model and a thermal convective boundary condition is taken over to replace the conventional fixed surface temperature. Numerical shooting technique is to follow closely behind the similarity transformation to solve the system of governing equations. The output parameters of interest are believed to be contingent on the governing input parameters. Obviously, the skin friction coefficient as well as the surface shear stress will only affected by the velocity ratio parameter; while the inclusion of thermal convective boundary conditions influenced the temperature profile, confined movement of the nanoparticles and living microorganisms. Focus on the response of local density of motile microorganisms to the variation of input parameters, an experimental scheme integrated with sensitivity analysis is designed. As highlighted, the local density of motile microorganisms is more sensitive to the bioconvection Péclet number rather than other governing parameters. The findings believed to offer preliminary guideline for further lab-based experiments.

Cite
MLA
Sze, Qi Chan, et al. "Bionanofluid Flow Through a Moving Surface Adapting Convective Boundary Condition: Sensitivity Analysis." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54.1 (2019): 57-69.
APA
Sze, Q. C., Fazlina, A., & Syahira, M.(2019). Bionanofluid Flow Through a Moving Surface Adapting Convective Boundary Condition: Sensitivity Analysis. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 54(1), 57-69.
Chicago
Sze Qi Chan, Fazlina Aman, and Syahira Mansur."Bionanofluid Flow Through a Moving Surface Adapting Convective Boundary Condition: Sensitivity Analysis." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 54, no. 1 (2019): 57-69.
Harvard
Sze, Q.C., Fazlina, A., and Syahira, M.,2019. Bionanofluid Flow Through a Moving Surface Adapting Convective Boundary Condition: Sensitivity Analysis. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54(1), pp. 57-69.
Vancouver
Sze QC, Fazlina A, Syahira M. Bionanofluid Flow Through a Moving Surface Adapting Convective Boundary Condition: Sensitivity Analysis. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;54(1): 57-69.

SAC105 Stencil Printing Process using Cross Viscosity Model
Mohd Syakirin Rusdi, Mohd Zulkifly Abdullah, Mohd Sharizal Abdul Aziz, Muhammad Khalil Abdullah, Muhammad Hafifi Hafiz Ishak, Yu Kok Hwa, Parimalam Rethinasamy, Sivakumar Veerasamy, Damian G Santhanasamy
Page 70 - 77

Abstract
The current study shows the used of rheological measurement to get lead-free solder paste SAC105 type 3 viscosity data to be used in numerical measurement. A parallel-plate viscometer is used for the rheological measurement. From the measurement data, numerical simulation investigation is accomplished to study the effect of stencil thickness on SAC105. Cross model is used as the viscosity model for the SAC105. The numerical simulations using ANSYS Fluent with Finite Volume Method (FVM) are carried out at five different stencil thickness. The results show that the volume difference between aperture volume and SAC105 volume are low at 0.0762mm and 0.1016mm (14.6% and 13.9 respectively) and the maximum volume difference is at 0.1778mm (45.4%).

Cite
MLA
Mohd Syakirin, Rusdi, et al. "SAC105 Stencil Printing Process using Cross Viscosity Model." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54.1 (2019): 70-77.
APA
Mohd Syakirin, R., Mohd Zulkifly, A., Mohd Sharizal, A. A., Muhammad Khalil, A., Muhammad Hafifi, H. I., Yu, K. H., Parimalam, R., Sivakumar, V., & Damian, G. S.(2019). SAC105 Stencil Printing Process using Cross Viscosity Model. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 54(1), 70-77.
Chicago
Mohd Syakirin Rusdi, Mohd Zulkifly Abdullah, Mohd Sharizal Abdul Aziz, Muhammad Khalil Abdullah, Muhammad Hafifi Hafiz Ishak, Yu Kok Hwa, Parimalam Rethinasamy, Sivakumar Veerasamy, and Damian G Santhanasamy."SAC105 Stencil Printing Process using Cross Viscosity Model." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 54, no. 1 (2019): 70-77.
Harvard
Mohd Syakirin, R., Mohd Zulkifly, A., Mohd Sharizal, A.A., Muhammad Khalil, A., Muhammad Hafifi, H.I., Yu, K.H., Parimalam, R., Sivakumar, V., & Damian, G.S.,2019. SAC105 Stencil Printing Process using Cross Viscosity Model. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54(1), pp. 70-77.
Vancouver
Mohd Syakirin R, Mohd Zulkifly A, Mohd Sharizal AA, Muhammad Khalil A, Muhammad Hafifi HI, Yu KH, Parimalam R, Sivakumar V, Damian GS. SAC105 Stencil Printing Process using Cross Viscosity Model. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;54(1): 70-77.

Convergence and Error Analysis of a Bi-quadratic Triangular Galerkin Finite Element Model for Heat Conduction Simulation
Erwin Sulaeman, S. M. Afzal Hoq, Abdurahim Okhunov, Irfan Hilmy, Marwan Badran
Page 78 - 86

Abstract
Present paper elaborates solution of partial differential equations (PDE) of two dimensional steady state heat conduction by using a bi quadratic triangular Galerkin’s finite element method (QGFEM). The steady state heat distribution is modeled by a two-dimensional Laplace partial differential equations. A six- point triangular planar finite element model is developed for the QGFEM based on quadratic basis functions on the Cartesian coordinate system where physical domain is meshed by structured grid. The elemental stiffness matrix is formulated by using a direct integration scheme along the trilateral domain area without the necessity to use the Jacobian matrix. Validation is conducted to an analytical solution of a rectangular plate having mixed, asymmetric boundary conditions. Comparisons of the present QGFEM results and the exact solution show promising results. The convergence of the method is presented by checking the error analysis for various number of elements used for the simulation.

Cite
MLA
Erwin, Sulaeman, et al. "Convergence and Error Analysis of a Bi-quadratic Triangular Galerkin Finite Element Model for Heat Conduction Simulation." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54.1 (2019): 78-86.
APA
Erwin, S., Afzal Hoq, S. M., Abdurahim, O., Irfan, H., & Marwan, B.(2019). Convergence and Error Analysis of a Bi-quadratic Triangular Galerkin Finite Element Model for Heat Conduction Simulation. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 54(1), 78-86.
Chicago
Erwin Sulaeman, S. M. Afzal Hoq, Abdurahim Okhunov, Irfan Hilmy, and Marwan Badran."Convergence and Error Analysis of a Bi-quadratic Triangular Galerkin Finite Element Model for Heat Conduction Simulation." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 54, no. 1 (2019): 78-86.
Harvard
Erwin, S., Afzal Hoq, S.M., Abdurahim, O., Irfan, H., and Marwan, B.,2019. Convergence and Error Analysis of a Bi-quadratic Triangular Galerkin Finite Element Model for Heat Conduction Simulation. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54(1), pp. 78-86.
Vancouver
Erwin S, Afzal Hoq SM, Abdurahim O, Irfan H, Marwan B. Convergence and Error Analysis of a Bi-quadratic Triangular Galerkin Finite Element Model for Heat Conduction Simulation. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;54(1): 78-86.

Analysis of Temperature and Heat Measurement on Two-phase Flow Nucleate Boiling with R-290 in Microchannel
Sentot Novianto, Raldi Artono Koestoer, Agus Sunjarianto Pamitran
Page 87 - 94

Abstract
Research of two-phase flow boiling in microchannel has been done intensively. Microchannel has been increasingly applied in industrial equipment, especially for cooling system. Measurement of temperature and heat on the test section of microchannel became the main concern on this research. The aims of this research is to study a characteristic of temperature measurement and heat on two-phase flow boiling with R-290 in microchannels. The research method that is used including evaporative process at the test section with electrical heating. There are 10 type K thermocouple placed on the surface of test section and an immersed thermocouple to measure inlet and outlet temperature difference. In order to determine heat received and error, the statistical and mathematical approach were conducted. The average uncertainty of heat received on two-phase flow boiling was 0.05 Watt. Heat transfer coefficient of two-phase flow has been determined based on temperature measurement.

Cite
MLA
Sentot, Novianto, et al. "Analysis of Temperature and Heat Measurement on Two-phase Flow Nucleate Boiling with R-290 in Microchannel." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54.1 (2019): 87-94.
APA
Sentot, N., Raldi, A. K., & Agus Sunjarianto, P.(2019). Analysis of Temperature and Heat Measurement on Two-phase Flow Nucleate Boiling with R-290 in Microchannel. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 54(1), 87-94.
Chicago
Sentot Novianto, Raldi Artono Koestoer, and Agus Sunjarianto Pamitran."Analysis of Temperature and Heat Measurement on Two-phase Flow Nucleate Boiling with R-290 in Microchannel." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 54, no. 1 (2019): 87-94.
Harvard
Sentot, N., Raldi, A.K., and Agus Sunjarianto, P.,2019. Analysis of Temperature and Heat Measurement on Two-phase Flow Nucleate Boiling with R-290 in Microchannel. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54(1), pp. 87-94.
Vancouver
Sentot N, Raldi AK, Agus Sunjarianto P. Analysis of Temperature and Heat Measurement on Two-phase Flow Nucleate Boiling with R-290 in Microchannel. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;54(1): 87-94.

Spiral Pipe Geometry for Particle Mud Slurry in Semau Island, Indonesia
Yanuar, Sealtial Mau, Ibadurrahman, Gunawan
Page 95 - 101

Abstract
Oil and gas exploration in Semau, one of some islands in East Nusa Tenggara of Indonesia has caused by eruption of gas and mud. This incident is considered a disaster because it harms the people around who lost their property and fields. The mud slurry characteristics by passive control method of highly concentrated mud eruption containing solid particles have been investigated. Actually, when the particles that flowed not sufficiently high, it caused by low velocity of mud slurry. This natural phenomenon can illustrate the reality of how the behaviour of the phenomenon of sludge flow deposition occurs. Spiral pipe with twist grooves are constant on the axis pipe and slurry that also rotates when it is flowed. By the behaviour of the swirl flow, particles are allowed to flow at low speeds. The purpose of this study is to examine the characteristic flow of mud slurry that is flowed in the three lobe spiral pipe. The shear rate and shear stress are obtained by measuring the pressure drop and the volumetric flow rate in circular pipe. By the experiment, the power law exponent in this study ranged from 0.72 to 1 for liquid and solid particles of 20%, 30%, and 45% by weight of concentration. The particle diameter of the test in this study is 1-5 ?m and density is 2.7 x 103(kg/m3). The degree of homogeneous distributed suspension of liquid and solid particles for horizontal axis of the pipe were compared with circular pipe and spiral pipe in laminar and turbulent flow. Through this research, P/Di = 7 spiral pipes proved to reduce friction resistance higher than circular pipe. The higher drag reduction happened for 25.58 % with the generalize Reynolds number 5 x 103. The value obtained shows that the spiral pipe impacts the drag reduction to the mud slurry.

Cite
MLA
Yanuar, et al. "Spiral Pipe Geometry for Particle Mud Slurry in Semau Island, Indonesia." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54.1 (2019): 95-101.
APA
Yanuar, Sealtial, M., Ibadurrahman, & Gunawan.(2019). Spiral Pipe Geometry for Particle Mud Slurry in Semau Island, Indonesia. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 54(1), 95-101.
Chicago
Yanuar, Sealtial Mau, Ibadurrahman, and Gunawan."Spiral Pipe Geometry for Particle Mud Slurry in Semau Island, Indonesia." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 54, no. 1 (2019): 95-101.
Harvard
Yanuar, Sealtial, M., Ibadurrahman, and Gunawan.,2019. Spiral Pipe Geometry for Particle Mud Slurry in Semau Island, Indonesia. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54(1), pp. 95-101.
Vancouver
Yanuar, Sealtial M, Ibadurrahman, Gunawan. Spiral Pipe Geometry for Particle Mud Slurry in Semau Island, Indonesia. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;54(1): 95-101.

Experimental Study of Lithium-ion Battery Thermal Behaviour Under Abuse Discharge Condition
Zul Hilmi Che Daud, Zainab Asus, Izhari Izmi Mazali, Mohd Kameil Abdul Hamid, Adam Maxwell Doumin, Fitri Yakub
Page 102 - 111

Abstract
This article presents the impact of abuse discharge condition on the battery cell surface temperature. The abuse discharge condition is when the battery is discharge down to 10% State of Charge (SOC). To determine the temperature evolution of the battery cell surface, a series of experiments is conducted. Three battery cells in a battery pack are discharged at 1C, 3C, and 5C discharge rate with a constant cooling air velocity of 2 m/s. The battery is discharge from 100% SOC down to 10% SOC to simulate the abuse discharge condition. Experimental results show that discharging the battery at SOC lower than 20% contributes to a radical increase of cell temperature at all battery cell locations impacted by a sudden increase of internal resistance’s value in this region.

Cite
MLA
Zul Hilmi, Che Daud, et al. "Experimental Study of Lithium-ion Battery Thermal Behaviour Under Abuse Discharge Condition." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54.1 (2019): 102-111.
APA
Zul Hilmi, C. D., Zainab, A., Izhari Izmi, M., Mohd Kameil, A. H., Adam Maxwell, D., & Fitri, Y.(2019). Experimental Study of Lithium-ion Battery Thermal Behaviour Under Abuse Discharge Condition. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 54(1), 102-111.
Chicago
Zul Hilmi, Che Daud, Zainab Asus, Izhari Izmi Mazali, Mohd Kameil Abdul Hamid, Adam Maxwell Doumin, and Fitri Yakub."Experimental Study of Lithium-ion Battery Thermal Behaviour Under Abuse Discharge Condition." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 54, no. 1 (2019): 102-111.
Harvard
Zul Hilmi, C.D., Zainab, A., Izhari Izmi, M., Mohd Kameil, A.H., Adam Maxwell, D., and Fitri, Y.,2019. Experimental Study of Lithium-ion Battery Thermal Behaviour Under Abuse Discharge Condition. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54(1), pp. 102-111.
Vancouver
Zul Hilmi CD, Zainab A, Izhari Izmi M, Mohd Kameil AH, Adam Maxwell D, Fitri Y. Experimental Study of Lithium-ion Battery Thermal Behaviour Under Abuse Discharge Condition. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;54(1): 102-111.

Physical and Mechanical Properties of Fireproof Inconel 718 with Palm Stearin and Stearic Acid Binder
Abd Rahim Abu Talib, Ibrahim Mohammed, Nadia Mohamad Damshal, Muhammad Jabir Suleiman@Ahmad
Page 112 - 123

Abstract
Tensile properties and physical properties of fireproof Inconel 718 have been investigated after under undergoing a high-temperature flame fire test of 1100 ± 80?C with a heat flux of 36 ± 2 kW/m2 according to the ISO 2685 standard using a methylacetylene-propadiene propane (MAPP) gas burner. The main aim of this study is to understand the physical properties of the different binders and different sintering cycles of the Inconel 718 after a tensile test. The alloys were exposed to a flame temperature for 15 minutes after which they are allowed to cool at ambient temperature before the tensile test. All the Inconel 718 samples of different binders undergo a scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrograph after the tensile test and show different characteristics according to the binders and sintering cycles. The result obtained on the comparison of the different binders and sintering cycles shows that the third sintering cycle is more ductile than the other two cycles with the highest ductility observed on the 68/32-6 stearic acid binder, while the most brittle alloy is the 66/34-5 stearic acid binder in the fourth sintering cycle. From the SEM micrograph, it is clearly observed that an Inconel 718 of the 66/34-12 palm stearin binder has smoother surface grain with huge hollows and low density, therefore the alloy is more porous and penetrable and more prone to break than the other alloys under study. Conclusively, the third sintering cycle proved to be the most effective Inconel 718 for this study due to the excellent properties exhibited by the alloy for both binders.

Cite
MLA
Abd Rahim Abu Talib, Ibrahim Mohammed, et al. "Physical and Mechanical Properties of Fireproof Inconel 718 with Palm Stearin and Stearic Acid Binder." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54.1 (2019): 112-123.
APA
Abd Rahim, A. T., Ibrahim, M., Nadia Mohamad, D., & Muhammad Jabir, S.(2019). Physical and Mechanical Properties of Fireproof Inconel 718 with Palm Stearin and Stearic Acid Binder. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 54(1), 112-123.
Chicago
Abd Rahim Abu Talib, Ibrahim Mohammed, Nadia Mohamad Damshal,and Muhammad Jabir Suleiman@Ahmad."Physical and Mechanical Properties of Fireproof Inconel 718 with Palm Stearin and Stearic Acid Binder." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 54, no. 1 (2019): 112-123.
Harvard
Abd Rahim, A. T., Ibrahim, M., Nadia Mohamad, D., and Muhammad Jabir, S.,2019. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Fireproof Inconel 718 with Palm Stearin and Stearic Acid Binder. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54(1), pp. 112-123.
Vancouver
Abd Rahim AT, Ibrahim M, Nadia Mohamad D, Muhammad Jabir S. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Fireproof Inconel 718 with Palm Stearin and Stearic Acid Binder. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;54(1): 112-123.

Volume 54, No. 2 (February, 2019)
Synthesis and Characterization of New Choline-Based Ionic Liquids and Their Antimicrobial Properties
Haslina Ahmad, Nurul Syahira Zaharudin, Nur Nadia Abdul Majid, Khairulazhar Jumbri, Mohd Basyaruddin Abdul Rahman
Page 124 – 132
Abstract
A series of new cholinium-based ionic liquids (ILs) was synthesized by using simple neutralization reaction. The synthesized ILs were choline phenylacetate, choline ricinoleate and choline trichloroacetate. Result obtained from FT-IR, 1H and 13C NMR, mass spectrometry, thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry confirmed the formation of these cholinium-based ILs. These ILs were then tested for their anti-microbial properties towards seven types of bacteria which consist of three Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis (B29), Staphylococcus aureus (S276), Staphylococcus epidermidis (S273), two Gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 15442) and Escherichia coli (E266) and two types of yeasts, Candida albicans (9002) and Candida tropicalis (A3). Interestingly, all of the cholinium ILs possess excellent antimicrobial activity as good as the standard, Streptomycin. The most significant antimicrobial activity was observed in choline phenylacetate against all seven types of bacteria tested in this study.

