journal-of-advanced-research-in-fluid-mechanics-and-thermal-scienceISSN (Online)
: 2289-7879

Frequency : Monthly

Editor-in-Chief : Dr. Nor Azwadi Che Sidik (E-mail)
Technical Editor : Ahmad Tajuddin Mohamad (E-mail)
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Aims and Scope : This journal welcomes high-quality original contributions on experimental, computational, and physical aspects of fluid mechanics and thermal sciences relevant to engineering or the environment, multiphase and microscale flows, microscale electronic and mechanical systems; medical and biological systems; and thermal and flow control in both the internal and external environment.

Article of the month

A Comprehensive Review on Palm Oil and the Challenges using Vegetable Oil as Lubricant Base-Stock
Muhammad Arif Dandan, Wan Mohamad Aiman Wan Yahaya, Syahrullail Samion, Mohamad Nor Musa

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PUBLISHED ARTICLES

PrefaceVolume 1 - Volume 5Volume 6 - Volume 10Volume 11 - Volume 15Volume 16 - Volume 20Volume 21 - Volume 25Volume 26 - Volume 30Volume 31 - Volume 35Volume 36 - Volume 40Volume 41 - Volume 45Volume 46 - Volume 50Volume 51 - Volume 55
Volume 29, No. 1 (January, 2017)
Torrefaction of Pulverized Empty Fruit Bunch and Polyethylene Plastics Waste Mixture
Hasan Mohd Faizal, Abdul Halim Mohd Salleh, Hielfarith Suffri Shamsuddin, Muhammad Ariff Hanaffi Mohd Fuad, Zulkarnain Abdul Latiff, Mohd Rosdzimin Abdul Rahman
Page 1 – 9
AbstractThe combustion properties of torrefied mixture of empty fruit bunch (EFB) and polyethylene (PE) plastics were investigated experimentally, for weight ratio of 95:5 (EFB: PE) and 90:10. The mixture samples were obtained from briquettes that were produced under various briquetting temperatures (150°C-190°C). The torrefaction was performed at constant temperature of 250°C and at constant nitrogen flow rate of 1 l/min. Generally, it can be said that the combustion properties such as calorific value and moisture content fulfil the minimum requirement stated by standard for commercial briquette (DIN51731). In addition, it can be said that the effect of mixture composition on the combustion properties is stronger than the effect of briquetting temperature.
CiteMLA
Faizal, Hasan Mohd, et al. “Torrefaction of Pulverized Empty Fruit Bunch and Polyethylene Plastics Waste Mixture.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 29.1 (2017): 1-9.
APA
Faizal, H. M., Salleh, A. H. M., Shamsuddin, H. S., Ariff, M., Fuad, H. M., Latiff, Z. A., & Rahman, M. R. A. (2017). Torrefaction of Pulverized Empty Fruit Bunch and Polyethylene Plastics Waste Mixture. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 29(1), 1-9.
Chicago
Faizal, Hasan Mohd, Abdul Halim Mohd Salleh, Hielfarith Suffri Shamsuddin, Muhammad Ariff, Hanaffi Mohd Fuad, Zulkarnain Abdul Latiff, and Mohd Rosdzimin Abdul Rahman. “Torrefaction of Pulverized Empty Fruit Bunch and Polyethylene Plastics Waste Mixture.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 29, no. 1 (2017): 1-9.
Harvard
Faizal, H.M., Salleh, A.H.M., Shamsuddin, H.S., Ariff, M., Fuad, H.M., Latiff, Z.A. and Rahman, M.R.A., 2017. Torrefaction of Pulverized Empty Fruit Bunch and Polyethylene Plastics Waste Mixture. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 29(1), pp.1-9.
Vancouver
Faizal HM, Salleh AH, Shamsuddin HS, Ariff M, Fuad HM, Latiff ZA, Rahman MR. Torrefaction of Pulverized Empty Fruit Bunch and Polyethylene Plastics Waste Mixture. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;29(1):1-9.

The Investigation on SIMPLE and SIMPLER Algorithm through Lid Driven Cavity
Lee Chern Earn, Tey Wah Yen, Tan Lit Ken
Page 10 – 22

AbstractThe present study analyzes in details to compare SIMPLE and SIMPLER algorithm in terms of their convergence rate, iteration number and computational time. The work which is based on primitive variables (u, v, P) formulation of Navier-Stokes equations to investigate the velocity and pressure distribution in the square cavity at Reynolds number of 100 and 400. The solutions are obtained for grid size 16 × 16 up to 256 × 256. From the plots of velocity profiles along centerline geometry, it shows good agreement with the benchmark solution from past researchers. The velocity and pressure in the cavity varies as the Reynolds number increases from 100 to 400. SIMPLER algorithm is proven to be more efficient compared to SIMPLE as iteration number required for a given Reynolds number and grid size is lower than that of SIMPLE. The values of under-relaxation factors for velocity components and pressure play significant role in terms of convergence rate of a numerical scheme.
CiteMLA
CE Lee, WY Tey, LK Tan. “The Investigation on SIMPLE and SIMPLER Algorithm through Lid Driven Cavity.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 29.1 (2017): 10-23.
APA
Lee, C. E., Tey, W. Y., & Tan, L. Ken. (2017). The Investigation on SIMPLE and SIMPLER Algorithm through Lid Driven Cavity. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 29(1), 10-23.
Chicago
Lee Chern Earn, Tey Wah Yen, and Tan Lit Ken. “The Investigation on SIMPLE and SIMPLER Algorithm through Lid Driven Cavity.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 29, no. 1 (2017): 10-23.
Harvard
Lee, C.E., Tey, W.Y., Tan, L.K., 2017. The Investigation on SIMPLE and SIMPLER Algorithm through Lid Driven Cavity. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 29(1), pp.10-23.
Vancouver
Lee, CE, Tey, W., Tan, LK. The Investigation on SIMPLE and SIMPLER Algorithm through Lid Driven Cavity. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;29(1):10-23.
Volume 30, No. 1 (February, 2017)
A Comparison of Cylindrical and Row Trenched Film-cooling Holes on a Combustor Endwall Surface at High Blowing Ratio
Ehsan Kianpour, Nor Azwadi Che Sidik
Page 1 – 11
AbstractThis study was done to study the effects of cylindrical and row trenched cooling holes with alignment angle of ±60 degrees at blowing ratio of BR=3.18 on the film cooling effectiveness near the combustor end wall surface. In this study, a three-dimensional representation of a Pratt and Whitney gas turbine engine was simulated and analysed with a commercial finite volume package FLUENT 6.2.26. The analysis has been carried out with Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes turbulence model (RANS) on internal cooling passages. This combustor simulator was combined with the interaction of two rows of dilution jets, which were staggered in the streamwise direction and aligned in the spanwise direction. In comparison with the baseline case of cooling holes, the application of row trenched hole near the endwall surface doubled the performance of film-cooling effectiveness.
CiteMLA
Ehsan Kianpour, Nor Azwadi Che Sidik. “A Comparison of Cylindrical and Row Trenched Film-cooling Holes on a Combustor Endwall Surface at High Blowing Ratio.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 30.1 (2017): 1-11.
APA
Ehsan, K., & Nor Azwadi, C. S. (2017). A Comparison of Cylindrical and Row Trenched Film-cooling Holes on a Combustor Endwall Surface at High Blowing Ratio. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 30(1), 1-11.
Chicago
Ehsan Kianpour, and Nor Azwadi Che Sidik. “A Comparison of Cylindrical and Row Trenched Film-cooling Holes on a Combustor Endwall Surface at High Blowing Ratio.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 30, no. 1 (2017): 1-11.
Harvard
Ehsan, K., and Nor Azwadi, C.S, 2017. A Comparison of Cylindrical and Row Trenched Film-cooling Holes on a Combustor Endwall Surface at High Blowing Ratio. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 30(1), pp.1-11.
Vancouver
Ehsan K, Nor Azwadi CS. A Comparison of Cylindrical and Row Trenched Film-cooling Holes on a Combustor Endwall Surface at High Blowing Ratio. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;30(1):1-11.

Investigation of Energy Conservation Potentials in Kaduna Polytechnic, Nigeria
Sani Malami Suleiman, Muhammad Rabiu Abbas, Abubakar Sadiq Aliyu
Page 12 – 20

AbstractEnergy conservation in buildings is given utmost importance today by organizations all over the world because an effective energy management in an enterprise leads to significant cost savings in addition to indirect benefits, such as extended equipment life, increased comfort, safety, and productivity. An effective and successful energy management program begins with an energy audit, which is a systematic approach for assessing energy end-use efficiency of all concerned systems/equipment.to identify energy conserving measures (ECMs). This paper analyzed the data obtained based on the extracted electricity utility bills and Automotive Gas Oil (AGO) consumption records for 7 years (i.e. from 2009 to 2015) for Kaduna Polytechnic, being the two energy sources, as well as site surveys and analysis of the energy end users present. The records have shown that, the institution consumes annually an average electrical energy of 1445448 kWh and an average of 11093.14143 liters of AGO, which is equivalent to 118918.48 kWh during normal operation. The result of the investigation and analysis of the energy conservation potentials in the institution have shown that, energy savings of up to 7.5% of the total energy can be achieved by switching-off all security lights during the day. While turning off the air conditioners in the early morning hours of between 8am to 10am would provide a saving of up to 10% of the total energy. Furthermore, a saving of 19.5% of the total energy can be achieved when the incandescent lamps are replaced with the energy efficient ones. The energy conservation measures (ECMs) followed in this research had shown significant savings in terms of both energy and cost, and if well implemented, can pave the way for a sustainable future towards energy management in the institution.
CiteMLA
Sani, Malami Suleiman, et al. “Investigation of Energy Conservation Potentials in Kaduna Polytechnic, Nigeria.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 30.1 (2017): 12-20.
APA
Sani, M. S., Muhammad, R. A., & Abubakar, S. A. (2017). Investigation of Energy Conservation Potentials in Kaduna Polytechnic, Nigeria. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 30(1), 12-20.
Chicago
Sani Malami Suleiman, Muhammad Rabiu Abbas, and Abubakar Sadiq Aliyu. “Investigation of Energy Conservation Potentials in Kaduna Polytechnic, Nigeria.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 30, no. 1 (2017): 12-20.
Harvard
Sani, M.S., Muhammad, R.A., Abubakar, S.A., 2017. Investigation of Energy Conservation Potentials in Kaduna Polytechnic, Nigeria. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 30(1), pp.12-20.
Vancouver
Sani MS, Muhammad RA, Abubakar SA. Investigation of Energy Conservation Potentials in Kaduna Polytechnic, Nigeria. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;30(1):12-20.
Volume 31, No. 1 (March, 2017)
Energy Saving Potential of an Air-conditioner – Ice Thermal Storage (AC-ITS) system
Norati Artini Awang, Haslinda Mohamed Kamar, Nazri Kamsah
Page 1 – 10
AbstractAir-conditioning (AC) systems are the most common energy consuming equipment in commercial buildings in Malaysia. An Ice Thermal Storage (ITS) application is capable of reducing the power consumption of the air-conditioning system and its corresponding costs as it transfers the peak of electricity consumption from on-peak to off-peak hours. In this study, an analysis was performed on a conceptual AC-ITS system to estimate the annual saving in operating cost when compared to an existing AC system installed at Perpustakaan Raja Zarith Sofia (PRZS) building located in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor. First, the cooling loads of the building based on the Carrier Cooling Load Method were determined. Based on the cooling loads the system equipment was selected. From the cooling load profile, the chiller-charging and -discharging scheduling of the ITS system were determined. The estimated annual operating cost of the present AC system is approximately RM 437,877. By employing the ITS-AC system, a potential saving of about RM 299,901 per year can be achieved, representing a 68.5 % saving per year.
CiteMLA
Awang, Norati Artini, Haslinda Mohamed Kamar, and Nazri Kamsah. “Energy Saving Potential of an Air-conditioner – Ice Thermal Storage (AC-ITS) system.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 31.1 (2017): 1-10.
APA
Awang, N. A., Kamar, H. M., & Kamsah, N. (2017). Energy Saving Potential of an Air-conditioner – Ice Thermal Storage (AC-ITS) system. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 31(1), 1-10.
Chicago
Awang, Norati Artini, Haslinda Mohamed Kamar, and Nazri Kamsah. “Energy Saving Potential of an Air-conditioner – Ice Thermal Storage (AC-ITS) system.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 31, no. 1 (2017): 1-10.
Harvard
Awang, N.A., Kamar, H.M. and Kamsah, N., 2017. Energy Saving Potential of an Air-conditioner – Ice Thermal Storage (AC-ITS) system. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 31(1), pp.1-10.
Vancouver
Awang NA, Kamar HM, Kamsah N. Energy Saving Potential of an Air-conditioner – Ice Thermal Storage (AC-ITS) system. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;31(1):1-10.