Cite
MLA
Haslina, Nurul, et al. "Synthesis and Characterization of New Choline-Based Ionic Liquids and Their Antimicrobial Properties." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54.2 (2019): 124-132.
APA
Haslina, A., Nurul Syahira, Z., Nur Nadia, A. M., Khairulazhar, J., & Mohd Basyaruddin, A. R.(2019). Synthesis and Characterization of New Choline-Based Ionic Liquids and Their Antimicrobial Properties. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 54(2), 124-132.
Chicago
Haslina Ahmad, Nurul Syahira Zaharudin, Nur Nadia Abdul Majid, Khairulazhar Jumbri,and Mohd Basyaruddin Abdul Rahman."Synthesis and Characterization of New Choline-Based Ionic Liquids and Their Antimicrobial Properties." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 54, no. 2 (2019): 124-132.
Harvard
Haslina, A., Nurul Syahira, Z., Nur Nadia, A. M., Khairulazhar, J., and Mohd Basyaruddin, A. R.,2019. Synthesis and Characterization of New Choline-Based Ionic Liquids and Their Antimicrobial Properties. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54(2), pp. 124-132.
Vancouver
Haslina A, Nurul Syahira Z, Nur Nadia AM, Khairulazhar J, Mohd Basyaruddin AR. Synthesis and Characterization of New Choline-Based Ionic Liquids and Their Antimicrobial Properties. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;54(2): 124-132.

Temperature Dependence of Quantum Dots-in-well Infrared Photodetectors (QDIPs) Using Photoluminescence
Noor Hafidzah Jabarullah
Page 133 - 141

Abstract
A study of quantum dots-in-well infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) yields results useful for the creation of a two-colour QDIP. Quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) have been shown to be a key technology in mid and long wavelength infrared detection due to their potential for normal incidence operation and low dark current. This study investigates infrared detectors based on intersubband transitions in a novel InAs/In0.15 Ga0.85 As/GaAs quantum dots-in-well (DWELL) heterostructure. In the DWELL structure, the InAs quantum dots are placed in an In0.15 Ga0.85 As well, which in turn is placed in GaAs quantum well with In0.1Ga0.9As barrier. The optical properties of the sample have been studied by the means of photoluminescence using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Spectrally tuneable response with bias and long wave IR response at 6.2?m and 7.5?m has been observed.

Cite
MLA
Noor Hafidzah. "Temperature Dependence of Quantum Dots-in-well Infrared Photodetectors (QDIPs) Using Photoluminescence." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54.2 (2019): 133-141.
APA
Noor Hafidzah, J.(2019). Temperature Dependence of Quantum Dots-in-well Infrared Photodetectors (QDIPs) Using Photoluminescence. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 54(2), 133-141.
Chicago
Noor Hafidzah Jabarullah."Temperature Dependence of Quantum Dots-in-well Infrared Photodetectors (QDIPs) Using Photoluminescence." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 54, no. 2 (2019): 133-141.
Harvard
Noor Hafidzah, J.,2019. Temperature Dependence of Quantum Dots-in-well Infrared Photodetectors (QDIPs) Using Photoluminescence. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54(2), pp. 133-141.
Vancouver
Noor Hafidzah J. Temperature Dependence of Quantum Dots-in-well Infrared Photodetectors (QDIPs) Using Photoluminescence. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;54(2): 133-141.

Evaluating the GMAW Joint with a Constant Heat Input
Djarot B. Darmadi, Lingga P. Setiawan, Shahruddin Mahzan
Page 142 - 149

Abstract
The most important aspect of the overall welding process is determining the welding parameters which are usually described in a form of Welding Procedure Specification – WPS. WPS is written by an experienced welding engineer. Following the WPS in the welding application is expected to provide optimum joint properties for a certain applied load and environment conditions. One of the most important parameter which is frequently prescribed in WPS is heat input. This paper is presented based on the curiosity to prove the equal heat input does not always produce identical joint. An actual experiment method of constant heat input welding was implemented by varying welding speed with adjusted electric current. The tensile test then is carried out to the weldments to analyze the effect of the varied welding parameters. Finite Element Method (FEM) was used to acuminate the analysis. Using the FEM the temperature history of desired position can be obtained. This temperature history is an important additional data to give a technical reason why the tensile strength is as what exhibited by data from tensile test. The tensile test shows that with higher electric current the higher tensile strength is obtained. From temperature history, which is emulated by FEM, the higher electric current originates faster cooling rate. This faster cooling rate produces harder joint and in turn provides higher tensile strength which is confirmed by the tensile test.

Cite
MLA
Djarot, Lingga, et al. "Evaluating the GMAW Joint with a Constant Heat Input." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54.2 (2019): 142-149.
APA
Djarot, B. D., Lingga, P. S., & Shahruddin, M.(2019). Evaluating the GMAW Joint with a Constant Heat Input. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 54(2), 142-149.
Chicago
Djarot B. Darmadi, Lingga P. Setiawan, and Shahruddin Mahzan."Evaluating the GMAW Joint with a Constant Heat Input." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 54, no. 2 (2019): 142-149.
Harvard
Djarot, B. D., Lingga, P. S., and Shahruddin, M.,2019. Evaluating the GMAW Joint with a Constant Heat Input. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54(2), pp. 142-149.
Vancouver
Djarot BD, Lingga PS, Shahruddin M. Evaluating the GMAW Joint with a Constant Heat Input. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;54(2): 142-149.

Investigation on the Effect of Sample Preparation on the Performance of Thermochromic Liquid Crystal
Muhammad Fitri Mohd Zulkeple, Abd Rahim Abu Talib, Ezanee Gires, Mohamed Thariq Hameed Sultan
Page 150 - 164

Abstract
This paper discussed the effect of sample mixture preparation on the performance of Thermochromic Liquid Crystals (TLCs) in terms of maximum intensity, hue sensitivity and aging effect. Three type of TLC mixtures were prepared; (A) solely TLC aqueous slurry solution, (B) TLC aqueous slurry solution and aqueous binder with a ratio of mixing of 3:1, and (C) TLC aqueous slurry solution, an aqueous binder, and tap water with a ratio of 5:1:6. The result obtained shows that sample A gives a higher maximum intensity values compared to the others. Furthermore, sample A with only TLC solution has better hue sensitivity at the red color region. As it goes to the green color region, the sample C, has the highest sensitivity due to the anchoring force present among the molecules. In term of resistance to aging effect, sample B and C that been mixed with other composition are having better resistance towards the effect as it been provided with extra shield resulted from the microencapsulation with aqueous binder. To sum up the result, sample mixing method has significant effect on the performance of the TLCs. The usage of solely of TLC without another additional compound may give higher maximum intensity and sensitivity on certain region but it will have low resistance towards the aging effect.

Cite
MLA
Fitri, Rahim, et al. "Investigation on the Effect of Sample Preparation on the Performance of Thermochromic Liquid Crystal." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54.2 (2019): 150-164.
APA
Muhammad Fitri, M. Z., Abd Rahim, A. T., Ezanee, G., & Mohamed Thariq, H. S.(2019). Investigation on the Effect of Sample Preparation on the Performance of Thermochromic Liquid Crystal. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 54(2), 150-164.
Chicago
Muhammad Fitri Mohd Zulkeple, Abd Rahim Abu Talib, Ezanee Gires, and Mohamed Thariq Hameed Sultan."Investigation on the Effect of Sample Preparation on the Performance of Thermochromic Liquid Crystal." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 54, no. 2 (2019): 150-164.
Harvard
Muhammad Fitri, M. Z., Abd Rahim, A. T., Ezanee, G., and Mohamed Thariq, H. S.,2019. Investigation on the Effect of Sample Preparation on the Performance of Thermochromic Liquid Crystal. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54(2), pp. 150-164.
Vancouver
Muhammad Fitri MZ, Abd Rahim AT, Ezanee G, Mohamed Thariq HS. Investigation on the Effect of Sample Preparation on the Performance of Thermochromic Liquid Crystal. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;54(2): 150-164.

Air-Conditioning of Buildings by Using Ground and water Effects to Drop Down the Inlet Air Temperature
Maki Haj Zaidan, Fayadh Mohamed Abed, Abdullah Khallel Jasim
Page 165 - 174

Abstract
This paper presents an experimental and theoretical study of using the ground and water geothermal affects to the cool the buildings. This done by helical heat exchanger submerged under the well water. Where the tests were conducted in the city of Tikrit / Iraq in hot and dry climate for the period from May to June. The results showed that the use of the water heat exchanger reduces the temperature of the air inside the test room 10 – 15 oC less than the ambient temperature. In addition, the results showed an improvement in relative humidity of 15-20% and a decrease in cooling loads by 50%. The temperature of the well water has great effects on the temperature of the supply air from the heat exchanger. Also, the temperature at the depth of 3 m under the ground will be constant and reached to 21 – 22 oC. The solar radiation has more effect on the ground’s temperature at depth 0.25 m. Results showed a significant agreement between theoretical and experimental results.

Cite
MLA
Maki, Fayadh, et al. "Air-Conditioning of Buildings by Using Ground and water Effects to Drop Down the Inlet Air Temperature." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54.2 (2019): 165-174.
APA
Maki Haj, Z., Fayadh Mohamed, A., & Abdullah Khallel, J.(2019). Air-Conditioning of Buildings by Using Ground and water Effects to Drop Down the Inlet Air Temperature. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 54(2), 165-174.
Chicago
Maki Haj Zaidan, Fayadh Mohamed Abed, and Abdullah Khallel Jasim."Air-Conditioning of Buildings by Using Ground and water Effects to Drop Down the Inlet Air Temperature." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 54, no. 2 (2019): 165-174.
Harvard
Maki Haj, Z., Fayadh Mohamed, A., and Abdullah Khallel, J.,2019. Air-Conditioning of Buildings by Using Ground and water Effects to Drop Down the Inlet Air Temperature. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54(2), pp. 165-174.
Vancouver
Maki Haj Z, Fayadh Mohamed A, Abdullah Khallel J. Experimental Correlation for Flow-boiling Heat Transfer in a Micro-gap Evaporator with Internal Micro-fins. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;54(2): 165-174.

Influence of Heat Transfer on Thermal Stress Development in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: A Review
Noor Shieela Kalib, Andanastuti Muchtar, Mahendra Rao Somalu, Ahmad Kamal Ariffin Mohd Ihsan, Nurul Ashikin Mohd Nazrul Aman, Joelle Chia Wen Mah
Page 175 - 184

Abstract
Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) directly convert chemical energy into electrical power with minimal carbon emission. However, maintaining consistently stable electrical power generation can be challenging for SOFCs that operate at high temperatures ranging from 600?C?1000?C. Furthermore, the rigid SOFC assembly stack is prone to the development of thermal stress that leads to mechanical deformation, which subsequently shortens the lifetime of the SOFC system. Hence, identifying a uniform temperature gradient across the stack can minimize the thermal stress distribution across the stack and help prolong the service life of an SOFC system. This paper discusses the source of generated heat, the heat transfer mechanism, and their relation with the temperature gradient and thermal stress distribution.

Cite
MLA
Shieela, Andanastuti, et al. "Influence of Heat Transfer on Thermal Stress Development in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: A Review." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54.2 (2019): 175-184.
APA
Noor Shieela, K., Andanastuti, M., Mahendra Rao, S., Ahmad Kamal Ariffin, M. I., Nurul Ashikin, M. N. A., & Joelle Chia, W. H.(2019). Influence of Heat Transfer on Thermal Stress Development in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: A Review. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 54(2), 175-184.
Chicago
Noor Shieela Kalib, Andanastuti Muchtar, Mahendra Rao Somalu, Ahmad Kamal Ariffin Mohd Ihsan, Nurul Ashikin Mohd Nazrul Aman, and Joelle Chia Wen Mah."Influence of Heat Transfer on Thermal Stress Development in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: A Review." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 54, no. 2 (2019): 175-184.
Harvard
Noor Shieela, K., Andanastuti, M., Mahendra Rao, S., Ahmad Kamal Ariffin, M. I., Nurul Ashikin, M. N. A., and Joelle Chia, W. H.,2019. Influence of Heat Transfer on Thermal Stress Development in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: A Review. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54(2), pp. 175-184.
Vancouver
SNoor Shieela K, Andanastuti M, Mahendra Rao S, Ahmad Kamal Ariffin MI, Nurul Ashikin MNA, Joelle Chia WH. Influence of Heat Transfer on Thermal Stress Development in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: A Review. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;54(1): 175-184.

Effects of Temperatures and Strain Rate on the Mechanical Behaviour of Commercial Aluminium Alloy AA6061
N. Ma’at, M. K. Mohd Nor, C. S. Ho, N. Abdul Latif, A. E. Ismail, K. A. Kamarudin, S. Jamian, M. N. Ibrahim@Tamrin, M. K. Awang
Page 185 - 190

Abstract
Aluminium alloy are widely used in the design of structural parts in the automotive and aircraft components due to their good mechanical properties. Numerous applications are related to high strain rate deformation and adiabatic heating require further intention. The strain-rate effects and temperature effects have not been well studied experimentally. Therefore, the effect of temperature and strain rate on the mechanical behaviour of aluminium alloys (AA6061) is critically examined in this work. The specimen was tested in the longitudinal direction from quasi-static to high strain rates (0.08, 0.8 and 8 mm/min) while temperature was varied from room to elevated temperatures (24, 140, 200 and 250ºC). From the results, it show that the flow stress increase with increasing the strain rate and decrease when increasing temperature. Which means, increasing strain rate and temperature affect the saturation stress of the materials.

Cite
MLA
Ma’at, Mohd Nor, et al. "Effects of Temperatures and Strain Rate on the Mechanical Behaviour of Commercial Aluminium Alloy AA6061." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54.2 (2019): 185-190.
APA
Ma’at, N., Mohd Nor, M. K., Ho, C. S., Abdul Latif, N., Ismail, A. E., Kamarudin, K. A., Jamian, S., Ibrahim@Tamrin, M. N., & Awang, M. K.(2019). Effects of Temperatures and Strain Rate on the Mechanical Behaviour of Commercial Aluminium Alloy AA6061. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 54(2), 185-190.
Chicago
N. Ma’at, M. K. Mohd Nor, C. S. Ho, N. Abdul Latif, A. E. Ismail, K. A. Kamarudin, S. Jamian, M. N. Ibrahim@Tamrin, and M. K. Awang."Effects of Temperatures and Strain Rate on the Mechanical Behaviour of Commercial Aluminium Alloy AA6061." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 54, no. 2 (2019): 185-190.
Harvard
Ma’at, N., Mohd Nor, M. K., Ho, C. S., Abdul Latif, N., Ismail, A. E., Kamarudin, K. A., Jamian, S., Ibrahim@Tamrin, M. N., and Awang, M. K.,2019. Effects of Temperatures and Strain Rate on the Mechanical Behaviour of Commercial Aluminium Alloy AA6061. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54(2), pp. 185-190.
Vancouver
Ma’at N, Mohd Nor MK, Ho CS, Abdul Latif N, Ismail AE, Kamarudin KA, Jamian S, Ibrahim@Tamrin MN, and Awang MK. Effects of Temperatures and Strain Rate on the Mechanical Behaviour of Commercial Aluminium Alloy AA6061. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;54(2): 185-190.

Relationships Derived from Physical Properties of Waste Cooking Oil / Diesel Blends and Biodiesel Fuels
Md Isa Ali, Faezah Mohd Jaafar
Page 191 - 203

Abstract
The aim of this study is to estimate mathematical relationships of vital fuel properties that are heating value, density, pour point, cloud point, flash point and viscosity of waste cooking oil/diesel blends and biodiesel fuels. The origin of both waste cooking oil (WCO) and biodiesel (BD) are from palm oil to keep the uniformity of this study. To find the fuel properties, experimentation methods are carried out to acquire data for each blend sample. The samples of blends prepared are ranging from 10% to 100% for both waste cooking oil and biodiesel blend with diesel respectively. From the data of fuel properties obtained, graphs of each fuel property against percentage of blends are plotted. Using Microsoft Excel, mathematical equation for each fuel property for WCO/Diesel and BD/Diesel blends are produced with their respective coefficient of determination denoted as R². The results have shown that the properties of the fuel mainly have polynomial relationships. The equations produced are important because fuel properties are prerequisite as input data for research regarding engine combustion diagnostically and in prediction. From the results obtained, it was also determined that BD blends are of better fuel characteristics than WCO blends because of the positive effects of transesterification.

Cite
MLA
Isa Ali and Faezah. "Relationships Derived from Physical Properties of Waste Cooking Oil / Diesel Blends and Biodiesel Fuels." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54.2 (2019): 191-203.
APA
Isa Ali, M. D., & Faezah, M. J.(2019). Relationships Derived from Physical Properties of Waste Cooking Oil / Diesel Blends and Biodiesel Fuels. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 54(2), 191-203.
Chicago
Md Isa Ali, and Faezah Mohd Jaafar."Relationships Derived from Physical Properties of Waste Cooking Oil / Diesel Blends and Biodiesel Fuels." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 54, no. 2 (2019): 191-203.
Harvard
Isa Ali, M. D., and Faezah, M. J.,2019. Relationships Derived from Physical Properties of Waste Cooking Oil / Diesel Blends and Biodiesel Fuels. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54(2), pp. 191-203.
Vancouver
Isa Ali MD, and Faezah MJ. Relationships Derived from Physical Properties of Waste Cooking Oil / Diesel Blends and Biodiesel Fuels. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;54(1): 191-203.