Indoor Air of a Double-storey Residential House in Malaysia
Haslinda Mohamed Kamar, Nazri Kamsah, Kam Jia Liq
Page 11 – 18

AbstractThis paper presents an investigation on the effects of using solar chimney, gable vent, and the combination of the two natural ventilations on the average air temperature and air-flow condition inside a double-storey house in Malaysia, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. The representative model of the house comprises of a main hall, a kitchen and an upper hall. Both temperature and air velocity boundary conditions were prescribed on the model. Results of the simulation indicates that the average temperature of the air in the house at 1 pm closely matched the measured values. It was found that the average temperature of the air in the house is not so significantly affected by the types of natural ventilation used. Opening the kitchen door causes the air to flow from the main and upper halls towards the kitchen and causing a bottle neck at the pathways. A more uniform air flow is obtained when solar chimneys are used. When gable vents are used, high intensity air flow occurs in the main hall and it spreads uniformly towards the kitchen and upper hall. The air-flow intensity becomes even higher in the main and upper halls when a combination of solar chimney and gable vents are incorporated into the CFD model.
CiteMLA
Kamar, Haslinda Mohamed, Nazri Kamsah, and J. L. Kam. “Indoor Air of a Double-storey Residential House in Malaysia.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 31.1 (2017): 11-18.
APA
Kamar, H. M., Kamsah, N., & Kam, J. L. (2017). Indoor Air of a Double-storey Residential House in Malaysia. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 31(1), 11-18.
Chicago
Kamar, Haslinda Mohamed, Nazri Kamsah, and J. L. Kam. “Indoor Air of a Double-storey Residential House in Malaysia.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 31, no. 1 (2017): 11-18.
Harvard
Kamar, H.M., Kamsah, N. and Kam, J.L., 2017. Indoor Air of a Double-storey Residential House in Malaysia. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 31(1), pp.11-18.
Vancouver
Kamar HM, Kamsah N, Kam JL. Indoor Air of a Double-storey Residential House in Malaysia. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;31(1):11-18.
Volume 32, No. 1 (April, 2017)
Catalytic Fast-pyrolysis Process Design and Equipment Setup for Converting Palm Oil Empty Fruit Bunch Biomass to Bio-oil
Haryanti Yahaya, Halimaton Hamdan, Rozzeta Dolah, Nazlan Muhid, Khair Azim Rashidi, Sulaiman Bakhtiar Rashidi
Page 1 – 8
AbstractFast-Pyrolysis is a well-known technology for breaking down molecular composition of organic materials into gas and liquid forms by mean of high temperature treatment in the absence of oxygen. Reactors accommodating this means of transformation has been variously designed and implemented in bench-scale as well as pilot and commercial scales. In this paper, we will discuss on the process design that fulfilled the catalytic fast-pyrolysis method as well as the equipment setup to realize this process of a pilot scale production. The design is to realize targeted heating process temperature to maintain at 320 °C, mix material with specified catalyst while occupying a 20 feet size container unit for space optimization. A shredder, industrial mixer, reactor and condenser are placed adjacently in the unit. Prior production test ran achieved desired temperature of both reactor and condenser.
CiteMLA
Haryanti, Yahaya, et al. “Catalytic Fast-pyrolysis Process Design and Equipment Setup for Converting Palm Oil Empty Fruit Bunch Biomass to Bio-oil.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 32.1 (2017): 1-8.
APA
Haryanti, Y., Halimaton, H., Rozzeta, D., Nazlan, M., Khair, A. R., & Sulaiman, B. R. (2017). Catalytic Fast-pyrolysis Process Design and Equipment Setup for Converting Palm Oil Empty Fruit Bunch Biomass to Bio-oil. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 32(1), 1-8.
Chicago
Haryanti Yahaya, Halimaton Hamdan, Rozzeta Dolah, Nazlan Muhid, Khair Azim Rashidi, and Sulaiman Bakhtiar Rashidi. “Catalytic Fast-pyrolysis Process Design and Equipment Setup for Converting Palm Oil Empty Fruit Bunch Biomass to Bio-oil.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 32, no. 1 (2017): 1-8.
Harvard
Haryanti, Y., Halimaton, H., Rozzeta, D., Nazlan, M., Khair, A.R., Sulaiman, B.R., 2017. Catalytic Fast-pyrolysis Process Design and Equipment Setup for Converting Palm Oil Empty Fruit Bunch Biomass to Bio-oil. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 32(1), pp.1-8.
Vancouver
Haryanti Y, Halimaton H, Rozzeta D, Nazlan M, Khair AR, Sulaiman BR. Catalytic Fast-pyrolysis Process Design and Equipment Setup for Converting Palm Oil Empty Fruit Bunch Biomass to Bio-oil. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;32(1):1-8.

The Effect of Microbubbles on the Reduction of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)
Azrin Camillius Tan, Nadia Dayana Bahar, Wira Jazair Yahya, Ahmad Muhsin Ithnin
Page 9 – 14

AbstractPalm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) is a wastewater discharged from the palm oil industry. It contains large quantity of organic matter in the form of total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), total solids (TS), oil and grease which is the major contribution to the water resources pollution especially rivers or lakes if left untreated. Raw POME has high value of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) which is more than 30,000 ppm, thus it must be treated before it can be discharged to the water resources. Therefore, this paper presents a new method of POME treatment using microbubbles. Microbubble is selected due to its high oxygen transfer coefficient at a low air flow rate that can give a major impact on reducing the BOD of POME. Thus, microbubble can be a factor on reducing the BOD of POME. The POME sample was collected and handled according to APHA standard. The duration of treatment was carried out for 120 minutes by analysing the BOD at the following time intervals; 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes with introduction of microbubble. The BOD results were measured using FiveDay Biochemical Oxygen Demand method (APHA 5210 B). The lowest flowrate of microbubbles performed better in reducing the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) with reduction of 26% of BOD at 60th minutes retention time. It is due to the lowest air flowrate produced the smallest size of microbubble whereas the bubble size is one of the key factors with significant impacts on floatation and mixing that affect aeration process.
CiteMLA
Azrin Camillius, Tan, et al. “The Effect of Microbubbles on the Reduction of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME).” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 32.1 (2017): 9-14.
APA
Azrin, C. T., Nadia, D. B., Wira, J. Y., & Ahmad Muhsin, Ithnin. (2017). The Effect of Microbubbles on the Reduction of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 32(1), 9-14.
Chicago
Azrin Camillius Tan, Nadia Dayana Bahar, Wira Jazair Yahya, and Ahmad Muhsin Ithnin. “The Effect of Microbubbles on the Reduction of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME).” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 32, no. 1 (2017): 9-14.
Harvard
Azrin, C.T., Nadia Dayana, B., Wira Jazair, Y., 2017. The Effect of Microbubbles on the Reduction of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 32(1), pp.9-14.
Vancouver
Azrin Camillius T, Nadia Dayana B, Wira Jazair Y Ahmad Muhsin I. The Effect of Microbubbles on the Reduction of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME). Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;32(1):9-14.
Volume 33, No. 1 (May, 2017)
Tribological Properties of Biodegradable Nano-lubricant
Darminesh Sathuramalingam Pillay, Nor Azwadi Che Sidik
Page 1 – 13
AbstractThe biodegradable or vegetable oil possess good chemical properties competitive with mineral oil which can used as alternative lubricant. However, the vegetable oil has poor performance of tribological characteristics at high temperature and oxidation which causes the vegetable lubricant not used widely in industrial sector. To optimize lubrication, the vegetable oil can be mixed with hybrid additives. In this paper, RBD palm olein and soybean oil was mixed with single and hybrid additives which has been tested to determine its lubricating properties. The additives which has been used for the study was zddp and copper oxide nanoparticles. The mixing percentage of zddp has been fixed with 1% optimum whereas the copper oxide nanoparticles varies from 0.75% to 1% of the total mass. Testing has been conducted using fourball tribotester based on ASTM D4172 standard condition. The result shows that formulated palm olein lubricant with hybrid additive with zddp and CuO nanoparticles at 0.75% and 1% respectively provided 54.6% of WSD reduction, 29.2% COF reduction and smooth surface roughness compared with base RDB palm olein and soybean oil. However, in term of WSD and surface roughness, the mineral lubricant possesses better performance expect COF value of hybrid additive lubricant possess better value. From this results, it can be concluded that the performance of vegetable lubricant could be better enhanced with hybrid additives and its tribological characteristics competitive with conventional mineral lubricant.
CiteMLA
Pillay, Darminesh Sathuramalingam, and Nor Azwadi Che Sidik. “Tribological Properties of Biodegradable Nano-lubricant.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 33.1 (2017): 1-13.
APA
Pillay, D. S., & Sidik, N. A. C. (2017). Tribological Properties of Biodegradable Nano-lubricant. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 33(1), 1-13.
Chicago
Pillay, Darminesh Sathuramalingam, and Nor Azwadi Che Sidik. “Tribological Properties of Biodegradable Nano-lubricant.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 33, no. 1 (2017): 1-13.
Harvard
Pillay, D.S. and Sidik, N.A.C., 2017. Tribological Properties of Biodegradable Nano-lubricant. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 33(1), pp.1-13.
Vancouver
Pillay DS, Sidik NA. Tribological Properties of Biodegradable Nano-lubricant. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;33(1):1-13.

Economics of Biogas Plants and Solar Home Systems: For Household Energy Applications
Md Mizanur Rahman, Mohd Faizal Hasan, Aminuddin Saat, Mazlan Abdul Wahid
Page 14 – 26

AbstractElectricity and clean cooking fuels are the two basic ingredients that are indispensable to alleviate energy poverty and bring about human development, but still today, globally, more than one billion people do not have access to these two forms of energy. The major reasons for the lack of these two energy services are economic constraints. Biogas plants and solar home systems (SHS) are two technically feasible renewable energy technologies to deliver cooking and electricity loads in rural areas. The negative economic perception (i.e. high cost) of these two renewable energy technologies is primarily responsible for making their diffusion slow in developing countries. This work presents a model to examine the economic performance (i.e. benefit to cost ratios) of these new energy technologies against three household load categories. Applying this model, this study shows that biogas plants used together with SHS show attractive economic performance e.g. a benefit cost ratio (BCR) of 6.6 for load Category 1(basic load). It is evidenced from this work that biogas plants together with SHS are economically promising in rural areas in developing country situations particularly in Bangladesh.
CiteMLA
Md Mizanur, Rahman, et al. “Economics of Biogas Plants and Solar Home Systems: For Household Energy Applications.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 33.1 (2017): 14-26.
APA
Md Mizanur, R., Mohd Faizal, H., Aminuddin, S., & Mazlan, A. W. (2017). Economics of Biogas Plants and Solar Home Systems: For Household Energy Applications. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 33(1), 14-26.
Chicago
Md Mizanur Rahman, Mohd Faizal Hasan, Aminuddin Saat, and Mazlan Abdul Wahid. “Economics of Biogas Plants and Solar Home Systems: For Household Energy Applications.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 33, no. 1 (2017): 14-26.
Harvard
Md Mizanur, R., Mohd Faizal, H., Aminuddin, S., Mazlan, A.W., 2017. Economics of Biogas Plants and Solar Home Systems: For Household Energy Applications. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 33(1), pp.14-26.
Vancouver
Md Mizanur R, Mohd Faizal H, Aminuddin S, Mazlan AW. Economics of Biogas Plants and Solar Home Systems: For Household Energy Applications. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;33(1):14-26.
Volume 34, No. 1 (June, 2017)
Numerical Analysis of Heat and Fluid Flow in Microchannel Heat Sink with Triangular Cavities
Soo Weng Beng, Wan Mohd. Arif Aziz Japar
Page 1 – 8
AbstractIn recent years, there has been an increasing interest in heat transfer enhancement using nanofluids in corrugated channels due current devices become smaller and smaller and are expected to perform better. The devices will create hot spot and generate more heat are related to the devices performance are better and inability of current heat sink to remove heat. So, the aim of this project is to stimulate the nanofluids flow in straight channel and corrugated microchannel using ANSYS software with certain specific parameters to be fixed or stated which are hydraulic diameter is 133.3 µm, Knudsen Number will be fixed when flow is continuum, Reynold number will be below than 1400, so that the flow in within laminar region, the inlet temperature will be 300 K, uniform heat flux 100W/cm2 and inlet velocity will be in the range of 1.0m/s to 4.5m/s. This research will describe the procedure of using ANSYS software and to analysis the heat enhancement, pressure drop, velocity contour of nanofluids happen in straight microchannel compared to triangular cavities microchannel. The analysis proved triangular cavities that using high volume fraction of nanofluid has better performance compared to straight channel with the same volume fraction of nanofluid because the triangular cavities microchannel have the highest nusselt number and lowest friction factor whereby these two factors become indicator to thermal performance.
CiteMLA
Soo Weng Beng, Wan Mohd Arif Aziz Japar. “Numerical Analysis of Heat and Fluid Flow in Microchannel Heat Sink with Triangular Cavities.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 34.1 (2017): 1-8.
APA
Soo, W. B., & Wan Mohd Arif, A. J. (2017). Numerical Analysis of Heat and Fluid Flow in Microchannel Heat Sink with Triangular Cavities. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 34(1), 1-8.
Chicago
Soo Weng Beng, and Wan Mohd Arif Aziz Japar. “Numerical Analysis of Heat and Fluid Flow in Microchannel Heat Sink with Triangular Cavities.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 34, no. 1 (2017): 1-8.
Harvard
Soo, W.B., Wan Mohd Arif, A.J., 2017. Numerical Analysis of Heat and Fluid Flow in Microchannel Heat Sink with Triangular Cavities. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 34(1), pp.1-8.
Vancouver
Soo WB, Wan Mohd Arif AJ. Numerical Analysis of Heat and Fluid Flow in Microchannel Heat Sink with Triangular Cavities. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;34(1):1-8.