Design and Perfomance Evaluation of a Short Recycled Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger for Raw Milk Pastuerization
M. D. Bako, A. Nasir, M. S. Abolarin, N. A. Musa, Muhammadu Masin Muhammadu
Page 204 - 220

Abstract
The recycled concentric tube heat exchanger was designed with the principle of recycled heat transfer technique over a short concentric tube, which successfully constrained the heat transfer area of the conventionally long arranged or floating tubes to a reduced size in terms of cycles/minute. Validation was then carried out by experiment to ascertain its viability and the new concept was named cycle pasteurization following its success. The total head loss of both water and milk side of the heat exchanger were so negligible at 0.00002. The rate of heat, area, length, no of cycles, log mean temperature difference and effectiveness of the heat transfer were analyzed with respect to the pasteurizer and has exhibited very good characteristics which have kept the milk composition and it organoleptic properties safe for consumption. The most critical of the thermodynamic properties were coefficient of heat transfer of 1.411 and 4.2319 W/m2 k and fouling factor of 0.7087 and 0.2363m2 ?/W at the beginning and end of tube heat transfer respectively, which are within the limits of pasteurization theory to keep the milk nutritive values safe for consumption. This valuable equipment with 2 litres capacity for home use and the concept of cycle pasteurization has effectiveness of 0.59 representing 98.3% efficiency of the system. Indeed, the pasteurizer will complement the existing conventional batch and flash pasteurization methods where arrangement of plates and floating long concentric pipes are used which is characterized with the challenge of micro-scale pasteurization.

Cite
MLA
Bako, Nasir, et al. "Design and Perfomance Evaluation of a Short Recycled Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger for Raw Milk Pastuerization." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54.2 (2019): 204-220.
APA
Bako, M. D., Nasir, A, Abolarin, M. S., Musa, N. A., & Muhammadu Masin, M.(2019). Design and Perfomance Evaluation of a Short Recycled Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger for Raw Milk Pastuerization. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 54(2), 204-220.
Chicago
M. D. Bako, A. Nasir, M. S. Abolarin, N. A. Musa, and Muhammadu Masin Muhammadu."Design and Perfomance Evaluation of a Short Recycled Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger for Raw Milk Pastuerization." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 54, no. 2 (2019): 204-220.
Harvard
Bako, M. D., Nasir, A, Abolarin, M. S., Musa, N. A., and Muhammadu Masin, M.,2019. Design and Perfomance Evaluation of a Short Recycled Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger for Raw Milk Pastuerization. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54(2), pp. 204-220.
Vancouver
Bako MD, Nasir A, Abolarin MS, Musa NA, Muhammadu Masin M. Design and Perfomance Evaluation of a Short Recycled Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger for Raw Milk Pastuerization. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;54(2): 204-220.

MHD Rotating Flow Through a Porous Medium with Heat and Mass Transfer
Bommanna Lavanya
Page 221 - 231

Abstract
In this paper, we have considered heat and mass transfer on the unsteady two dimensional MHD flow through porous medium under the influence of uniform transverse magnetic field in a rotating parallel plate channel. A mathematical model is developed for unsteady state situations using slip conditions. Analytical expressions for the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles, wall shear stress, rates of heat and mass transfer and volumetric flow rate have been obtained and computationally discussed with respect to the non-dimensional parameters. We concluded that the velocity reduces with increasing Hartmann number M and enhances with permeability parameter K. Blood visco-elasticity lesser flow velocity significantly. The resultant velocity enhance with increasing Gr, Gc and slip parameter. At any particular location as the thermal radiation increases, both heat transfer rate and temperature are reduced to an appreciable extent. However, the velocity is not significantly affected by thermal radiation.

Cite
MLA
Bommanna . "MHD Rotating Flow Through a Porous Medium with Heat and Mass Transfer." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54.2 (2019): 221-231.
APA
Bommanna, L.(2019). MHD Rotating Flow Through a Porous Medium with Heat and Mass Transfer. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 54(2), 221-231.
Chicago
Bommanna Lavanya."MHD Rotating Flow Through a Porous Medium with Heat and Mass Transfer." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 54, no. 2 (2019): 221-231.
Harvard
Bommanna, L.,2019. MHD Rotating Flow Through a Porous Medium with Heat and Mass Transfer. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 54(2), pp. 221-231.
Vancouver
Bommanna L. MHD Rotating Flow Through a Porous Medium with Heat and Mass Transfer. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;54(2): 221-231.

Volume 55, No. 1 (March, 2019)
Evaluation of Subcooling with Liquid-Suction Heat Exchanger on the Performance of Air Conditioning System Using R22/R410A/R290/R32 as Refrigerants
Rachmad Imbang Tritjahjono, Kasni Sumeru, Andriyanto Setyawan, Mohamad Firdaus Sukri
Page 1 – 11
Abstract
This paper presents a numerical study to investigate the effect of subcooling with liquid-suction heat exchanger (LSHX) on the performance of air conditioning system using R22, R410A, R290 and R32 as refrigerants. In the near future, R290 and R32 refrigerants are projected to replace R22 and R410A as working fluids in the residential air conditioning. In this study, four parameters, i.e., the refrigerating effect, compressor work, COP and discharge temperature were investigated. In the numerical modelling, the evaporating and condensing temperatures were assumed constant at 5oC and 40oC, respectively. The results showed that the COP improvements increased with the increase in the subcooling. R32 and R290 had the lowest and the highest COP improvement when subcooling was applied, i.e., 3.3% and 5.3% for subcooling of 5K and 6.2% and 10.2% for subcooling of 10K, respectively. Due to low global warming potential and almost identical refrigerant properties as compared to R22, system with LSHX and R290 has huge commercial potential as a replacement for conventional system in the future.

Cite
MLA
Rachmad, Imbang Tritjahjono et al. "Evaluation of Subcooling with Liquid-Suction Heat Exchanger on the Performance of Air Conditioning System Using R22/R410A/R290/R32 as Refrigerants." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55.1 (2019): 1-11.
APA
Rachmad, I. T., Kasni, S., Andriyanto, S., & Mohamad Firdaus, S.(2019). Evaluation of Subcooling with Liquid-Suction Heat Exchanger on the Performance of Air Conditioning System Using R22/R410A/R290/R32 as Refrigerants. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 55(1), 1-11.
Chicago
Rachmad Imbang Tritjahjono, Kasni Sumeru, Andriyanto Setyawan, and Mohamad Firdaus Sukri."Evaluation of Subcooling with Liquid-Suction Heat Exchanger on the Performance of Air Conditioning System Using R22/R410A/R290/R32 as Refrigerants." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 55, no. 1 (2019): 1-11.
Harvard
Rachmad, I.T., Kasni, S., Andriyanto, S., Mohamad Firdaus, S., 2019. Evaluation of Subcooling with Liquid-Suction Heat Exchanger on the Performance of Air Conditioning System Using R22/R410A/R290/R32 as Refrigerants. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55(1), pp. 1-11.
Vancouver
Rachmad IT, Kasni S, Andriyanto S, Mohamad Firdaus S. Evaluation of Subcooling with Liquid-Suction Heat Exchanger on the Performance of Air Conditioning System Using R22/R410A/R290/R32 as Refrigerants. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;55(1): 1-11.

Effects of Pressed Palm Conditions on Acceleration of Palm Drying Rate and CPO Quality
Ameen Alimalbari, Sherly Hanifarianty, Anil Kumar, Thanet Khomphet, Theera Eksomtramage, Makatar Wae-hayee
Page 12 - 19

Abstract
The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of pressed palm conditions on acceleration of palm drying rate and CPO (Crude Palm Oil) quality. Three pressed palm conditions were dried in hot-air tray dryer, namely (1) conventional palm, (2) slightly-broken palm and (3) fully-broken palm. The velocity of hot air was fixed at 0.7 m/s with hot air temperature of 80 and 100oC. The hot air was blowing through the drying chamber approximately 30 hours as imitate the same condition with conventional drying in factory. The result shows that the drying rate of broken palm is faster than the case of conventional palm. Especially, the drying rate of fully-broken palm is the fastest. This expectation can minimize energy consumption in drying process. For CPO quality, however, FFA of CPO for the case of the broken palm was higher than the case of conventional palm which degrade the CPO quality. The suggestion using this method can be developed and applied in oil palm milling process which is acceptable for getting low CPO quality as oil palm for blending in animal food.

Cite
MLA
Ameen, Alimalbari et al. "Effects of Pressed Palm Conditions on Acceleration of Palm Drying Rate and CPO Quality." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55.1 (2019): 12-19.
APA
Ameen, A., Sherly, H., Anil, K., Thanet, K., Theera, E., & Makatar, W. H.(2019). Effects of Pressed Palm Conditions on Acceleration of Palm Drying Rate and CPO Quality. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 55(1), 12-19.
Chicago
Ameen Alimalbari, Sherly Hanifarianty, Anil Kumar, Thanet Khomphet, Theera Eksomtramage, and Makatar Wae-hayee."Effects of Pressed Palm Conditions on Acceleration of Palm Drying Rate and CPO Quality." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 55, no. 1 (2019): 12-19.
Harvard
Ameen, A., Sherly, H., Anil, K., Thanet, K., Theera, E., Makatar, W.H., 2019. Effects of Pressed Palm Conditions on Acceleration of Palm Drying Rate and CPO Quality. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55(1), pp. 12-19.
Vancouver
Ameen A, Sherly H, Anil K, Thanet K, Theera E, Makatar WH. Effects of Pressed Palm Conditions on Acceleration of Palm Drying Rate and CPO Quality. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;55(1): 12-19.

Energy Absorption and Deformation Pattern on Two Segment Crash Box with Rubber Connection Variation
Moch Agus Choiron, Muhamad Ainul Yaqin, Al Emran Ismail, Shahruddin Mahzan@Mohd Zin
Page 20 - 28

Abstract
Crash box is known as passive safety devices used to reduce collision damage effect. This study aims to develop two-segment crash box design by utilizing rubber as inter-segment holder. Al 6063-T5 is used as crash box material with Butyl Rubber connection. The design parameter is the location of the segment connections: 1/4, 1/3, and 1/2 of the total length of the crash box. Energy absorption, and deformation patterns is observed as response variables. From the simulation result, it can be obtained that crash box with 1/3 segment connection has the highest energy absorption (1.326 kJ). The results showed that crushing force efficiency (CFE) of the crash box with 1/3 segment connection was highest, followed 1/4 segment connection and 1/2 segment connection, respectively. The deformation pattern of three models is diamond mode. The deformation pattern of the crash box with 1/3 segment connection is more stable due to more symmetrical deformation pattern.

Cite
MLA
Moch, Agus Choiron et al. "Energy Absorption and Deformation Pattern on Two Segment Crash Box with Rubber Connection Variation." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55.1 (2019): 20-28.
APA
Moch, A. C., Muhamad Ainul, Y., Al Emran, I., & Shahruddin, M.@M. Z.(2019). Energy Absorption and Deformation Pattern on Two Segment Crash Box with Rubber Connection Variation. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 55(1), 20-28.
Chicago
Moch Agus Choiron, Muhamad Ainul Yaqin, Al Emran Ismail, and Shahruddin Mahzan@Mohd Zin."Energy Absorption and Deformation Pattern on Two Segment Crash Box with Rubber Connection Variation." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 55, no. 1 (2019): 20-28.
Harvard
Moch, A.C., Muhamad Ainul, Y., Al Emran, I., Shahruddin, M.@M. Z., 2019. Energy Absorption and Deformation Pattern on Two Segment Crash Box with Rubber Connection Variation. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55(1), pp. 20-28.
Vancouver
Moch AC, Muhamad Ainul Y, Al Emran I, Shahruddin M@MZ. Energy Absorption and Deformation Pattern on Two Segment Crash Box with Rubber Connection Variation. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;55(1): 20-28.

Two-Dimensional CFD Simulation Coupled with 6DOF Solver for analyzing Operating Process of Free Piston Stirling Engine
Alliche Ridha, Announ Mohamed, Chetti Boualem, Kermezli Tayeb
Page 29 - 38

Abstract
This work focuses on developing a two-dimensional axisymmetric simulation of the entire free piston Stirling engine (FPSE) using ANSYS Fluent to evaluate its output power. The engine model used in this study is the Sunpower B-10B which is thoroughly investigated in different conditions including static and dynamic state. A six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) solver is used for the first time in this study to solve the problem of fluid-structure interactions between the working gas and the rigid-bodies (Piston and displacer) and therefore enabling to determine accurately the piston and displacer amplitudes as well as the frequency and phase difference under the engine’s operating conditions.

Cite
MLA
Alliche, Ridha et al. "Two-Dimensional CFD Simulation Coupled with 6DOF Solver for analyzing Operating Process of Free Piston Stirling Engine." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55.1 (2019): 29-38.
APA
Alliche, R., Announ, M., Chetti, B., & Kermezli, T.(2019). Two-Dimensional CFD Simulation Coupled with 6DOF Solver for analyzing Operating Process of Free Piston Stirling Engine. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 55(1), 29-38.
Chicago
Alliche Ridha, Announ Mohamed, Chetti Boualem, and Kermezli Tayeb."Two-Dimensional CFD Simulation Coupled with 6DOF Solver for analyzing Operating Process of Free Piston Stirling Engine." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 55, no. 1 (2019): 29-38.
Harvard
Alliche, R., Announ, M., Chetti, B., Kermezli, T., 2019. Two-Dimensional CFD Simulation Coupled with 6DOF Solver for analyzing Operating Process of Free Piston Stirling Engine. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55(1), pp. 29-38.
Vancouver
Alliche R, Announ M, Chetti B, Kermezli T. Two-Dimensional CFD Simulation Coupled with 6DOF Solver for analyzing Operating Process of Free Piston Stirling Engine. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;55(1): 29-38.

Specific Energy Consumption and Drying Efficiency Analysis of Commercial Mixed-Flow Batch Type Seed Drying System
Mohamad Zaharan Azmi, Ibni Hajar Rukunudin, Hirun Azaman Ismail, Aimi Athirah Aznan
Page 39 - 50

Abstract
In Malaysia, numerous extensive researches to gauge the performance and energy requisite of paddy dryers and milling quality of rice were conducted by past researchers. These studies gave valuable insights into paddy drying and its effects under Malaysian climate and promoted further research opportunities, especially in engineering and studies on energy. However, the study of commercial grain dryer’s performance for paddy seed drying still lacks in Malaysia. The absence of fundamental information, such as the drying rate, drying efficiency and energy requisite in regard to paddy seeds drying leads to ill-informed judgements and poor decision-making which can be detrimental, especially in regards to the national policy on food security. This study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the performance efficiency of a commercial, mixed-flow, batch type seed dryer at Loji Pemprosesan Benih Padi Sah (A) at Telok Chengai, Kedah. Two types of performance indices were studied, namely drying efficiency (DE) and specific energy consumption (SEC). DE examines the drying process more analytically whilst SEC draws an overall conclusion and provides a better comparison among other commercial dryer performances. It can be inferred that, to analyze the performance of a certain dryer system, it is best to initially use SEC as it gives an overall state of efficiency level. Further analysis by using DE best described the design options available for future modifications. From the obtained results, the overall efficiency of seed dryer showed that SEC was calculated to be 50% lower (5.482 MJ/kg water removed) than the commonly recorded dryer efficiency. Analysis of DE revealed a decreasing trend, following the pattern of seed drying rate curve. The average DE was 0.546.

Cite
MLA
Mohamad Zaharan, Azmi et al. "Specific Energy Consumption and Drying Efficiency Analysis of Commercial Mixed-Flow Batch Type Seed Drying System." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55.1 (2019): 39-50.
APA
Mohamad Zaharan, A., Ibni Hajar, R., Hirun Azaman, I., & Aimi Athirah, A.(2019). Specific Energy Consumption and Drying Efficiency Analysis of Commercial Mixed-Flow Batch Type Seed Drying System. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 55(1), 39-50.
Chicago
Mohamad Zaharan Azmi, Ibni Hajar Rukunudin, Hirun Azaman Ismail, and Aimi Athirah Aznan."Specific Energy Consumption and Drying Efficiency Analysis of Commercial Mixed-Flow Batch Type Seed Drying System." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 55, no. 1 (2019): 39-50.
Harvard
Mohamad Zaharan, A., Ibni Hajar, R., Hirun Azaman, I., Aimi Athirah, A., 2019. Specific Energy Consumption and Drying Efficiency Analysis of Commercial Mixed-Flow Batch Type Seed Drying System. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55(1), pp. 39-50.
Vancouver
Mohamad Zaharan A, Ibni Hajar R, Hirun Azaman I, Aimi Athirah A. Specific Energy Consumption and Drying Efficiency Analysis of Commercial Mixed-Flow Batch Type Seed Drying System. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;55(1): 39-50.

Studies on the Spray Characteristics of Pressure-Swirl Atomizers for Automatic Hand Sanitizer Application
Kamariah Md Isa, Kahar Osman, Azli Yahya, Zulkifli Abdul Ghaffar, Ahmad Hussein Abdul Hamid, Salmiah Kasolang
Page 51 - 64

Abstract
Automatic Hand Sanitizer (AHS) is an effective and useful tool to sanitize hands and is used widely in schools, workplace and healthcare settings. However, there are still issues that arise with spray type AHSs as it does not cover all parts of the hand, the volume of the sanitizer is not sufficient or it may miss the hands or be deflected into the air. The purpose of this work is to use numerical modelling techniques to evaluate the spray characteristics of AHS using pressure-swirl atomizer. ANSYS Fluent is used to simulate the spray produced by pressure-swirl atomizer. LISA (Linearized Instability Sheet Atomization) model is used for the primary atomization process while the TAB (Taylor Analogy Breakup) model is used for the secondary breakup of droplets. The parameters that were investigated include the spray angle and the droplet Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD). The simulation was first conducted using water as the atomization fluid to simulate water-based sanitizer spray and validated against experimental data. It was found that the simulation model developed shows good comparisons with experimental data when water was used. In addition, two scenarios were investigated with the validated CFD model: (i) increase in mass flow rate, (ii) ethyl-alcohol atomization for AHS application. Simulation results showed that the increase of flow rate does not affect water atomization but it does affect spray angle and SMD values for Ethyl-alcohol atomization. It is suggested that a higher flow rate can improve the atomization quality and spray coverage of alcohol-based sanitizer liquid for AHS application.