Erosion Prediction of Bypass Seat in Oil Well Auto-fill Equipment Using CFD Approach
Ahmad Rizal Maharam
Page 9 – 18

AbstractThroughout the course completion of oil and gas wells, it is important to run casing in a wellbore that is normally laden with wellbore fluids. The wellbore fluid, or mud, serves two essential purposes. First, it helps to keep the inflow of formation fluids into the wellbore by exerting hydrostatic pressure on the formation. The hydrostatic pressure that is applied must be sufficiently high enough to keep fluid inflow but not high enough to crumble down the formation. During casing run, the impacts of surge and swab must be considered when deciding casing running rates to ensure the boundary between the hydrostatic pressure column and formation pressure keep at equilibrium. Second, the mud assists to circulate cuttings from the wellbore during the drilling commencement. Occasionally during running casing in the wellbore, it is important to have dependable auto-fill equipment to help limit the surge and swab effect. The concept is enabling wellbore fluids to enter the casing from the lower end of the casing is called auto-fill or self-fill. Filling the casing consequently from the lower end wipes out the requirement for manual filling the casing from surface while running in hole (RIH) and casing running efficiencies can increased. In the event that circulation time and additionally rate while RIH or well conditioning surpasses pre-determined mud weight and flowrate, erosion on the valve could happen, which lead to higher than anticipated auto-fill deactivation rates. Thus, this study aims to assess flow behavior and erosion characteristics of the auto-fill valve assembly at the highest acceptable predetermined flowrate parameter.
CiteMLA
Ahmad Rizal Maharam. “Erosion Prediction of Bypass Seat in Oil Well Auto-fill Equipment Using CFD Approach.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 34.1 (2017): 9-18.
APA
Ahmad Rizal, M. (2017). Erosion Prediction of Bypass Seat in Oil Well Auto-fill Equipment Using CFD Approach. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 34(1), 9-18.
Chicago
Ahmad Rizal Maharam. “Erosion Prediction of Bypass Seat in Oil Well Auto-fill Equipment Using CFD Approach.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 34, no. 1 (2017): 9-18.
Harvard
Ahmad Rizal, M., 2017. Erosion Prediction of Bypass Seat in Oil Well Auto-fill Equipment Using CFD Approach. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 34(1), pp.9-18.
Vancouver
Ahmad Rizal M. Erosion Prediction of Bypass Seat in Oil Well Auto-fill Equipment Using CFD Approach. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;34(1):9-18.
Volume 35, No. 1 (July, 2017)
Estimated Original Oil in Place Variation Due to Porosity Determination Technique
Ariffin Samsuri, Zainal Zakaria, Issham Ismail, M. N. Krishnamurthy
Page 1 – 10
AbstractOriginal oil in place underpins field appraisal, development, and management and at early appraisal stage, static volumetric technique had been used for estimation. One of the key variables in this technique is porosity; therefore the technique use for porosity determination will influence the estimated original oil in place magnitude. The evaluations of zone-average porosity in the net-pay intervals in a single well have accuracy of approximately 5 to 25 % of total porosity. This is largely the result of systematic uncertainty. Through this research paper, it is inferred that, the effect of averaging the porosity is more imminent on an inter-bedded reservoir rather than a clean sand reservoir. This is because the averaging effect is not accounting the porosity changes in smaller scale, as it is wrongly assumed; changes in smaller area of reservoir are negligible. This fundamental approach is proven to be incorrect. Though in clean sand this averaging method is still applicable, it is proven that an averaging method is not suitable to be used in a laminar or inter-bedded reservoir. The difference that may be introduced is almost 25% of the original oil in place, which may affect the economic model as the potentially producible and sub-economic field or discovery.
CiteMLA
Ariffin, Samsuri, et al. “Estimated Original Oil in Place Variation Due to Porosity Determination Technique.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 35.1 (2017): 1-10.
APA
Ariffin, S., Zainal, Z., Issham, I., & Krishnamurthy, M. N.(2017). Estimated Original Oil in Place Variation Due to Porosity Determination Technique. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 35(1), 1-10.
Chicago
Ariffin Samsuri, Zainal Zakaria, Issham Ismail, and M. N. Krishnamurthy. “Estimated Original Oil in Place Variation Due to Porosity Determination Technique.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 35, no. 1 (2017): 1-10.
Harvard
Ariffin, S., Zainal, Z., Issham, I., Krishnamurthy, M.N., 2017. Estimated Original Oil in Place Variation Due to Porosity Determination Technique. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 35(1), pp.1-10.
Vancouver
Ariffin S, Zainal Z, Issham I, Krishnamurthy MN. Estimated Original Oil in Place Variation Due to Porosity Determination Technique. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;35(1):1-10.

Green Energy Initiative: An Overview of Biodiesel Production from Jatropha Feedstock in Nigeria
Abubakar Sadiq Aliyu, Abdulkarim Ali Deba, Haruna Saidu
Page 11 – 22

AbstractIncrease in global development of renewable energy sources as sustainable alternatives to the conventional fossil fuels witnessed in recent time is linked to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; high dependency on imported fossil oil especially in the developed world; non-renewable nature of fossil fuels; price volatility of petroleum products and instability in the oil producing areas. Therefore, bioenergy appears to offer hope for addressing these concerns while also providing new opportunities for farmers in developing and developed countries alike. Among the many possible resources, biodiesel has received the most attention as a promising substitute for conventional petrol-diesel fuel. The production of biodiesel (methyl esters) from Jatropha plant is currently generating interest in every economy of the world as an alternative means of producing liquid fuels from biomass and have gather relevance due to the environmental advantage the process offers. Biodiesel is a renewable source of energy that can facilitate clean air, readily usable in existing engines and transport facilities, capable of generating employment and income for citizens but has not been fully tapped. Hence, efforts are being made to explore this economically competitive, environmentally acceptable and readily available alternative source of energy. Therefore, the paper provides a review of Jatropha as a feedstock for biodiesel production in Nigeria. Focusing on biodiesel development from Jatropha feedstock, the objectives of reviewing its current trends in the production of this biofuel will hold an immense benefit. The biodiesel fuel properties and potential of Jatropha towards environmental sustainability, poverty alleviation, and more importantly improve economic development for rural communities were highlighted.
CiteMLA
Abubakar, Sadiq Aliyu, et al. “Green Energy Initiative: An Overview of Biodiesel Production from Jatropha Feedstock in Nigeria.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 35.1 (2017): 11-22.
APA
Abubakar, S. A., Abdulkarim, A. D., & Haruna, S. (2017). Green Energy Initiative: An Overview of Biodiesel Production from Jatropha Feedstock in Nigeria. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 35(1), 11-22.
Chicago
Abubakar Sadiq Aliyu, Abdulkarim Ali Deba, and Haruna Saidu. “Green Energy Initiative: An Overview of Biodiesel Production from Jatropha Feedstock in Nigeria.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 35, no. 1 (2017): 11-22.
Harvard
Abubakar, S.A., Abdulkarim, A.D., Haruna, Saidu., 2017. Green Energy Initiative: An Overview of Biodiesel Production from Jatropha Feedstock in Nigeria. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 35(1), pp.11-22.
Vancouver
Abubakar SA, Abdulkarim AD Haruna S. Green Energy Initiative: An Overview of Biodiesel Production from Jatropha Feedstock in Nigeria. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;35(1):11-22.
Volume 36, No. 1 (August, 2017)
Biofuel Development in Nigeria: Prospect and Challenges
Abubakar Sadiq Aliyu, Abdulkarim Ali Deba, Haruna Saidu, Ibrahim Ladan Mohammed, Mohammed Maikudi Usman
Page 1 – 9
AbstractBiofuel is perceived as a means to ease global energy concerns, promote rural development and mitigate climate change. Therefore, its development has been and will continue to be a priority for most countries. Presently biofuel production is not economically viable, and the drive for its production is driven by the policies of some countries that perceive it as the only possible alternative to fossil fuels and a way out from the declining world crude reserves. Since biofuel offers the opportunities for developing countries to grow new livelihood and reduce the over dependence on imported fossil fuel, as well as obvious benefit to the environment, Nigeria is not left out. Therefore, for Nigeria to step into the biofuels industry in a big way, with every sector being placed in the use of cleaner renewable energy, government need to plan towards producing biofuel from her abundant biomass resources. This idea is expected to boost Nigerian economy through cultivation of arable landmass for provision of feedstock. Therefore, the quest for biofuels no doubt, represents a legitimate ambition. It is in the light of this that the paper reveals the prospects and challenges of biofuel development with the objective of reviewing the current situation in Nigeria. It further identifies inadequate process technology, poor policy implementation and lack of public acceptance as factors hampering its success.
CiteMLA
Abubakar, Sadiq Aliyu, et al. “Biofuel Development in Nigeria: Prospect and Challenges.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 36.1 (2017): 1-9.
APA
Abubakar, S. A., Abdulkarim, A. D., Haruna, S., Ibrahim, L. M., & Mohammed, M. U.(2017). Biofuel Development in Nigeria: Prospect and Challenges. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 36(1), 1-9.
Chicago
Abubakar Sadiq Aliyu, Abdulkarim Ali Deba, Haruna Saidu, Ibrahim Ladan Mohammed, and Mohammed Maikudi Usman. “Biofuel Development in Nigeria: Prospect and Challenges.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 36, no. 1 (2017): 1-9.
Harvard
Abubakar, S.A., Abdulkarim, A.D., Haruna, S., Ibrahim, L.M., Mohammed, M.U., 2017. Biofuel Development in Nigeria: Prospect and Challenges. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 36(1), pp.1-9.
Vancouver
Abubakar SA, Abdulkarim AD, Haruna S, Ibrahim LM, Mohammed MU. Biofuel Development in Nigeria: Prospect and Challenges. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;36(1):1-9.

Performance Evaluation of a Small-scale Solar Driven Refrigeration System
Mohd Syahmiyadiy Jamaluddin, Md Mizanur Rahman, Mohd Faizal Hasan, Aminuddin Saat, Mazlan Abd Wahid
Page 10 – 20