Cite
MLA
Kamariah, Md Isa et al. "Studies on the Spray Characteristics of Pressure-Swirl Atomizers for Automatic Hand Sanitizer Application." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55.1 (2019): 51-64.
APA
Kamariah, M. I., Kahar, O., Azli, Y., Zulkifli, A. G., Ahmad Hussein, A. H., & Salmiah, K.(2019). Studies on the Spray Characteristics of Pressure-Swirl Atomizers for Automatic Hand Sanitizer Application. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 55(1), 51-64.
Chicago
Kamariah Md Isa, Kahar Osman, Azli Yahya, Zulkifli Abdul Ghaffar, Ahmad Hussein Abdul Hamid, and Salmiah Kasolang."Studies on the Spray Characteristics of Pressure-Swirl Atomizers for Automatic Hand Sanitizer Application." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 55, no. 1 (2019): 51-64.
Harvard
Kamariah, M.I., Kahar, O., Azli, Y., Zulkifli, A.G., Ahmad Hussein, A.H., Salmiah, K., 2019. Studies on the Spray Characteristics of Pressure-Swirl Atomizers for Automatic Hand Sanitizer Application. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55(1), pp. 51-64.
Vancouver
Kamariah MI, Kahar O, Azli Y, Zulkifli AG, Ahmad Hussein AH, Salmiah K. Studies on the Spray Characteristics of Pressure-Swirl Atomizers for Automatic Hand Sanitizer Application. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;55(1): 51-64.

Desalination of Seawater through Gas Hydrate Process: An Overview
Muhammad Saad Khan, Bhajan Lal, Khalik Mohamad Sabil, Iqbal Ahmed
Page 65 - 73

Abstract
Potable water shortage affects more than 80 countries and 40% of the world population. It is predicted that over 60% of the human population would be exposed to water shortage by the end of 2020. Marine water represents an infinite water source since 98% of all global water is present in the form of oceans; therefore, seawater desalination is the most logical approach to meet freshwater demands. Currently, two dominant desalination methods are widely applicable includes reverse osmosis and multi-stage flash distillation. Although these technologies have been proven to be reasonably efficient, they still have some disadvantages, i.e., high capital investment or not feasible for minor scale. To overcome the limitations of the existing techniques, new technologies like Electro deionization (EDI), Freeze Separation (FS), Vacuum Compression Distillation (VCD) and Freezing with Hydrates (FH) must be seeking as future applications. Some recent researchers have highlighted the desalination with hydrates can produce cheaper desalted water than the existing available technologies. This study provides a brief review of the recent researches accomplished on the desalination of saline water through gas hydrate technology. It is evident from the literature that small amount of additives or hydrate promoters either significantly enhance the thermodynamic conditions of hydrate formation above the freezing point of water or increase the hydrate crystallization by improving the hydrate formation rates. This review paper will provide the roadmap for the potential application of hydrate technology in the field of water desalination.

Cite
MLA
Muhammad Saad, Khan et al. "Desalination of Seawater through Gas Hydrate Process: An Overview." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55.1 (2019): 65-73.
APA
Muhammad Saad, K., Bhajan, L., Khalik, M. S., & Iqbal, A.(2019). Desalination of Seawater through Gas Hydrate Process: An Overview. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 55(1), 65-73.
Chicago
Muhammad Saad Khan, Bhajan Lal, Khalik Mohamad Sabil, and Iqbal Ahmed."Desalination of Seawater through Gas Hydrate Process: An Overview." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 55, no. 1 (2019): 65-73.
Harvard
Muhammad Saad, K., Bhajan, L., Khalik, M.S., Iqbal, A., 2019. Desalination of Seawater through Gas Hydrate Process: An Overview. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55(1), pp. 65-73.
Vancouver
Muhammad Saad K, Bhajan L, Khalik MS, Iqbal A. Desalination of Seawater through Gas Hydrate Process: An Overview. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;55(1): 65-73.

Heat Transfer and Thermal Conductivity Enhancement using Graphene Nanofluid: A Review
Ali Hilo, Abd Rahim Abu Talib, Sadeq Rashid Nfawa, Mohamed Thariq Hameed Sultan, Mohd Faisal Abdul Hamid, M.I Nadiir Bheekhun
Page 74 - 87

Abstract
Among other nanoparticles, higher thermal conductivity can be found in Carbon nanostructures due to the low density and intrinsic thermal conductivity in comparison with metals or metal oxides. This paper has reviewed the results of different experiments that were done to examine the heat transfer capabilities of graphene nanofluids. An overview summary of the latest graphene nanofluid’s preparation methods in addition to some features that effect on the thermal conductivity such as viscosity, concentration, particles size and temperature has been provided. Furthermore, a critical review has been given to the convective heat transfer performances of graphene nanofluids. The paper showed that a significant result is found in using graphene nanofluids as a working fluid through tube channel to enhance heat transfer. In regard to the literature there is no study has been done on the influence of graphene nanofluids in facing step and corrugated.

Cite
MLA
Ali, Hilo et al. "Heat Transfer and Thermal Conductivity Enhancement using Graphene Nanofluid: A Review." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55.1 (2019): 74-87.
APA
Ali, H., Abd Rahim, A. T., Sadeq, R. N., Mohamed Thariq, H. S., Mohd Faisal, A. H., & M.I Nadiir, B.(2019). Heat Transfer and Thermal Conductivity Enhancement using Graphene Nanofluid: A Review. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 55(1), 74-87.
Chicago
Ali Hilo, Abd Rahim Abu Talib, Sadeq Rashid Nfawa, Mohamed Thariq Hameed Sultan, Mohd Faisal Abdul Hamid, and M.I Nadiir Bheekhun."Heat Transfer and Thermal Conductivity Enhancement using Graphene Nanofluid: A Review." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 55, no. 1 (2019): 74-87.
Harvard
Ali, H., Abd Rahim, A.T., Sadeq, R.N., Mohamed Thariq, H.S., Mohd Faisal, A.H., M.I Nadiir, B., 2019. Heat Transfer and Thermal Conductivity Enhancement using Graphene Nanofluid: A Review. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55(1), pp. 74-87.
Vancouver
Ali H, Abd Rahim AT, Sadeq RN, Mohamed Thariq HS, Mohd Faisal AH, MI Nadiir B. Heat Transfer and Thermal Conductivity Enhancement using Graphene Nanofluid: A Review. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;55(1): 74-87.

Optimization in Liquid-Vapor Region for Cryogenic based Separation Simulation of Natural Gas Components
Ali Qasim, Bhajan Lal, Muhammad Babar, Abulhassan Ali, Mohamad Azmi Bustam, Azmi Mohd Shariff
Page 88 - 101

Abstract
The liquid-vapor (L-V) and solid-vapor (S-V) domains of the natural gas mixture with high CO2 content and heavier hydrocarbons up to pentane for cryogenic separation have been obtained through simulation. The simulations are performed using Aspen HYSYS. The pressure-temperature phase diagram is generated for selected gaseous mixtures and the phase boundaries of both liquid-vapor region and solid-vapor region are identified. Optimized pressure and temperature conditions in liquid-vapor region have been found using response surface methodology through Design-Expert software. For gas mixture 1, the first set of condition from two set of optimized conditions for pressure and temperature is 38.04 bar and 0 °C while the second set of condition constitutes of 9.92 bar and -30 °C. The optimum pressure and temperature conditions for gas mixture 2 are 38.67 bar, 0 °C and 6.95 bar, -30 °C.

Cite
MLA
Ali, Qasim et al. "Optimization in Liquid-Vapor Region for Cryogenic based Separation Simulation of Natural Gas Components." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55.1 (2019): 88-101.
APA
Ali, Q., Bhajan, L., Muhammad, B., Abulhassan, A., Mohamad Azmi, B., & Azmi, M. S.(2019). Optimization in Liquid-Vapor Region for Cryogenic based Separation Simulation of Natural Gas Components. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 55(1), 88-101.
Chicago
Ali Qasim, Bhajan Lal, Muhammad Babar, Abulhassan Ali, Mohamad Azmi Bustam, and Azmi Mohd Shariff."Optimization in Liquid-Vapor Region for Cryogenic based Separation Simulation of Natural Gas Components." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 55, no. 1 (2019): 88-101.
Harvard
Ali, Q., Bhajan, L., Muhammad, B., Abulhassan, A., Mohamad Azmi, B., Azmi, M.S., 2019. Optimization in Liquid-Vapor Region for Cryogenic based Separation Simulation of Natural Gas Components. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55(1), pp. 88-101.
Vancouver
Ali Q, Bhajan L, Muhammad B, Abulhassan A, Mohamad Azmi B, Azmi MS. Optimization in Liquid-Vapor Region for Cryogenic based Separation Simulation of Natural Gas Components. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;55(1): 88-101.

Combination System of Spray Dryer and Low Evaporator Temperature Refrigeration for Drying Vitamine B1
Nanang Ruhyat, Engkos Achmad Kosasih, Warjito, IH Imansyah
Page 102 - 110

Abstract
This study explores a combination of spray drying and refrigeration systems on production of vitamin B1, which is known to be heat-sensitive. It analyzes the effect of drying air temperature on vitamin B1 levels and notes the related influence on production levels. In addition to temperature, productivity is influenced by moisture and drying airflow rates. In this study, air temperatures were set at 80, 110, and 140oC. Air humidity variations were carried out by changing the humidifier’s outlet air temperature to 10, 15, and 20oC. The airflow rate varied at 150, 300, and 450 lpm. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) testing methods was used to test the level of damage to vitamin B1 products. By setting the temperature of air passing through the evaporator at 10oC, the drying temperature at 140oC, and airflow rate at 450 lpm, damage to vitamin B1 can be minimized by 7.69%. The drying productivity with the refrigeration system is even 3 times larger than the result of the drying productivity with conventional methode. These results indicate that the combination of spray drying and refrigeration systems with low evaporator temperatures can have a significant positive impact on the production quality of vitamin B1.

Cite
MLA
Nanang, Ruhyat et al. "Combination System of Spray Dryer and Low Evaporator Temperature Refrigeration for Drying Vitamine B1." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55.1 (2019): 102-110.
APA
Nanang, R., Engkos, A. K., Warjito, & IH Imansyah.(2019). Combination System of Spray Dryer and Low Evaporator Temperature Refrigeration for Drying Vitamine B1. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 55(1), 102-110.
Chicago
Nanang Ruhyat, Engkos Achmad Kosasih, Warjito, and IH Imansyah."Combination System of Spray Dryer and Low Evaporator Temperature Refrigeration for Drying Vitamine B1." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 55, no. 1 (2019): 102-110.
Harvard
Nanang, R., Engkos, A.K., Warjito, IH Imansyah., 2019. Combination System of Spray Dryer and Low Evaporator Temperature Refrigeration for Drying Vitamine B1. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55(1), pp. 102-110.
Vancouver
Nanang R, Engkos AK, Warjito, IH Imansyah. Combination System of Spray Dryer and Low Evaporator Temperature Refrigeration for Drying Vitamine B1. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;55(1): 102-110.

Selectivity of Water Adsorbent Characteristic on Natural Zeolite in Cooling Application
Dyah Arum Wulandari, Nasruddin, Euis Djubaedah
Page 111 - 118

Abstract
The natural resources from Indonesia that can be used as an adsorbent are natural zeolite which could adsorb water but less use in cooling application although it is in abundant amount. One of the cooling systems that use less energy is adsorption. The measurement considerations of adsorbent are surface are, pore size, Si/Al ratio, type of zeolite and hydrophilic characteristic. The material being tested in this research is natural zeolite from Yogyakarta and Cikembar, Indonesia. This research analyzes the characteristic of the adsorbent including the BET surface area, pore volume, structural or morphologies characterization, and element composition from each natural zeolite. The result of this study showed that the BET surface area and pore volume of natural zeolite from Yogyakarta are one third smaller than Cikembar, but it has more hydrophilic of Si/Al ratio. Whereas the result of selectivity study between the two prove that both zeolite has better selectivity in each area that can be improve with post treatment or modification.

Cite
MLA
Dyah Arum, Wulandari et al. "Selectivity of Water Adsorbent Characteristic on Natural Zeolite in Cooling Application." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55.1 (2019): 111-118.
APA
Dyah Arum, W., Nasruddin, & Euis, D.(2019). Selectivity of Water Adsorbent Characteristic on Natural Zeolite in Cooling Application. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 55(1), 111-118.
Chicago
Dyah Arum Wulandari, Nasruddin, and Euis Djubaedah."Selectivity of Water Adsorbent Characteristic on Natural Zeolite in Cooling Application." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 55, no. 1 (2019): 111-118.
Harvard
Dyah Arum, W., Nasruddin, Euis, D., 2019. Selectivity of Water Adsorbent Characteristic on Natural Zeolite in Cooling Application. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55(1), pp. 111-118.
Vancouver
Dyah Arum W, Nasruddin, Euis D. Selectivity of Water Adsorbent Characteristic on Natural Zeolite in Cooling Application. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;55(1): 111-118.

Digital Anemometer and Solar Power Meter Analysis Measurements for Installation of Wind and Solar Hybrid Power Plants
Tatang Mulyana, Rasidi Ibrahim
Page 119 - 125

Abstract
This paper presents an analysis of the results of wind speed measurements using Digital Anemometer Model AM-4203 and solar power measurements using Digital Solar Power Meter Model SPM-1116SD from a location which will be used as a site to install a hybrid system of wind and solar power plants. The wind speed measurement data taken in 3421 seconds are recorded and displayed in graphical form between wind speed (m/s) and time (s). Meanwhile, the solar power measurement data taken in 111 seconds are recorded and displayed in graphical form between solar powers (W/m2) to seconds (s). The lowest wind speed measurement result is 0 m/s for some time and the highest is 3 m/s for 2880 seconds, while for the average measurement result is 1 m/s. While the lowest solar power measurement results are 20 W/m2 for some time and the highest is 770 W/m2 at 14:14:43 (23 s), while for the average measurement is 360 W/m2. Referring to such measurement data, the potential for wind power generation is weak, so it is almost impossible to produce energy efficiently using wind power, as the wind speed must be greater than 4 m/s. While based on the measurement profile of solar power, from time to time can reach 770 W/m2 which has the potential to generate electricity. In addition, based on these two measurement results, they show a nonlinear random profile. Thus the installation of hybrid wind and solar power plants must have a nonlinear control system design.

Cite
MLA
Tatang, Mulyana et al. "Digital Anemometer and Solar Power Meter Analysis Measurements for Installation of Wind and Solar Hybrid Power Plants." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55.1 (2019): 119-125.
APA
Tatang, M., & Rasidi, I.(2019). Digital Anemometer and Solar Power Meter Analysis Measurements for Installation of Wind and Solar Hybrid Power Plants. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 55(1), 119-125.
Chicago
Tatang Mulyana, and Rasidi Ibrahim."Digital Anemometer and Solar Power Meter Analysis Measurements for Installation of Wind and Solar Hybrid Power Plants." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 55, no. 1 (2019): 119-125.
Harvard
Tatang, M., Rasidi, I., 2019. Digital Anemometer and Solar Power Meter Analysis Measurements for Installation of Wind and Solar Hybrid Power Plants. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55(1), pp. 119-125.
Vancouver
Tatang M, Rasidi I. Digital Anemometer and Solar Power Meter Analysis Measurements for Installation of Wind and Solar Hybrid Power Plants. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;55(1): 119-125.

Study on Performance Improvement of the Savonius Wind Turbine for Urban Power System with Omni-directional Guide Vane (ODGV)
Dominicus Danardono Dwi Prija Tjahjana, Syamsul Hadi, Yoga Arob Wicaksono, Diniar Mungil Kurniawati, Fahrudin, Ilham Satrio Utomo, Sukmaji Indro Cahyono, Ari Prasetyo
Page 126 - 135

Abstract
The performance of a Savonius wind turbine was studied for urban power system application. The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of Omni-Directional Guide Vane (ODGV) on rotor performance. The wind tunnel experiment had been carried out on a Savonius rotor model. The ODGV was placed around the Savonius rotor in order to increase the ambient wind velocity to the wind turbine. The tests were performed at a different ODGV slope angle and incoming wind direction. The maximum power coefficient (Cpmax) obtained was 0.125 at 60o wind direction. The maximum power coefficient of a Savonius wind turbine with ODGV was 21.46% higher than the Savonius wind turbine without ODGV. The result showed that the ODGV had the potential to increase the performance of the Savonius wind turbine.