AbstractThe conventional refrigeration systems use fossil fuels for their energy inputs. Due to the growing environmental degradation and fossil fuel depletion issues, energy supply from alternative sources is gaining huge attention. Solar driven refrigeration system, which uses solar energy as its energy input, not only addresses these challenges and but also enhances sustainable development. In this work, we have developed a smallscale solar driven refrigeration system by combining several components such as a solar panel, a charge controller, a compressor, an inverter, an evaporator-tank, a condenser and a few connection wiring. We have operated the system for several days to check its functionality and performance. During operation, we have measured solar panel’s current and voltage with a 5-minute interval to calculate power that has been supplied as an input to the compressor. The evaporator coils pass through the water tank to cool down water to a desired temperature (i.e. 4 ºC). The temperature of the evaporator and condenser was also recorded for calculating the cooling effect created by the refrigerant R-134a. We have calculated coefficient of performance (COP) of the system for both actual cooling load of water and cooling effect created by the refrigerant. The refrigeration system successfully operates with an actual COP of 0.95. Despite the COP is low, the solar driven refrigeration system, which does not require any fuel, is a promising option in regard to both environment and economic aspects.
CiteMLA
Mohd Syahmiyadiy, Jamaluddin, et al. “Performance Evaluation of a Small-scale Solar Driven Refrigeration System.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 36.1 (2017): 10-20.
APA
Mohd Syahmiyadiy, J., Md Mizanur, R., Mohd Faizal, H., Aminuddin, S., & Mazlan, A. W.(2017). Performance Evaluation of a Small-scale Solar Driven Refrigeration System. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 36(1), 10-20.
Chicago
Mohd Syahmiyadiy Jamaluddin, Md Mizanur Rahman, Mohd Faizal Hasan, Aminuddin Saat, and Mazlan Abd Wahid. “Performance Evaluation of a Small-scale Solar Driven Refrigeration System.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 36, no. 1 (2017): 10-20.
Harvard
Mohd Syahmiyadiy, J., Md Mizanur, R., Mohd Faizal, H., Aminuddin, S., Mazlan, A.W., 2017. Performance Evaluation of a Small-scale Solar Driven Refrigeration System. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 36(1), pp.10-20.
Vancouver
Mohd Syahmiyadiy J, Md Mizanur R, Mohd Faizal H, Aminuddin S, Mazlan AW. Performance Evaluation of a Small-scale Solar Driven Refrigeration System. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;36(1):10-20.
Volume 37, No. 1 (September, 2017)
Renewable Resource Based Decentralized Power System to a Remote Village in Malaysia: Optimization and Techno-economic Evaluation
Vikkren s/o Vijeyan, Md Mizanur Rahman, Mohd Faizal Hasan, Aminuddin Saat, Mazlan Abd Wahid
Page 1 – 17
AbstractA portion of rural and remote areas in Malaysia still do not have access to grid electricity and in near future they are unlikely to get grid access. Lack of electricity in rural areas jeopardises development and exacerbate the poverty. Decentralized offgrid rural electrification system that integrates various renewable energy sources became inevitable for areas where grid connection is neither available nor feasible. Moreover, designing and implementation of efficient and techno-economically viable off-grid electric supply is a challenging task. A hybrid combination of renewable energy technologies is appeared to be a suitable candidate over grid extension for remote areas. In this study, we model viable off-grid rural electrification system for a remote village Kampung Sungai Tiang located in Belum, Perak. We consider prospective electricity demand of the village and utilize available renewable resources to generate electricity to fulfil the demand. An optional diesel generator has been considered as backup power supplier whenever the renewable technologies cannot support the demand. This study implemented HOMER software to determine optimum electrification systems for the village and evaluate their techno economic performance. The simulation results reveal that Hybrid PV-Diesel-Biomass system is a better option to be implemented in this village in regard to viability, techno-economic performance, and environmental friendliness.
CiteMLA
Vikkren, Vijeyan, et al. “Renewable Resource Based Decentralized Power System to a Remote Village in Malaysia: Optimization and Techno-economic Evaluation.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 37.1 (2017): 1-17.
APA
Vikkren, V., Md Mizanur, R., Mohd Faizal, H., Aminuddin, S., & Mazlan, A. W.(2017). Renewable Resource Based Decentralized Power System to a Remote Village in Malaysia: Optimization and Techno-economic Evaluation. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 37(1), 1-17.
Chicago
Vikkren s/o Vijeyan, Md Mizanur Rahman, Mohd Faizal Hasan, Aminuddin Saat, and Mazlan Abd Wahid. “Renewable Resource Based Decentralized Power System to a Remote Village in Malaysia: Optimization and Techno-economic Evaluation.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 37, no. 1 (2017): 1-17.
Harvard
Vikkren, V., Md Mizanur, R., Mohd Faizal, H., Aminuddin, S., Mazlan, A.W., 2017. Renewable Resource Based Decentralized Power System to a Remote Village in Malaysia: Optimization and Techno-economic Evaluation. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 37(1), pp.1-17.
Vancouver
Vikkren V, Md Mizanur R, Mohd Faizal H, Aminuddin S, Mazlan AW. Renewable Resource Based Decentralized Power System to a Remote Village in Malaysia: Optimization and Techno-economic Evaluation. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;37(1):1-17.

Flow Simulations of Generic Vehicle Model SAE Type 4 and DrivAer Fastback Using OpenFOAM
Nur Haziqah Shaharuddin, Mohamed Sukri Mat Ali, Shuhaimi Mansor, Sallehuddin Muhamad, Sheikh Ahmad Zaki Shaikh Salim, Muhammad Usman
Page 18 – 31

AbstractThe aim of this study is to simulate flow over two types of generic vehicle model. The simulation is done using the open source CFD solver, OpenFOAM, which is based on the finite volume method, where each of the control volume is treated for its flow physical conservation using governing equations. The two different generic vehicle models are SAE Type 4 (fullback) – strongly simplified model and DrivAer Fastback – a more realistic vehicle model. Their flow structures are compared based on the CFD results. The different in flow behaviours are shown clearly by each model due to the geometry differences, where the SAE Type 4 is blunter, while the DrivAer Fastback is more aerodynamic. Results showed that SAE Type 4 model able to produce large turbulence wake structures and thus lead to higher value of drag coefficient compared to the DrivAer Fastback model. The drag coefficient for the SAE Type 4 is 0.3722 and the DrivAer Fastback is 0.2803.
CiteMLA
Nur Haziqah, Shaharuddin, et al. “Flow Simulations of Generic Vehicle Model SAE Type 4 and DrivAer Fastback Using OpenFOAM.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 37.1 (2017): 18-31.
APA
Nur Haziqah, S., Mohamed Sukri, M. A., Shuhaimi, M., Sallehuddin, M., Sheikh Ahmad Zaki, S. S., & Muhammad, U.(2017). Flow Simulations of Generic Vehicle Model SAE Type 4 and DrivAer Fastback Using OpenFOAM. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 37(1), 18-31.
Chicago
Nur Haziqah Shaharuddin, Mohamed Sukri Mat Ali, Shuhaimi Mansor, Sallehuddin Muhamad, Sheikh Ahmad Zaki Shaikh Salim, and Muhammad Usman. “Flow Simulations of Generic Vehicle Model SAE Type 4 and DrivAer Fastback Using OpenFOAM.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 37, no. 1 (2017): 18-31.
Harvard
Nur Haziqah, S., Mohamed Sukri, M.A., Shuhaimi, M., Sallehuddin, M., Sheikh Ahmad Zaki, S.S., Muhammad, U., 2017. Flow Simulations of Generic Vehicle Model SAE Type 4 and DrivAer Fastback Using OpenFOAM. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 37(1), pp.18-31.
Vancouver
Nur Haziqah S, Mohamed Sukri MA, Shuhaimi M, Sallehuddin M, Sheikh Ahmad Zaki SS, Muhammad U. Flow Simulations of Generic Vehicle Model SAE Type 4 and DrivAer Fastback Using OpenFOAM. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;37(1):18-31.
Volume 38, No. 1 (October, 2017)
Assessment of Atomization Parameters for Flat Fan Nozzles Based on Wind Tunnel Measurements
Nasir Salim Hassen, Nor Azwadi Che Sidik
Page 1 – 9
AbstractThe main objective of this study involved testing of nozzle type, driving speed and wind speed effects on atomization parameters for broadcast spraying application. Two broadcast nozzle types flat fan extended range XR11003 and flat fan drift guard nozzle DG11003 were tested under wind tunnel conditions. To validate spraying results, the reference nozzle of spraying systems flat fan TeeJet nozzle TP11003 was used for comparison. The results of this study indicate an obvious effect of the technical variables and wind variable on atomization parameters. The nozzle DG11003 produced droplet size spectra of D0.1, D0.5 and D0.9 bigger than the extended range nozzle and reference nozzle. The droplet size spectra became smaller under increasing of the driving speed. Droplet size parameters generally tended to be coarser at the higher wind speeds. This study supports the use of nozzle DG11003 as a means for controlling spray distribution.
CiteMLA
Nasir Salim, Hassen, et al. “Assessment of Atomization Parameters for Flat Fan Nozzles Based on Wind Tunnel Measurements.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 38.1 (2017): 1-9.
APA
Nasir Salim, H., & Nor Azwadi, C. S.(2017). Assessment of Atomization Parameters for Flat Fan Nozzles Based on Wind Tunnel Measurements. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 38(1), 1-9.
Chicago
Nasir Salim Hassen, and Nor Azwadi Che Sidik. “Assessment of Atomization Parameters for Flat Fan Nozzles Based on Wind Tunnel Measurements.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 38, no. 1 (2017): 1-9.
Harvard
Nasir Salim, H., Nor Azwadi, C.S., 2017. Assessment of Atomization Parameters for Flat Fan Nozzles Based on Wind Tunnel Measurements. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 38(1), pp.1-9.
Vancouver
Nasir Salim H, Nor Azwadi CS. Assessment of Atomization Parameters for Flat Fan Nozzles Based on Wind Tunnel Measurements. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;38(1):1-9.