Cite
MLA
Dominicus Danardono Dwi, Prija Tjahjana et al. "Study on Performance Improvement of the Savonius Wind Turbine for Urban Power System with Omni-directional Guide Vane (ODGV)." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55.1 (2019): 126-135.
APA
Dominicus Danardono Dwi, P. T., Syamsul, H., Yoga, A. W., Diniar, M. K., Fahrudin, Ilham, S. U., Sukmaji, I. C., & Ari, P.(2019). Study on Performance Improvement of the Savonius Wind Turbine for Urban Power System with Omni-directional Guide Vane (ODGV). Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 55(1), 126-135.
Chicago
Dominicus Danardono Dwi Prija Tjahjana, Syamsul Hadi, Yoga Arob Wicaksono, Diniar Mungil Kurniawati, Fahrudin, Ilham Satrio Utomo, Sukmaji Indro Cahyono, and Ari Prasetyo."Study on Performance Improvement of the Savonius Wind Turbine for Urban Power System with Omni-directional Guide Vane (ODGV)." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 55, no. 1 (2019): 126-135.
Harvard
Dominicus Danardono Dwi, P.T., Syamsul, H., Yoga, A.W., Diniar, M.K., Fahrudin, Ilham, S.U., Sukmaji, I.C., Ari, P., 2019. Study on Performance Improvement of the Savonius Wind Turbine for Urban Power System with Omni-directional Guide Vane (ODGV). Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55(1), pp. 126-135.
Vancouver
Dominicus Danardono Dwi PT, Syamsul H, Yoga AW, Diniar MK, Fahrudin Ilham SU, Sukmaji IC, Ari P. Study on Performance Improvement of the Savonius Wind Turbine for Urban Power System with Omni-directional Guide Vane (ODGV). Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;55(1): 126-135.

Volume 55, No. 2 (March, 2019)
Characteristics of the Internal Fluid Flow Field Induced by an Oscillating Plate with the other Parallel Plate Stationary
Hor Chee Hao, Chih Ping Tso, Gooi Mee Chen, Chee Kuang Kok
Page 136 – 141
Abstract
The analytical solution to the internal fluid flow induced by an oscillating plate with the other parallel plate stationary is derived and the results explored fully. The unsteady analytical solution is obtained by using Duhamel’s theorem. The result is analysed nondimensionally with respect to variations in the gap, the time and the parameter ?? . Results reveal that the wide variation in fluid flow is strongly depending on the dimensionless parameter ?? . The present governing equation is modelled numerically with same conditions and at selected ?? = 1 and ?? = 10, respectively, the numerical results are able to match with the analytical solution remarkably well.

Cite
MLA
Hor, Chee Hao et al. "Characteristics of the Internal Fluid Flow Field Induced by an Oscillating Plate with the other Parallel Plate Stationary." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55.2 (2019): 136-141.
APA
Hor, C. H., Chih, P. T., Gooi, M. C., & Chee, K. K.(2019). Characteristics of the Internal Fluid Flow Field Induced by an Oscillating Plate with the other Parallel Plate Stationary. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 55(2), 136-141.
Chicago
Hor Chee Hao, Chih Ping Tso, Gooi Mee Chen, and Chee Kuang Kok." Characteristics of the Internal Fluid Flow Field Induced by an Oscillating Plate with the other Parallel Plate Stationary." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 55, no. 2 (2019): 136-141.
Harvard
Hor, C.H., Chih, P.T., Gooi, M.C., Chee, K.K., 2019. Characteristics of the Internal Fluid Flow Field Induced by an Oscillating Plate with the other Parallel Plate Stationary. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55(2), pp. 136-141.
Vancouver
Hor CH, Chih PT, Gooi MC, Chee KK. Characteristics of the Internal Fluid Flow Field Induced by an Oscillating Plate with the other Parallel Plate Stationary. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;55(2): 136-141.

Modelling and Thermal Analysis of Organic Rankine Cycle with Superheater and Preheater
Syamimi Saadon, Nur Athirah Mohd Nasir
Page 142 - 149

Abstract
Escalating fuel prices and carbon dioxide emission are causing new interest in methods the waste heat rejected to the environment and at the same time that can minimize the usage of fuel. One viable means is the conversion of exhaust engine waste heat to a more useful form of energy. The aim of this study is to model and investigate the thermal performance of an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system which is used as waste heat recovery of exhaust gas from a turbofan engine. A simulation study has been done on the ORC in two different types of system configurations in order to predict which design will give a better thermal performance. Parameters such as net power output and the ORC system efficiency are used to represent and compare the thermal performance of both of the designs. The simulation is done by using MATLAB and REFPROP. The selection of the best configurations is based on the thermal efficiency of the system. It is found that the ORC system with superheater gives a better thermal efficiency that the one with preheater. The results also show that thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC) of the turbofan engine reach a lower value by using ORC with superheater instead of with preheater. Hence implementation of ORC system for waste heat recovery to an aircraft engine can bring a great potential to the aviation industry.

Cite
MLA
Syamimi, Saadon et al. "Modelling and Thermal Analysis of Organic Rankine Cycle with Superheater and Preheater." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55.2 (2019): 142-149.
APA
Syamimi, S., & Nur Athirah, M. N.(2019). Modelling and Thermal Analysis of Organic Rankine Cycle with Superheater and Preheater. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 55(2), 142-149.
Chicago
Syamimi Saadon, and Nur Athirah Mohd Nasir."Modelling and Thermal Analysis of Organic Rankine Cycle with Superheater and Preheater." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 55, no. 2 (2019): 142-149.
Harvard
Syamimi, S., Nur Athirah, M.N., 2019. Modelling and Thermal Analysis of Organic Rankine Cycle with Superheater and Preheater. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55(2), pp. 142-149.
Vancouver
Syamimi S, Nur Athirah MN. Modelling and Thermal Analysis of Organic Rankine Cycle with Superheater and Preheater. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;55(2): 142-149.

Effect of Flow Patterns on Two-Phase Flow Rate in Vertical Pipes
Tarek Ganat, Meftah Hrairi
Page 150 - 160

Abstract
During two-phase gas-liquid flow in pipelines, the fluids may take up different flow patterns. The exact nature of the flow pattern varies according to conduit size and geometry, fluids’ properties, and each phase’s velocity. When the conduit size and fluid properties are constant, then any changes in individual flow rates will result in changes to the flow regime. Predicting the flow patterns within a pipe is essential as it is a critical parameter that determines the pressure gradient and liquid holdup in the conduit. This paper presents the results in predicting the multiphase flow patterns and their effects on flow measurements in vertical pipes. The study was conducted on vertical upward multiphase flow using well and reservoir properties. OLGA dynamic simulator was used to predict flow pattern in a vertical pipeline for 35 oil wells using electrical submersible pumps (ESP) with external pipe diameters of 3.5 inch. The predicted oil flow rates of 35 ESP oil wells were compared with measured flow rates and a good agreement was observed. Indeed, the results indicated that the variation of the flow pattern had insignificant impact and it was insensitive to the accuracy of the flow rate values of the ESP oil wells where the average overall flow rates accuracy was lower than +/-10%. Additionally, simulation results demonstrated a promising model performance and showed the magnitude of possible variation between the oil rates measured with different methods.

Cite
MLA
Tarek, Ganat et al. "Effect of Flow Patterns on Two-Phase Flow Rate in Vertical Pipes." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55.2 (2019): 150-160.
APA
Tarek, G., & Meftah, H.(2019). Effect of Flow Patterns on Two-Phase Flow Rate in Vertical Pipes. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 55(2), 150-160.
Chicago
Tarek Ganat, and Meftah Hrairi." Effect of Flow Patterns on Two-Phase Flow Rate in Vertical Pipes." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 55, no. 2 (2019): 150-160.
Harvard
Tarek, G., Meftah, H., 2019. Effect of Flow Patterns on Two-Phase Flow Rate in Vertical Pipes. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55(2), pp. 150-160.
Vancouver
Tarek G, Meftah H. Effect of Flow Patterns on Two-Phase Flow Rate in Vertical Pipes. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;55(2): 150-160.

An Experimental Study on Structure of Jet Injected into Crossflow
Ni-oh Puzu, Suteera Prasertsan, Makatar Wae-hayee, Chayut Nuntadusit
Page 161 - 174

Abstract
Flow characteristics of a circular jet which was injected normal into the crossflow on flat plate, has been investigated by temperature measurement and flow visualization. The effect of jet-crossflow momentum flux ratio on jet flow behavior was studied by fixing the crossflow velocity and changing the velocity of jet flow. The experimental study was divided in two parts. First part, the flow visualization was done in water tunnel using Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique. Second part, the temperature of air jet flow was quantitatively measured with thermocouples and visualized the jet flow trajectory with smoke technique. The jet flow after injecting into crossflow had dome-shape structure and attached to the downstream surface for case of jet-crossflow momentum flux ratio less than 0.25. The results showed that the dome-shape structure was observed at the near field, while the Counter Rotating Vortex Pairs, CRVP appeared after that. When the jet was deep penetrated into the crossflow and moved away from the surface, which indicated jet-crossflow momentum flux ratio higher than 1.0, the jet flow had kidney-shape cross section and CRVP suddenly occurred in jet cross section behind the jet exit.

Cite
MLA
Ni-oh, Puzu et al. "An Experimental Study on Structure of Jet Injected into Crossflow." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55.2 (2019): 161-174.
APA
Ni-oh, P., Suteera, P., Makatar, W. H, & Chayut, N.(2019). An Experimental Study on Structure of Jet Injected into Crossflow. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 55(2), 161-174.
Chicago
Ni-oh Puzu, Suteera Prasertsan, Makatar Wae-hayee, and Chayut Nuntadusit."An Experimental Study on Structure of Jet Injected into Crossflow." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 55, no. 2 (2019): 161-174.
Harvard
Ni-oh, P., Suteera, P., Makatar, W.H, Chayut, N., 2019. An Experimental Study on Structure of Jet Injected into Crossflow. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55(2), pp. 161-174.
Vancouver
Ni-oh P, Suteera P, Makatar WH, Chayut N. An Experimental Study on Structure of Jet Injected into Crossflow. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;55(2): 161-174.

Reversible Longitudinal Smoke Extraction System in Enclosed Underground Parking Structure
Kong Kok Haw, Chong Wen Tong, Koh Voon Li
Page 175 - 188

Abstract
City urbanization induces many mega mixed development projects. Expansion and utilization of the underground space is an alternative to overcome the cost of superhigh-rise buildings. Storing and managing vehicles in underground space predispose these buildings to fire hazards. Some passive requirements stated in Uniform Building By-Law Malaysia 1984 are difficult to comply with. Limitations in allocating fan rooms and large duct work design are some of the major drawbacks in the design of a large enclosed underground parking structure. Because the reversible longitudinal smoke extraction systems are well applicable to trains and road tunnels, this paper investigated the performance of this smoke extraction system in a confined long and flat underground parking structure and enlarging the fire compartmentation by four times. In this reversible scheme, fan shafts installed at fire zones are operated as extraction shafts, whereas fan shafts positioned in adjacent areas are running as makeup air. Results showed that the reversible longitudinal smoke extraction system is applicable to retain the smoke within the fire zone in the underground parking structure.

Cite
MLA
Kong, Kok Haw et al. "Reversible Longitudinal Smoke Extraction System in Enclosed Underground Parking Structure." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55.2 (2019): 175-188.
APA
Kong, K. H., Chong, W. T., & Koh, V. L.(2019). Reversible Longitudinal Smoke Extraction System in Enclosed Underground Parking Structure. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 55(2), 175-188.
Chicago
Kong Kok Haw, Chong Wen Tong, and Koh Voon Li."Reversible Longitudinal Smoke Extraction System in Enclosed Underground Parking Structure." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 55, no. 2 (2019): 175-188.
Harvard
Kong, K.H., Chong, W.T., Koh, V.L., 2019. Reversible Longitudinal Smoke Extraction System in Enclosed Underground Parking Structure. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55(2), pp. 175-188.
Vancouver
Kong KH, Chong WT, Koh VL. Reversible Longitudinal Smoke Extraction System in Enclosed Underground Parking Structure. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;55(2): 175-188.

Effect of Location in a Cylinder Wake on Dynamics of a Flexible Energy Harvesting Plate
Mohammad Rasidi Rasani, Ahmad Kamal Ariffin, Musa Bashir, Jin Wang
Page 189 - 198

Abstract
Flexible plate in the wake of a bluff body may be exploited to harvest energy, for example by attaching piezoelectric sheets on both surfaces of the plate. A computational investigation on flow-induced vibration of a flexible plate in the wake of a cylinder is undertaken to understand the effects of plate location on their vibrations and hence, energy harvesting potential. Based on cylinder diameter D (0.1m), flow at a sub-critical Reynolds number of 10000 was considered in the present study. The fluid-structure interaction was implemented via a closely-coupled partitioned scheme that employs a Scale-Adaptive Simulation (SAS) of the Shear Stress Transport (SST) method to model flow turbulence. A flexible plate was placed at several locations (streamwise: x/D = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0; crossflow: y/D = 0, 0.25, 0.5) downstream of the cylinder and their flow-induced response were compiled and analysed. Benchmarking of present model showed good agreement with previous experimental investigations. Results suggest that maximum deflection may be found if flexible plate is placed in the region between cylinder surface and x/D < 1.0. Oscillation of flexible plate placed at y/D = 0.25 shows similar amplitude, if not slightly higher, than if plate is placed at wake centerline. Present findings suggest that energy output may be optimised by positioning flexible energy harvesting plates at favourable locations in the wake region.

Cite
MLA
Mohammad Rasidi, Rasani et al. "Effect of Location in a Cylinder Wake on Dynamics of a Flexible Energy Harvesting Plate." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55.2 (2019): 189-198.
APA
Mohammad Rasidi, R., Ahmad Kamal, A., Musa, B., & Jin, W.(2019). Effect of Location in a Cylinder Wake on Dynamics of a Flexible Energy Harvesting Plate. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 55(2), 189-198.
Chicago
Mohammad Rasidi Rasani, Ahmad Kamal Ariffin, Musa Bashir, and Jin Wang."Effect of Location in a Cylinder Wake on Dynamics of a Flexible Energy Harvesting Plate." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 55, no. 2 (2019): 189-198.
Harvard
Mohammad Rasidi, R., Ahmad Kamal, A., Musa, B., Jin, W., 2019. Effect of Location in a Cylinder Wake on Dynamics of a Flexible Energy Harvesting Plate. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55(2), pp. 189-198.
Vancouver
Mohammad Rasidi R, Ahmad Kamal A, Musa B, Jin W. Effect of Location in a Cylinder Wake on Dynamics of a Flexible Energy Harvesting Plate. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;55(2): 189-198.

Physicochemical Characteristics of Bionanocomposites, Polycaprolactone/Starch/Cocoa Pod Husk Microfibrillated Cellulose
Dzun Noraini Jimat, Farahiyah Adi Putra, Sarina Sulaiman, Yusilawati Ahmad Nor, Nor Fadhillah Mohamed Azmin, Sharifah Shahira Syed Putra
Page 199 - 208

Abstract
The development of biocomposites has increased due to their biodegradability, renewability, and high specific strength which are comparable with other polymer composites. Even though, the conventional composites are still in high demand due to their durability, however, it cannot decompose and the accumulation of these wastes for a long period is harmful to the living things and to the environment. Therefore, in this study the biodegradable polymers, polycaprolactone (PCL) and starch were selected in this study to synthesize bionanocomposite incorporated with microfibrillated cellulose (MFC). The microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) was extracted from cocoa pod husk (CPH–MFC) and was mixed with PCL and starch, where its amount was varied between 3-10wt%. The prepared bionanocomposites were characterised in terms of its water uptake rate, and structural and thermal properties using Fourier transform infared spectroscopy (FTIR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The morphology analysis using scanning electron microscope (SEM) shows that the CPH– MFC extracted was in nanoscale size. The percentage of water uptake of the prepared bionanocomposites increased with the amount of CPH–MFC. Meanwhile, the FTIR spectra of the prepared bionanocomposites showed almost similar characteristic peaks with the FTIR spectra of pure PCL. DSC analysis showed that the melting temperature increased as the amount of CPH–MFC increased. This study justifies that the incorporation of CPH–MFC with the PCL–starch matrix improved the water uptake rate and thermal properties but did not show significant changes to the structure of PCL.

Cite
MLA
Dzun Noraini, Jimat et al. "Physicochemical Characteristics of Bionanocomposites, Polycaprolactone/Starch/Cocoa Pod Husk Microfibrillated Cellulose." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55.2 (2019): 199-208.
APA
Dzun Noraini, J., Farahiyah, A. P., Sarina, S., Yusilawati, A. N., Nor Fadhillah, M. A., & Sharifah Shahira, S. P.(2019). Physicochemical Characteristics of Bionanocomposites, Polycaprolactone/Starch/Cocoa Pod Husk Microfibrillated Cellulose. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 55(2), 199-208.
Chicago
Dzun Noraini Jimat, Farahiyah Adi Putra, Sarina Sulaiman, Yusilawati Ahmad Nor, Nor Fadhillah Mohamed Azmin, and Sharifah Shahira Syed Putra."Physicochemical Characteristics of Bionanocomposites, Polycaprolactone/Starch/Cocoa Pod Husk Microfibrillated Cellulose." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 55, no. 2 (2019): 199-208.
Harvard
Dzun Noraini, J., Farahiyah, A.P., Sarina, S., Yusilawati, A.N., Nor Fadhillah, M.A., Sharifah Shahira, S. P., 2019. Physicochemical Characteristics of Bionanocomposites, Polycaprolactone/Starch/Cocoa Pod Husk Microfibrillated Cellulose. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55(2), pp. 199-208.
Vancouver
Dzun Noraini J, Farahiyah AP, Sarina S, Yusilawati AN, Nor Fadhillah MA, Sharifah Shahira SP. Physicochemical Characteristics of Bionanocomposites, Polycaprolactone/Starch/Cocoa Pod Husk Microfibrillated Cellulose. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;55(2): 199-208.

Experimental Investigation of Modified Direct Evaporative Cooler Using Heat Pipe
Bintang Fikri, Nandy Putra, Adi Winarta, Nasruddin A. Abdullah, Bambang Ariantara
Page 209 - 217

Abstract
Nowadays, keeping environment at comfort zone with conventional cooler become expensive, especially in wide and semi outdoor spaces. Evaporative cooler which offer a healthy, non-harmful materials, and low cost can be an alternative to keep environment healthy and comfortable. The objective of this experiment is to determine and compare the performance of direct evaporative cooler embedded with heat pipes and without heat pipes. Heat pipes are placed in the section before cooling pad and work as indirect stage. Evaporator sections of heat pipe are placed before cooling pad and the condenser section are placed in the addition sump. The results show that the saturation efficiency of both system increase along with the increase in inlet temperature and decrease along with the decrease in relative humidity. The saturation efficiency also decreases along with the increase in air velocity. The results also show that the saturation efficiency of modified evaporative cooler using heat pipe is higher than direct evaporative cooler. The addition of heat pipes can increase the saturation efficiency of direct evaporative cooler up to 1.03 without addition more power consumption.

Cite
MLA
Bintang, Fikri et al. "Experimental Investigation of Modified Direct Evaporative Cooler Using Heat Pipe." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55.2 (2019): 209-217.
APA
Bintang, F., Nandy, P., Adi, W., Nasruddin, A. A., & Bambang, A.(2019). Experimental Investigation of Modified Direct Evaporative Cooler Using Heat Pipe. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 55(2), 209-217.
Chicago
Bintang Fikri, Nandy Putra, Adi Winarta, Nasruddin A. Abdullah, and Bambang Ariantara."Experimental Investigation of Modified Direct Evaporative Cooler Using Heat Pipe." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 55, no. 2 (2019): 209-217.
Harvard
Bintang, F., Nandy, P., Adi, W., Nasruddin, A.A., Bambang, A., 2019. Experimental Investigation of Modified Direct Evaporative Cooler Using Heat Pipe. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55(2), pp. 209-217.
Vancouver
Bintang F, Nandy P, Adi W, Nasruddin AA, Bambang A. Experimental Investigation of Modified Direct Evaporative Cooler Using Heat Pipe. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;55(2): 209-217.

Study of Maxwell Nanofluid Flow Over a Stretching Sheet with Non-uniform Heat Source/Sink with External Magnetic Field
Sushma V. Jakati, Raju B. T., Achala L. Nargund, S. B. Sathyanarayana
Page 218 - 232

Abstract
In this paper we study the effect of Brownian motion and Thermophorosis on Maxwell nanofluid flow over a linearly stretching sheet under the influence of oblique external magnetic field. The impact of cross diffusion, frictional heat and irregular heat are considered to be prominent. The effect of inclination of magnetic field and nonuniform heat source/sink on fluid velocity, temperature and nanoparticle concentration are analyzed and depicted in graphs. It is observed that as inclination of magnetic field increases, temperature and nanoparticle concentration also increases whereas fluid velocity decreases. The effect of Dufour number D, Eckrect number Ec, Prandtl number Pr, Brownian motion parameter Nb, Thermophorosis parameter Nt, and Lewis number Le are also studied.

Cite
MLA
Sushma, V. Jakati et al. "Study of Maxwell Nanofluid Flow Over a Stretching Sheet with Non-uniform Heat Source/Sink with External Magnetic Field." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55.2 (2019): 218-232.
APA
Sushma, V. J., Raju, B.T., Achala, L. N., & S. B. Sathyanarayana.(2019). Study of Maxwell Nanofluid Flow Over a Stretching Sheet with Non-uniform Heat Source/Sink with External Magnetic Field. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 55(2), 218-232.
Chicago
Sushma V. Jakati, Raju B. T., Achala L. Nargund, and S. B. Sathyanarayana."Study of Maxwell Nanofluid Flow Over a Stretching Sheet with Non-uniform Heat Source/Sink with External Magnetic Field." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 55, no. 2 (2019): 218-232.
Harvard
Sushma, V.J., Raju, B.T., Achala, L.N., S. B. Sathyanarayana., 2019. Study of Maxwell Nanofluid Flow Over a Stretching Sheet with Non-uniform Heat Source/Sink with External Magnetic Field. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55(2), pp. 218-232.
Vancouver
Sushma VJ, Raju BT, Achala LN, SB Sathyanarayana. Study of Maxwell Nanofluid Flow Over a Stretching Sheet with Non-uniform Heat Source/Sink with External Magnetic Field. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;55(2): 218-232.

Effect of Isothermal Heat Treatment on Hardness of X7475 Aluminium Alloys
Abubakar Kazeem, Nur Azam Badarulzaman, Wan Fahmin Faiz Wan Ali
Page 233 - 239

Abstract
The heterogeneous nature of microstructure in most as-cast alloys has created the unique properties for an ally before heat treatments. The scanty nature of scholarly articles on the effect of heat treatments on the hardness of new alloys produced from recycled aluminium alloys prompts this investigation. In this work, we upgraded from 3 series to 7 series alloys to form a new material. Previous attempts were also silent on the Alcao Green Letter specifications of the 7 series alloys, hence producing a 7475 alloy that may not be within the Alcao specifications. This paper presents the result of preliminary studies on new experimental X7475 Al-alloy that was produced per Alcoa Green Letter specifications, with variations of Zn (4.0 – 5.0 wt.%), Mg (1.00 – 1.50 wt.%) and Mn (0.025 – 0.075 wt.%), then subjected to microhardness probe under a load of 490.3mN (0.05Hv) and 10sec duration after isothermal and isochronous “O”, T4 and T6 heat treatments. Heating and cooling rates were controlled during heat treatment processes to investigate the effects on the formation of the MgZn2 and other precipitates on the mechanical properties of the alloy. Peak obtainable hardness value of 140.45 Hv and 134.32 Hv are attained within the T6 and T4 conditions in an alloy of 4% and 5% Zn respectively. The increase in wt.% of Zn favours mechanical properties while reverse is the case for Manganese. This result is an indication of the load bearing capacity of our alloy. It has also demonstrated the success in upgrading the 3 series to 7 series alloys from secondary materials. However, the result could be improved on after composition, heat treatments and production route optimization.

Cite
MLA
Abubakar, Kazeem et al. "Effect of Isothermal Heat Treatment on Hardness of X7475 Aluminium Alloys." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55.2 (2019): 233-239.
APA
Abubakar, K., Nur Azam, B., & Wan Fahmin Faiz, W. A.(2019). Effect of Isothermal Heat Treatment on Hardness of X7475 Aluminium Alloys. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 55(2), 233-239.
Chicago
Abubakar Kazeem, Nur Azam Badarulzaman, and Wan Fahmin Faiz Wan Ali." Effect of Isothermal Heat Treatment on Hardness of X7475 Aluminium Alloys." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 55, no. 2 (2019): 233-239.
Harvard
Abubakar, K., Nur Azam, B., Wan Fahmin Faiz, W.A., 2019. Effect of Isothermal Heat Treatment on Hardness of X7475 Aluminium Alloys. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55(2), pp. 233-239.
Vancouver
Abubakar K, Nur Azam B, Wan Fahmin Faiz WA. Effect of Isothermal Heat Treatment on Hardness of X7475 Aluminium Alloys. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;55(2): 233-239.

Characterization of Vehicle Smart Fluid using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS)
Mohd Hishamuddin Unuh, Pauziah Muhamad, Nur Fathiah Waziralilah, Mohd Hafiz Amran
Page 240 - 248

Abstract
The great properties of magnetorheological (MR) fluid have amplified the request to create more type of MR fluid. Despite numerous studies suggesting many formulations in this area, their role in the vehicle industry is still far from ready for any practical applications. In this study, individual components of the carrier fluid in an original equipment manufacturer (OEM) smart fluid preferably acknowledged as MR fluid that contributes to the development of stress has been investigated. The carrier fluid components were identified through gas chromatography (GC) techniques coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) analysis over a range of retention time and computer matching with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) library. The data is statistically analysed to predict the potential material use as a carrier fluid in MR fluid. It was found that a total of seven components with a noble match and high probability were successfully identified. The MR fluid exhibited oily properties were related to the presence of alkane hydrocarbons components, of which Heptadecane (0.98%), Nonadecane (0.61%), Tetratetracontane (1.72%) and Eicosane (7.94%) respectively. The results also revealed that the number of additives present in the mixture was more than one with a higher concentration percentage. The additives have a major influence on the overall magnetorheological effects of the MR fluid.

Cite
MLA
Mohd Hishamuddin, Unuh et al. "Characterization of Vehicle Smart Fluid using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS)." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55.2 (2019): 240-248.
APA
Mohd Hishamuddin, U., Pauziah, M., Nur Fathiah, W., & Mohd Hafiz, A.(2019). Characterization of Vehicle Smart Fluid using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 55(2), 240-248.
Chicago
Mohd Hishamuddin Unuh, Pauziah Muhamad, Nur Fathiah Waziralilah, and Mohd Hafiz Amran."Characterization of Vehicle Smart Fluid using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS)." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 55, no. 2 (2019): 240-248.
Harvard
Mohd Hishamuddin, U., Pauziah, M., Nur Fathiah, W., Mohd Hafiz, A., 2019. Characterization of Vehicle Smart Fluid using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55(2), pp. 240-248.
Vancouver
Mohd Hishamuddin U, Pauziah M, Nur Fathiah W, Mohd Hafiz A. Characterization of Vehicle Smart Fluid using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GCMS). Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;55(2): 240-248.

Analysis of Wake Region Behind Bluff Body for Piezoelectric Energy Harvester
Mohd Nor Fakhzan Mohd Kazim, Rasidi Rasani, Mohd Zaki Nuawi, Zamri Harun, Yap Khang Hau, Mohd Shukry Abdul Majid
Page 249 - 263

Abstract
Inspired by enhancement of vortex induced vibration energy harvesting as a green and renewable energy source, several geometry shapes such as cylinder, square, triangle, D shape, and U shape bluff body were studied in terms of vortex shedding frequency, vorticity and pressure difference in order to determine the best bluff body for piezoelectric film. A 2-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation analysis is carried out with the length and height of bluff body fixed as 0.1 m and air flow used for simulations are 0.0438 m/s, 0.292 m/s, and 0.73 m/s which corresponds to Reynolds number (Re) of 300, 2000, and 5000. Overall, cylinder, triangle, and D shape bluff body gives a higher vortex shedding frequency and Strouhal Number (St) compare to square and U shape. Triangle bluff body was able to maintain the highest vorticity for all three difference air speeds. It is found that maximum vorticity point will move backwards when higher air velocity is simulated. Nevertheless, triangle bluff body gave the highest-pressure difference reading among all tested shapes. In conclusion, triangle shape bluff body is the most suitable shape for inducing vortex shedding to piezoelectric film and it is suggested the length of the piezoelectric beam is between 0.05m and 0.15m.

Cite
MLA
Mohd Nor Fakhzan, Mohd Kazim et al. "Analysis of Wake Region Behind Bluff Body for Piezoelectric Energy Harvester." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55.2 (2019): 249-263.
APA
Mohd Nor Fakhzan, M. K., Rasidi, R., Mohd Zaki, N., Zamri, H., Yap, K. H., & Mohd Shukry, A. M.(2019). Analysis of Wake Region Behind Bluff Body for Piezoelectric Energy Harvester. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 55(2), 249-263.
Chicago
Mohd Nor Fakhzan Mohd Kazim, Rasidi Rasani, Mohd Zaki Nuawi, Zamri Harun, Yap Khang Hau, and Mohd Shukry Abdul Majid."Analysis of Wake Region Behind Bluff Body for Piezoelectric Energy Harvester." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 55, no. 2 (2019): 249-263.
Harvard
Mohd Nor Fakhzan, M.K., Rasidi, R., Mohd Zaki, N., Zamri, H., Yap, K.H., Mohd Shukry, A.M., 2019. Analysis of Wake Region Behind Bluff Body for Piezoelectric Energy Harvester. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55(2), pp. 249-263.
Vancouver
Mohd Nor Fakhzan MK, Rasidi R, Mohd Zaki N, Zamri H, Yap KH, Mohd Shukry AM. Analysis of Wake Region Behind Bluff Body for Piezoelectric Energy Harvester. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;55(2): 249-263.

Preliminary Experiment of Vertical Straight Wickless-Heat Pipe as Passive Cooling System in Irradiator
Kukuh Prayogo, Nandy Putra, Mukhsinun Hadi Kusuma, Adi Winarta, Bambang Ariantara
Page 264 - 271

Abstract
The multipurpose Irradiator in Indonesia with capacity of 2 MCi Co-60 radioactive source was built to support food security. When not operated, the Co-60 is stored in the pool to keep the radiation not to exposure to environment. The decay heat generation of Co-60 could increase the pool water temperature. To improve safety especially during SBO conditions, the pool water should be passively cooled using a vertical straight wickless-heat pipe. The objective of this experimental study is to investigate the heat transfer phenomena and the thermal performance of the vertical straight wickless-heat pipe as passive cooling system in the irradiator pool. Vertical straight wickless-heat pipe with inner diameter of 57 mm and total length of 1000 mm was charged with demineralized water of working fluid with filling ratio of 55%. This experiment was conducted with varied pool temperature, and air coolant velocity in the condenser section. The experiment results obtained that the lowest thermal resistance of wickless-heat pipe is 0.03 °C/W when heat pipe is operated at pool temperature of 90ºC and air coolant velocity of 1 m/s. It can be concluded that the vertical straight wickless-heat pipe has good thermal performance to absorb the heat generation in the irradiator pool. The results of this study are expected to provide a more complete management thermal knowledge to improve the safety of Irradiator.

Cite
MLA
Kukuh, Prayogo et al. "Preliminary Experiment of Vertical Straight Wickless-Heat Pipe as Passive Cooling System in Irradiator." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55.2 (2019): 264-271.
APA
Kukuh, P., Nandy, P., Mukhsinun, H. K., Adi, W., & Bambang, A.(2019). Preliminary Experiment of Vertical Straight Wickless-Heat Pipe as Passive Cooling System in Irradiator. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 55(2), 264-271.
Chicago
Kukuh Prayogo, Nandy Putra, Mukhsinun Hadi Kusuma, Adi Winarta, and Bambang Ariantara."Preliminary Experiment of Vertical Straight Wickless-Heat Pipe as Passive Cooling System in Irradiator." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences." 55, no. 2 (2019): 264-271.
Harvard
Kukuh, P., Nandy, P., Mukhsinun, H.K., Adi, W., Bambang, A., 2019. Preliminary Experiment of Vertical Straight Wickless-Heat Pipe as Passive Cooling System in Irradiator. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 55(2), pp. 264-271.
Vancouver
Kukuh P, Nandy P, Mukhsinun HK, Adi W, Bambang A. Preliminary Experiment of Vertical Straight Wickless-Heat Pipe as Passive Cooling System in Irradiator. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;55(2): 264-271.

Volume 56, No. 1 (April, 2019)
Developing Flow of Power-Law Fluids in Circular Tube Having Superhydrophobic Transverse Grooves
Ming Wei Lee, Kok Hwa Yu, Yew Heng Teoh, Han Wei Lee, Mohd Azmi Ismail
Page 1 – 9

Flow Characteristics of Transition Region Between Laminar and Turbulent Gas Flows Through Micro-Tubes
Kenshi Maeda, Chungpyo Hong, Yutaka Asako
Page 10 – 19

Effect of Coriolis Force and Magnetic Field on Thermal Convection in an Anisotropic Porous Medium
Nadia Diana Mohd Rusdi, Nor Fadzillah Mohd Mokhtar, Norazak Senu, Siti Suzilliana Putri, Mohamed Isa
Page 20 – 30

Optimum Tilt Angle for Solar Collectors used in Kano, Nigeria
Bala Abdullahi, Saidu Bello Abubakar, Nura Mu’az Muhammad, R. K. AL-Dadah, S. Mahmoud
Page 31 – 42

Effect of Nonlinear Temperature Profile on Thermal Convection in a Binary Fluid Saturated an Anisotropic Porous Medium
Nur Zarifah Abdul Hamid, Nor Fadzillah Mohd Mokhtar,Norihan Md Arifin, Mohammad Hasan Abdul Sathar
Page 43 – 58

F-Chart Method for Design Domestic Hot Water Heating System in Ayer Keroh Melaka
Mohd Afzanizam Mohd Rosli, Danial Shafiq Mohd Zaki, Fatiha Abdul Rahman, Suhaila Sepeai, Nurfaizey Abdul Hamid, Muhammad Zaid Nawam
Page 59 – 67

Experimental Study for Heat Pipe Applications on Low Enthalpy Geothermal Energy Utilization for Agricultural Products Dryers
Imansyah Ibnu Hakim, Nandy Putra, Yohanes Gunawan
Page 68 – 77

Experimental Investigation of Thermally Induced Vibration in Sulphur Recovery Unit (SRU)
Abdul Razak Abdul Rahman, Eddy Azrai Ariffin, Muhammad Helmi Abu, Fudhail Abdul Munir, Azma Putra
Page 78 – 87

Heat Transfer Network and Correlation for A Double-Layered Microchannel Heat Sink
Jia-Wei Zuo, Kok-Cheong Wong, Hoon Kiat Ng
Page 88 – 99

Influence of Variable Liquid Properties on Mixed Convective MHD Flow over a Slippery Slender Elastic Sheet with Convective Boundary Condition
K. V. Prasad, Hanumesh Vaidya, K. Vajravelu, U. B. Vishwanatha
Page 100 – 123

Evaluation of Charging Profile and Thermal Behaviour of Lead
Acid Battery

Mohd Firdaus Mohd Ab Halim, Khalil Azha Mohd Annuar, Mohamad Haniff Harun, Ilham Sabirin, Muhammad Firdaus Ahmad Kamal
Page 124 – 132

Effect of Water Cooling Temperature on Photovoltaic Panel Performance by Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
Leow Wai Zhe, Mohd. Irwan Yusoff, Amelia Abd Razak, Muhammad Irwanto Misrun, Safwati Ibrahim, Muhammad Izuan Fahmi, Afifah Shuhada Rosmi
Page 133 – 146

The Thermal Performance of Three-Layered Microchannel Heat Sink with Tapered Channel Profile
Jia-Wei Zuo, Kok-Cheong Wong, Hoon Kiat Ng
Page 147 – 156

Volume 56, No. 2 (April, 2019)
Tribological Analysis of Modified RBD Palm Kernel Containing Anti-oxidant Additive using Four-ball Tribotester
Muhammad Arif Dandan, Syahrullail Samion, Wan Mohamad Aiman Wan Yahaya, Faris Hadi
Page 157 – 164

MHD Micropolar Nanofluid Flow over an Exponentially Stretching/Shrinking Surface: Triple Solutions
Sumera Dero, Azizah Mohd Rohni, Azizan Saaban
Page 165 – 174

The Influence of Thickness on Low Carbon Steel in Rapid Cooling Process
Norazlianie Sazali, Wan Norharyati Wan Salleh, Ihsan Naiman Ibrahim, Haziqatulhanis Ibrahim, Mohd Syafiq Sharip
Page 175 – 182

Experimental Study of Earth to Air Heat Exchanger Performance in arid regions. First step: in-situ Measurement of Ground Vertical Temperature Profile for Different Depths
Sakhri Nasreddine, Draoui Belkacem, Menni Younes
Page 183 – 194

Influence of Velocity and Thermal Slip on the Peristaltic Transport of a Herschel-Bulkley Fluid Through an Inclined Porous Tube
Divya Baliga, Manjunatha Gudekote, Rajashekhar Choudhari, Hanumesh Vaidya, Kerehalli Vinayaka Prasad
Page 195 – 210

Energy and Exergy Analysis of the Steam Power Plant Based On Effect the Numbers of Feed Water Heater
Mohammed Kamil Mohammed, Wadhah Hussein Al Doori, Ataalah Hussain Jassim, Thamir Khalil Ibrahim, Ahmed Tawfeeq Al-Sammarraie
Page 211 – 222

Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Thermoelectric Generators Performance under Solar Photovoltaic-Thermal (PVT) System
Muhammad Yahya Zulakmal, Ahmad Fudholi, Nurul Shahirah Rukman, Nurul Syakirah Nazri, Chan Hoy Yen1, Nilofar Asim, Sohif Mat, Kamaruzzaman Sopian
Page 223 – 232

Carbon Nanotube for Solar Energy Applications: A Review
Muhammad Mahmud Jamil, Nor Azwadi Che Sidik, Umar Sanusi Umar, Muhammad Tukur Hamisu, Aisha sa’ad
Page 233 – 247

Heat Transfer Analysis of Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose Based Nanofluid with Titania Nanoparticles
Abid Hussanan, Nguyen Thoi Trung
Page 248 – 256

Tenability Analysis of Office Rooms Using Probabilistic Fire Load Energy Density Data
Abdul Haqeem Akhyani, Mohd Zahirasri Mohd
Page 257 – 266

Effect of High-Temperature Annealing Heat Treatment to Microstructure of Aluminium Nitride on Sapphire Substrate
Zaimi Tanasta, Pauziah Muhamad, Noriyuki Kuwano, Mohd Hishamuddin Unuh, Mohd Hafiz Amran
Page 267 – 275

Evaluation of Kapok Fiber and Gypsum Mixture to Improve Fire Resistance
Muhammad Arif Dandan, Mohamad Nor Musa, Syahrullail Samion, Wan Mohamad Aiman Wan Yahaya, Muhammad Akmal Issham, Fazila Mohd Zawawi
Page 276 – 286

Numerical Solution of Boundary Layer Flow over a Moving Plate in a Nanofluid with Viscous Dissipation: A Revised Model
Siti Norfatihah Zulkifli, Norhafizah Md Sarif, Mohd Zuki Salleh
Page 287 – 295

Optimization Techniques in PID Controller on a Nonlinear Electro-Hydraulic Actuator System
Chai Mau Shern, Rozaimi Ghazali, Chong Shin Horng, Chong Chee Soon, Hazriq Izzuan Jaafar
Page 296 – 303

Volume 57, No. 1 (May, 2019)
Efficient Magnetic Microbeads Trapping using Lab-on-Chip Magnetic Separator
Ummikalsom Abidin, Burhanuddin Yeop Majlis, Jumril Yunas
Page 1 – 11

Numerical Solution on MHD Stagnation Point Flow in Ferrofluid with Newtonian Heating and Thermal Radiation Effect
Siti Hanani Mat Yasin, Muhammad Khairul Anuar Mohamed, Zulkhibri Ismail@Mustofa, Basuki Widodo, Mohd Zuki Salleh
Page 12 – 22

Experimental Study on the Effect of Multilayer Microchannel Arrangement to the Thermal Hydraulic Performance of Microchannel Arrays
Darvind Nadaraja, Natrah Kamaruzaman, Ummikalsom Abidin, Mohsin Mohd Sies
Page 23 – 31

Effects of Floor Splitter Height on the Effectiveness of Swirl Angle Reduction in Pump Intake
Tajul Ariffin Norizan, Zambri Harun, Shahrir Abdullah, Wan Hanna Melini Wan Mohtar
Page 32 – 39

Flame Characteristics of Diffusion of Calophyllum inophyllum Methyl Ester on Mini Glass Tube
Hemas Hafidh Bachtiar, Boy Arief Fachri, Nasrul Ilminnafik
Page 40 – 47

Evaluation of Kapok Fiber and Gypsum Mixture to Improve Fire Resistance
Muhammad Arif Dandan, Mohamad Nor Musa, Syahrullail Samion, Wan Mohamad Aiman Wan Yahaya, Muhammad Akmal Issham, Fazila Mohd Zawawi, Mohd Kameil Abdul Hamid
Page 48 – 56

Properties of Chemically Treated Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) Fibres
Zawawi Ibrahim, Mansur Ahmad, Astimar Abdul Aziz, Ridzuan Ramli, Kamarudin Hassan, Aisyah Humaira Alias
Page 57 – 68

An Analysis of Blood Pressure Waveform using Windkessel Model for Normotensive and Hypertensive Conditions in Carotid Artery
Muhammad Sufyan Amir Paisal, Ishkrizat Taib, Al Emran Ismail, Ahmad Mubarak Tajul Arifin, Nofrizalidris Darlis
Page 69 – 85

Simulation of non-Uniform Magnetic Field Impact on non-Newtonian and Pulsatile Blood Flow
Mehrdad Yadegari, Mahdi Jahangiri
Page 86 – 99

Novel Approach of Quantifying Energy Security in terms of Economic, Environmental and Supply Risk Factors
Muhammad Mutasim Billah Tufail, Jafni Azhan Ibrahim, Mustakim Melan, Mohd Nasrun Mohd Nawi
Page 100 – 109

A Review on Nano Enhanced Phase Change Materials: An Enhancement in Thermal Properties and Specific Heat Capacity
Nurfatihah Jamil, Jesbains Kaur, AK. Pandey, Syed Shahabuddin, Samir Hassani, Rahman Saidur, Roshafima Rasit Ali, Nor Azwadi Che Sidik, Mohd Naim
Page 110 – 120

Removal of Selected Heavy Metals in Acid Mine Drainage using Chemical Precipitation Method
Norashikin Ahmad Kamal, Lee Gooyong
Page 121 – 130

Heat and Flow Analysis of a Chilled Water Storage System using Computational Fluid Dynamics
Ubaidullah Selamat, Kahar Osman, Arul Hisham A. Rahim
Page 131 – 140

Volume 57, No. 2 (May, 2019)
Enhancement of Biogas Production from Sewage Sludge by Biofilm Pretreatment Method
Ibrahim Gamiye Bouh, Md. Zahangir Alam, Nassereldeen Ahmed Kabbashi, Amina Mohamed Ali
Page 141 – 147

Heat Transfer Performance of Oscillating Heat Pipe with Ethanol and Methanol Working Fluid with Different Inclinations for Heat Recovery Application
Adi Winarta, Nandy Putra, Raldy Artono Koestoer, Agus Sunjarianto Pamitran, Imansyah Ibnu Hakim
Page 148 – 157

Metal-Organic Framework Based Chromium Terephthalate (MIL-101 Cr) Growth for Carbon Dioxide Capture: A Review
Fayza Yulia, Nasruddin, Agustino Zulys, Rizky Ruliandini
Page 158 – 174

Numerical Investigation of Wake Energy Induced by Cruising Passenger Vehicles on Highway
Sheikh Abdul Hadi Nassir, Fazila Mohd Zawawi, Mohamad Zahid Mazlan, Syahrullail Samion, Muhammad Afiq Witri Muhammad Yazid, Ummikalsom Abidin
Page 175 – 185

Numerical Investigation of Drag Force on Micro-sized Magnetic Beads in Microchannel with Chamber Design
Muhammad Asnawi Vaea, Ummikalsom Abidin, Natrah Kamaruzaman, Fazila Mohd Zawawi, Muhammad Noor Afiq Witri Muhammad Yazid
Page 186 – 201

Experimental Study of The Effects of Blade Twist on the Performance of Savonius Water Turbine in Water Pipe
Syamsul Hadi , Muhammad Sidiq, Dhimas Cahyo Anindito, Ari Prasetyo, Dominicus Danardono Dwi Prija Tjahjana, Rintis Hadiani
Page 202 – 207

Numerical and Experimental Study of Convective Heat Exchanges on a Rotating Disk with an Eccentric Impinging Jet
Chadia Haidar, Rachid Boutarfa, Souad Harmand
Page 208 – 215

Analysis of Photovoltaic Thermal Using F-Chart Method for Domestic Hot Water
Mohd Afzanizam Mohd Rosli, Hasif Jamil
Page 216 – 227

Study of The Performance of The Gas Turbine Power Plants From The Simple To Complex Cycle: A Technical Review
Thamir Khalil Ibrahim , Mohammed Kamil Mohammed, Wadhah Hussein Abdulrazzaq Al Doori, Ahmed Tawfeeq Al-Sammarraie, Firdaus Basrawi
Page 228 – 250

Improvement of Low Performance Condensates in Thermal Power Plants: Case Study
Ataalah Hussain Jassim, Wadhah Hussein Abdulrazzaq Al Doori, Ahmed Hasan Ahmed
Page 251 – 264

An Investigation of Pulsatile Blood Flow in An Angulated Neck of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Using Computational Fluid Dynamics
Yousif A. Algabri, Surapong Chatpun,Ishkrizat Taib
Page 265 – 274

Unsteady Mixed Convection in a Cubic Lid-Driven Cavity Partially Heated from the Bottom
Eutamene Salim, Boudebous Saadoun, Berrahil Farid, Kholai Omar, Dahdi Bachir, Filali Abdelkader
Page 275 – 287

Outdoor Thermal Comfort Study of an Urban University Campus in Malaysia
Nurnida Elmira Othman, Sheikh Ahmad Zaki, Nurul Huda Ahmad, Azli Abd Razak
Page 288 – 296

Volume 58, No. 1 (June, 2019)
Cloud Optical Depth Retrieval via Sky’s Infrared Image For Solar Radiation Prediction
Lai Kok Yee, Tan Lit Ken, Yutaka Asako, Lee Kee Quen, Chuan Zun Liang, Wan Nur Syahidah, Koji Homma, Gerald Pacaba Arada, Gan Yee Siang, Tey Wah Yen, Calvin Kong Leng Sing, Jane Oktavia Kamadinata, Akira Taguchi
Page 1 – 14

Street Geometry and River Width as Design Factors to Improve Thermal Comfort in Melaka City
Golnoosh Manteghi, Sharezee Mohmad Shukri, Hasanuddin Lamit

Page 15 – 22

Screening of Long Chain Imidazolium Base Ionic Liquids for EPA and DHA Extraction from Microalgae Using COSMO-RS Model
Shiva Rezaei Motlagh, Razif Harun, Dayang Radiah Awang Biak, Siti Aslina Hussain, Cecilia Devi Wilfreda, Sooridarsan Krishnan

Page 23 – 29

Experimental Study and Thermal Modeling (Linearization of Nonlinear System) of Building: Southwest Algeria Case
Soufiane Merabti, Fatah Bounaama, Belkacem Draoui

Page 30 – 42

Effect of Impregnate Nanocellulose With Ethylene Glycol for Car Radiator Application
Ihsan Naiman Ibrahim, Norazlianie Sazali, Devarajan Ramasamy, Ahmad Shahir Jamaludin, Mohd Syafiq Sharip, Haziqatulhanis Ibrahim

Page 43 – 50

Thermal Efficiency and Heat Removal Factor for Hybrid Photovoltaic Thermal PVT System
Amira Lateef Abdullah, Suhaimi Misha, Noreffendy Tamaldin, Mohd Afzanizam Mohd Rosli, Fadhil Abdulameer Sachit

Page 51 – 61

Numerical Investigation and Performance Analysis of Photovoltaic Thermal PV/T Absorber Designs: A Comparative Study
Fadhil Abdulameer Sachit, Mohd Afzanizam Mohd Rosli, Noreffendy Tamaldin, Suhaimi Misha, Amira Lateef Abdullah

Page 62 – 77

New Development in Determination of Metal Volume Thermal Expansion Measurement Using Hydrostatic Weighing System (HWS)
Fazrul Mohd Nor, Abd Rahman Tamuri, Abd Khamim Ismail

Page 78 – 83

Saving Energy Costs by Combining Air-Conditioning and Air-Circulation using CFD to Achieve Thermal Comfort in the Building
M.W. Muhieldeen, Y.C. Kuang

Page 84 – 99

Analysis on Computational Efficiency of Convection Discretisation Schemes in SIMPLE Algorithm
Wah Yen Tey, Ryan Yuen Wye Hong, Yutaka Asako, Hooi Siang Kang, Khai Ching Ng

Page 100 – 117

Measurement of Liquid Film Thickness Accumulated on Surface Machined by Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL)
Nur Izzati Khoirunnisa Ismail, Nurrina Rosli, Ahmad Razlan Yusoff, Kenji Amagai

Page 118 – 125

Study on Heat Loss through Dump Truck Wall Insulated by Sengon Wood
Muhammad Muhammad, Ahmad Syuhada, Syifaul Huzni, Zahrul Fuadi

Page 126 – 134

Flow Analysis of Second Grade Fluid with Wall Suction/Injection and Convective Boundary Condition
Sidra Aman, Zulkhibri Ismail, Mohd Zuki Salleh, Ilyas Khan

Page 135 – 143
Volume 58, No. 2 (June, 2019)
Energy Efficiency of Chancellery Building at Universiti Utara Malaysia
Roslan Jamaludin, Mohd Nasrun Mohd Nawi, Ahmad Yusni Bahaudin, Shahimi Mohtar, Mohamad Zamhari Tahir
Page 144 – 152

A Review on Wear and Corrosion Behavior of Thermal Oxidation on Titanium-based Alloy for Biomedical Application
Siti Norsuraya Hussain, Arman Shah Abdullah, Mas Ayu Hassan, Rosli Daud, Andril Arafat, Md Fauzi Ahmad

Page 153 – 160

Analysis of Fluid Flow Between Two Rotating Disks
Sampath Kumar, Nityanand P Pai, Aditya Ramnarayan

Page 161 – 172

Analysis of MHD Jeffery Hamel Flow with Suction/Injection by Homotopy Analysis Method
Salim Hamrelaine, Fateh Mebarek-Oudina, Mohamed Rafik Sari

Page 173 – 186

Numerical Study of Upward Vertical Two-Phase Flow Through an Annulus Concentric Pipe
Hamza Gouidmi, Razik Benderradji, Abdelhadi Beghidja, Tahar Tayebi

Page 187 – 206

Modelling and Optimization Study of an Absorption Cooling Machine using Lagrange Method to Minimize the Thermal Energy Consumption
Rabah Touaibi, Michel Feidt, Elene Eugenia Vasilescu, Miloud Tahar Abbes

Page 207 – 218

Performance of Savonius Horizontal Axis Water Turbine in Free Flow Vertical Pipe as Effect of Blade Overlap
Syamsul Hadi, Hasnul Khuluqi, Dandun Mahesa Prabowoputra, Ari Prasetyo, Dominicus Danardono Dwi Prija Tjahjana, Ahmad Farkhan

Page 219 – 223

Internal Solitary Waves of Depression in Rapidly Varying Topography
Hooi Mun Hoe, Wei King Tiong, Kim Gaik Tay, San Nah Sze, Kang Leng Chiew

Page 224 – 236

Analysis and Simulation of Sericite Mica Drying
Arina Mohd Noh, Sohif Mat, Adnan Ibrahim

Page 237 – 246

Analysis of Resistance and Generated Wave around Semi SWATH Hull at Deep and Shallow Water
Arifah Ali, Adi Maimun, Yasser Mohamed Ahmed

Page 247 – 260

Effects of Staggered Array of Cubical Obstacles on Near-Ground Wind Environment and Air Quality
Muhammad Noor Afiq Witri Muhammad Yazid, Asyraf Sharif Badar Sharif, Nor Azwadi Che Sidik, Mohd Hafizal Hanipah, Fazila Mohd Zawawi, Ummikalsom Abidin

Page 261 – 274

Performance Prediction of a Novel Modular Magnetorheological Damper for Seismic Building
Bhre Wangsa Lenggana, Ubaidillah, Fitrian Imaduddin, Widyarso, Endra Dwi Purnomo, Dewi Utami, Saiful Amri Mazlan

Page 275 – 286
Volume 59, No. 1 (July, 2019)
CVFEM coupled with FLO Scheme for Solution to Heat and Fluid Problems
Mostefa Kaouari, Fodil Hammadi, Belkacem Draoui
Page 1 – 12

Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Magnetohydrodynamic Free Convection in a Square Enclosure with Non-uniform Heating of the Bottom Wall
Abdelghani Laouer, Rabah Djeghiour

Page 13 – 28

Application of Air Ionizer to Remove Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Dust for Plastics Material in Automotive Painting Process
Muhammad Hafizan Yosri, Pauziah Muhamad, Norfazrina Hayati Mohd Yatim

Page 29 – 37

Numerical Analysis of Velocity Magnitude in a Swirling Fluidized Bed with Spiral Blade Distributor
Muhammad Lutfi Abd Latif, Mohd Al Hafiz Mohd Nawi, Wan Azani Mustafa, Mohd Sharizan Md Sarip, Mohd Aminudin Jamlos, Masniezam Ahmad, Ku Mohammad Yazid Ku Ibrahim, Hazizul Hussein

Page 38 – 44

Thermal, Crystallinity and Microstructure Characteristics of Chemical Modification on Sugarcane Bagasse Powder
Mustaffa Zainal, Ragunathan Santiagoo, Wan Azani Mustafa, Afizah Ayob

Page 45 – 53

A CFD Study of Flow Around an Elevator Towards Potential Kinetic Energy Harvesting
Jia Hui Ang, Y Yusup, Sheikh Ahmad Zaki Shaikh Salim, Mardiana Idayu Ahmad

Page 54 – 65

Thermal Hydraulic Analyses of LEU Target Plates for Mo-99 Production
Sayah Missaoui, Salah Hanini, M’hamed Salhi, Brahim Mohammedi, Nacim Mellal

Page 66 – 76

2D Numerical Simulation of the Dichlorodifluoromethane Decomposition with O2 and H2 in Thermal Argon Plasma Reactor
Amine Brahimi, Mohamed Announ

Page 77 – 92

Effect of Biot Number on Convective Heat Transfer of Darcy-Forchheimer Nanofluid Flow over Stretched Zero Mass Flux Surface in the Presence of Magnetic Field
Mohammed M. Fayyadh, Rozaini Roslan, R. Kandasamy, Inas R. Ali, Nisreen A. Hussein

Page 93 – 106

Technology Progress on Photovoltaic Thermal (PVT) Systems with Flat-Plate Water Collector Designs: A Review
Amira Lateef Abdullah, Suhaimi Misha, Noreffendy Tamaldin, Mohd Afzanizam Mohd Rosli, Fadhil Abdulameer Sachit

Page 107 – 141

Evaluation of Solar Air Collector-Thermoelectric Hybrid System
Win Eng Ewe, Ahmad Fudholi, Kamaruzzaman Sopian, Nilofar Asim

Page 142 – 147


Review on Oxidation Behavior and Chromium Volatilization of Fe-Cr-Based Interconnects at High Operation Temperatures of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Isyraf Aznam, Joelle Chia Wen Mah, Andanastuti Muchtar, Mahendra Rao Somalu, Mariyam Jameelah Ghazali

Page 148 – 155

Influences of Oral Environment on Natural Enamel and Zirconia Crown: A Short Review
Muhammad Sufiyan Amril, Noor Faeizah Amat, Yew Hsu Zenn, Andanastuti Muchtar, Mariyam Jameelah Ghazali

Page 156 – 162
Volume 59, No. 2 (July, 2019)
Unsteady MHD Boundary Layer Flow and Heat Transfer of Ferrofluids Over A Horizontal Flat Plate with Leading Edge Accretion
Sayyid Zainal Abidin Syed Ahmad, Wan Azmi Wan Hamzah, Mohd Rijal Ilias, Sharidan Shafie, Gholamhassan Najafi
Page 163 – 181

Stable Configuration of Double Horizontal Interfaces via the He-Multiple Scales Method
Galal M. Moatimid, Yusry O. El-Dib, Aya Sayed

Page 182 – 206

Experimental Investigation on Water Washing and Decomposition Behaviour for Empty Fruit Bunch
Muhammad Ariff Hanaffi Mohd Fuad, Hasan Mohd Faizal, Farid Nasir Ani

Page 207 – 219

Experimental Investigation on Water Washing and Decomposition Behaviour for Empty Fruit Bunch
Muhammad Ariff Hanaffi Mohd Fuad, Hasan Mohd Faizal, Farid Nasir Ani

Page 207 – 219

MHD Flow of Fourth Grade Fluid Solve by Perturbation-Iteration Algorithm
Assma Jassim Harfash, Abdul-Sattar Jaber Al-Saif

Page 220 – 231

Mixed Convection Flow and Heat Transfer of Carbon Nanotubes Over an Exponentially Stretching/Shrinking Sheet with Suction and Slip Effect
Nur Syazana Anuar, Norfifah Bachok, Norihan Md Arifin, Haliza Rosali

Page 232 – 242

Slip Effect on Mixed Convection Flow Past a Thin Needle in Nanofluid Using Buongiorno’s Model
Siti Nur Alwani Salleh, Norfifah Bachok, Norihan Md Arifin, Fadzilah Md Ali

Page 243 – 253

Optimum Thermal Insulation Thickness for Building Under Different Climate Regions – A Review
Eltahir Khalid Mohammed Abdelgadir, Ali Mohammed Hamdan Adam, Obai Younis, Ahmed Kadhim Hussein

Page 254 – 268

Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer Enhancement with Ag-GO Water and Kerosene Oil Based Micropolar Nanofluid over a Solid Sphere
Mohammed Z. Swalmeh, Hamzeh T. Alkasasbeh, Abid Hussanan, Mustafa Mamat

Page 269 – 282

Current Advancement by Membrane Technology: A Review
Mohd Syafiq Sharip, Norazlianie Sazali, Ahmad Shahir Jamaludin, Muhammad Atif Mohamed Azmi, Farhana Aziz, Wan Norharyati Wan Salleh

Page 283 – 290

Thermal Properties of Concrete by Replacement Sand with Porcelain Waste
Mohammed J. Jasim, Mohamad Zaky Noh, Shihab Ahmed Zaidan, Mohd Haziman Wan Ibrahim, Sani Garba Durumin-Iya, Mahdi M. Abdullah

Page 291 – 298

Turbulence Mixed Convective Nanofluid Flow over Double Forward-Facing Steps: A Numerical Simulation Study
Omar Assi Hussein, Khairul Habib, Ali Samer Muhsan

Page 299 – 317

Experimental Study of The Optimum Air Gap of a Rectangular Solar Air Heater
Hussam S. Dheyab, Manar Salih Mahdi Al-Jethelah, Tadahmun Ahmed Yassen, Thamir Khalil Ibrahim

Page 318 – 329

A Review on Vehicle Radiator Using Various Coolants
Ihsan Naiman Ibrahim, Norazlianie Sazali, Ahmad Shahir Jamaludin, Devarajan Ramasamy, S. M. Soffie, Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman

Page 330 – 337
Volume 60, No. 1 (August, 2019)
Numerical Investigation of Hydrostatic Pressure on Free Vibrating Rectangular Cantilever Plates Partially Submerged in Viscous Media
Atheer Raheem Abdullah, Wajeeh Kamal Hasan, Mustafa Abdulsalam Mustafa
Page 1 – 14

Experimental Investigation of Drag Reduction by a Polymeric Additive in Crude Oil Flow in Horizontal Pipe
Farhan Lafta Rashid, Haider Nadhom Azziz, Shaheed Mahdi Talib
Page 15 – 23

Efficiency of Electricity Production from Installed Generator on a Condensing Unit of an Air Conditioner
Chanita Mano, Atthakorn Thongtha
Page 24 – 37

MHD Rotating Fluid Past a Semi-Infinite Vertical Moving Plate: Coriolis Force and Wall Velocity Effects
Zohra Benharkat, Mohamed Najib Bouaziz
Page 38 – 51

An Assessment of Power Demand for Electric Vehicles in Comparison to Conventional on Real and Standard Driving Cycles
Sameer D Ali, Ahmed Al-Samari, Saadoon Abdul Hafedh, Itimad Dawood Jumaah Azzawi
Page 52 – 59

Numerical Simulation of Fluid Flow and Heat Transfer in Wellbore
Farhan Lafta Rashid, Hasan Qahtan Hussein, Asaad Salim Bded
Page 60 – 70

Review of the Recent Power Augmentation Techniques for the Savonius Wind Turbines
Mohanad Al-Ghriybah, Mohd Fadhli Zulkafli, Djamal Hissein Didane, Sofian Mohd
Page 71 – 84

A Qualitative Inter-relation between Drop Impacts on a Solid Surface and the Interaction of a Droplet Placed Inside a Superheated Pool
Ashish Karn, Rohan De, Abhay Kumar
Page 85 – 94

Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles from Natural Compounds: Glucose, Eugenol and Thymol
Mayyadah Shanan Abed, Ashwaq S. Abed, Farhad Mohammad Othman
Page 95 – 111

A Cost-effective Data Acquisition Instrumentation for Measurement of Base Pressure and Wall Pressure in Suddenly Expanded Flow Through Ducts
Vigneshvaran Sethuraman, Parvathy Rajendran, Sher Afghan Khan
Page 112 – 123

Experimental Analysis of the Effect of Tube Pass Length on The Characteristics of Heat Transfer in U-Sharp Turned Channels
Ahmad Syuhada, Muhammad Ilham Maulana, Agus Adria
Page 124 – 131

A Review on Thin Layered Composite Zeolite for Water Desalination Applications
Norsuhailizah Sazali, Zawati Harun, Tijjani Abdullahi, Norazlianie Sazali, Mohamad Shaiful Abdul Karim, Ahmad Syahiman Mohd Shah
Page 132 – 143

A Review on Factors Affecting Heat Transfer Efficiency of Nanofluids for Application in Plate Heat Exchanger
Haziqatulhanis Ibrahim, Norazlianie Sazali, Ahmad Syahiman Mohd Shah, Mohamad Shaiful Abdul Karim, Farhana Aziz, Wan Norharyati Wan Salleh
Page 144 – 154

Volume 60, No. 2 (August, 2019)
DeltaE Modelling and Experimental Study of a Standing Wave Thermoacoustic Test Rig
Fatimah Al Zahrah Mohd Saat, Dahlia Johari, Ernie Mattokit
Page 155 – 165

Large Eddy Simulation using One-Equation SGS Model based on Dynamic Procedure for Flows in Laminar-Transition Region
Firdaus Mohamad, Takeo Kajishima
Page 166 – 177

UAV NACA4415 Wing Structural Performance Analysis Subjected to External Aerodynamic Load Using Schrenk’s Approximation
Ernnie Illyani Basri, Adi Azriff Basri, Mohd. Firdaus Abas, Faizal Mustapha, Mohamed Thariq Hameed Sultan, Kamarul Arifin Ahmad
Page 178 – 190

A Review: Parameters Affecting the PVT Collector Performance on the Thermal, Electrical, and Overall Efficiency of PVT System
Amira Lateef Abdullah, Suhaimi Misha, Noreffendy Tamaldin, Mohd Afzanizam Mohd Rosli, Fadhil Abdulameer Sachit
Page 191 – 232

Thermodynamic Analysis of Solar Absorption Cooling System
Jasim Abdulateef, Sameer Dawood Ali, Mustafa Sabah Mahdi
Page 233 – 246

Study of Combustion Performance of Syngas from Biomass Waste (Wood Waste) in a Gas Burner
Mohd Hafizi Othman, Muhammad Roslan Rahim, Mohammad Nazri Mohd Jaafar, Mazlan Said, Norazila Othman, Muhammad Syahiran Abdul Malik, Anis Athirah Mohd Azli
Page 247 – 257

Barriers, Challenges and Opportunities for Energy Management Program: A Case Study of Universiti Utara Malaysia
Mohd Nasrun Mohd Nawi, Mohamad Zamhari Tahir, Mohd Nazaruddin Yusoff
Page 258 – 269

MHD Viscous Incompressible Casson Fluid Flow with Hall Current
Mohammad Afikuzzaman, Mohammad Ferdows, Raushan Ara Quadir, Md. Mahmud Alam
Page 270 – 282

High Altitude Transonic Aerodynamics of Supercritical Airfoil at different Turbulence Levels
N. Vinayaka, C. Akshaya, Avinash Lakshmikanthan, Shiv Pratap Singh Yadav, R. P. Sindhu
Page 283 – 295

Thermo-Mechanical Modelling of Laser Welding Process on Aluminium Alloy EN AW 6082-T6
Elfi Rahayu Imam Fauzi, Zahurin Samad, Norzalilah Mohamad Nor, Mohd Sabri Che Jamil, Mohd Najib Ali Mokhtar
Page 296 – 309

Simulation of Heat Transfer on Blood Flow through a Stenosed Bifurcated Artery
Muhammad Sabaruddin Ahmad Jamali, Zuhaila Ismail
Page 310 – 323

ONLINE FIRST ARTICLES

DeltaE Modelling and Experimental Study of a Standing Wave Thermoacoustic Test Rig
Fatimah Al Zahrah Mohd Saat, Dahlia Johari, Ernie Mattokit
Page 155 - 165

Large Eddy Simulation using One-Equation SGS Model based on Dynamic Procedure for Flows in Laminar-Transition Region
Firdaus Mohamad, Takeo Kajishima
Page 166 - 177

UAV NACA4415 Wing Structural Performance Analysis Subjected to External Aerodynamic Load Using Schrenk’s Approximation
Ernnie Illyani Basri, Adi Azriff Basri, Mohd. Firdaus Abas, Faizal Mustapha, Mohamed Thariq Hameed Sultan, Kamarul Arifin Ahmad
Page 178 – 190

A Review: Parameters Affecting the PVT Collector Performance on the Thermal, Electrical, and Overall Efficiency of PVT System
Amira Lateef Abdullah, Suhaimi Misha, Noreffendy Tamaldin, Mohd Afzanizam Mohd Rosli, Fadhil Abdulameer Sachit
Page 191 – 232

Thermodynamic Analysis of Solar Absorption Cooling System
Jasim Abdulateef, Sameer Dawood Ali, Mustafa Sabah Mahdi
Page 233 – 246

Study of Combustion Performance of Syngas from Biomass Waste (Wood Waste) in a Gas Burner
Mohd Hafizi Othman, Muhammad Roslan Rahim, Mohammad Nazri Mohd Jaafar, Mazlan Said, Norazila Othman, Muhammad Syahiran Abdul Malik, Anis Athirah Mohd Azli
Page 247 – 257

Barriers, Challenges and Opportunities for Energy Management Program: A Case Study of Universiti Utara Malaysia
Mohd Nasrun Mohd Nawi, Mohamad Zamhari Tahir, Mohd Nazaruddin Yusoff
Page 258 - 269

MHD Viscous Incompressible Casson Fluid Flow with Hall Current
Mohammad Afikuzzaman, Mohammad Ferdows, Raushan Ara Quadir, Md. Mahmud Alam
Page 270 - 282

High Altitude Transonic Aerodynamics of Supercritical Airfoil at different Turbulence Levels
N. Vinayaka, C. Akshaya, Avinash Lakshmikanthan, Shiv Pratap Singh Yadav, R. P. Sindhu
Page 283 - 295

Thermo-Mechanical Modelling of Laser Welding Process on Aluminium Alloy EN AW 6082-T6
Elfi Rahayu Imam Fauzi, Zahurin Samad, Norzalilah Mohamad Nor, Mohd Sabri Che Jamil, Mohd Najib Ali Mokhtar
Page 296 - 309

Simulation of Heat Transfer on Blood Flow through a Stenosed Bifurcated Artery
Muhammad Sabaruddin Ahmad Jamali, Zuhaila Ismail
Page 310 - 323

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Upcoming Events

IS-FMTS
https://submit.confbay.com/conf/isfmts19

Articles Writing Workshop by Editor-in-Chief
IS-FMTS
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Types of Manuscript

REVIEW
Critical reviews, roadmaps and literature surveys of the recent advances in the field of fluid mechanics and thermal sciences.

RESEARCH
Research article to describe, analyze and evaluate new findings in the field of fluid mechanics and thermal sciences.

EDITORIALS
Opinions, notes and critical views written by eminent international figures and experts in fluid mechanics and thermal sciences, mainly upon invitation by the Editor-in-Chief or one of the editorial board members of the journal.

SHORT COMMUNICATION
Short communications describe, analyze and evaluate new findings in fluid mechanics and thermal sciences, theories or methodologies.

TECHNICAL NOTES
Articles of reduced length, describing in-depth qualitative results obtained from a recent research with an emphasis on the interface between methods and applications.

Submit Your Manuscript

Manuscripts submitted to the Akademia Baru journals must be original work that has not been published or under consideration for publication elsewhere. The manuscript must be written in good English or Malay and should be no more than 20 pages in length inclusive of tables, figures and illustrations. All submissions will be double blind peer reviewed.

Submit your paper


Guide for Authors

Manuscripts submitted must be original work that has not been published.

Article Processing Charges

All articles published in this journal are open access and freely available online, free to download, share and re-use. To cover the cost of providing open access, Akademia Baru charges an Article Processing Charge (APC) once an article is accepted for publication. There are no charges for rejected articles, no submission charges, and no surcharges based on the length of an article, tables, figures or supplementary data.
The APC charged for accepted articles;
USD300 (International Corresponding Author) or RM850 (Malaysian Corresponding Author)

Guide for Reviewers

The reviewers of the journal assist the editors in making editorial decisions and through the editorial communications; the reviewers assist the authors in improving the manuscript.

Ethics in Publishing

Authors should report their results clearly, honestly, and without fabrication, falsification or inappropriate data manipulation. Authors should provide sufficient details on the method and references to allow others to replicate the work.

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