Improvement of Immobilization of Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) by Calcium Alginate
Mohammed Saedi Jami, Nurul Alia Fazil, Masashi Iwata
Page 10 – 15

AbstractCurrent wastewater pre-treatment plant system handling FOG consumes high energy and time. This study aims to introduce a new FOG wastewater pre-treatment by immobilizing the FOG in a calcium alginate gel beads. Using Design-Expert software, Response surface methodology (RSM) based on face centred central composite design (FCCCD) was used to optimize two important variables; pH of FOG and concentration of sodium alginate whereas the oil entrapment efficiency (OEE) was used as a response. The mixtures of synthetic FOG wastewater and sodium alginate were dropped in calcium chloride solution in droplets form to produce gel beads. The optimum combination for having highest OEE percentage at 87.27% was found to be at pH 4.7 and 10000 ppm concentration of sodium alginate. Moreover, coating the gel beads with chitosan has reduced the FOG loss during mechanical expression from 23.73 % to 12.58 %. The gel beads were dissolved completely in phosphate buffer solution of pH 5, 8 and 9. This technique can be applied for easier FOG removal, for it has high OEE percentage and the final gel is also biodegradable.
CiteMLA
Mohammed Saedi, Jami, et al. “Improvement of Immobilization of Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) by Calcium Alginate.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 38.1 (2017): 10-15.
APA
Mohammed Saedi, J., Nurul Alia, F., & Masashi, I.(2017). Improvement of Immobilization of Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) by Calcium Alginate. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 38(1), 10-15.
Chicago
Mohammed Saedi Jami, Nurul Alia Fazil, and Masashi Iwata. “Improvement of Immobilization of Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) by Calcium Alginate.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 38, no. 1 (2017): 10-15.
Harvard
Mohammed Saedi, J., Nurul Alia, F., Masashi, I., 2017. Improvement of Immobilization of Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) by Calcium Alginate. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 38(1), pp.10-15.
Vancouver
Mohammed Saedi J, Nurul Alia F, Masashi I. Improvement of Immobilization of Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) by Calcium Alginate. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;38(1):10-15.

Preparation and Characterization of Polylactic Acid Based Polyurethane for Environmental Friendly Packaging Materials
Muhamad Norshafiq Ismail, Najihah Rafidi, Raina Jama Awale, Fathilah Ali
Page 16 – 21

AbstractConventional packaging materials are mostly produced using petroleum-based substances and its’ non-biodegradability are causing landfill problems. Therefore, researches have been done to replace the non-degradable polymer substances to degradable polymers. Polylactic acid (PLA) is a type of biodegradable polymer which is brittle but has good mechanical strength, which makes it a suitable polymer to be used as packaging materials. To improve the flexibility of PLA, PLA based polyurethanes (PUs) are produced by using PLA-diol with vegetable oil polyol as the chain extender. Palm oil polyol (PO) is a type of vegetable oil polyol which are used in various productions of PUs. In this study, PO polyol is used as soft segment to improve the flexibility of PLA whereas hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and toluene diisocyanate (TDI) are used as a source of isocyanate. PLA/Palm oil polyol based polyurethanes (PLAPOPUs) are synthesized using one-shot and two steps polymerization method. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) spectra confirmed on the formation of urethane bond and glass transition temperature was analyzed using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The PLAPOPU prepared using HDI through one-step method has high potential to be used in environmental friendly packaging industries.
CiteMLA
Muhamad Norshafiq, Ismail, et al. “Preparation and Characterization of Polylactic Acid Based Polyurethane for Environmental Friendly Packaging Materials.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 38.1 (2017): 16-21.
APA
Muhamad Norshafiq, I., Najihah, R., Raina Jama, A., & Fathilah, A. (2017). Preparation and Characterization of Polylactic Acid Based Polyurethane for Environmental Friendly Packaging Materials. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 38(1), 16-21.
Chicago
Muhamad Norshafiq Ismail, Najihah Rafidi, Raina Jama Awale, and Fathilah Ali. “Preparation and Characterization of Polylactic Acid Based Polyurethane for Environmental Friendly Packaging Materials.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 38, no. 1 (2017): 16-21.
Harvard
Muhamad Norshafiq, I., Najihah, R., Raina Jama, A., Fathilah, A., 2017. Preparation and Characterization of Polylactic Acid Based Polyurethane for Environmental Friendly Packaging Materials. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 38(1), pp.16-21.
Vancouver
Muhamad Norshafiq I, Najihah R, Raina Jama A, Fathilah A. 2017. Preparation and Characterization of Polylactic Acid Based Polyurethane for Environmental Friendly Packaging Materials. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;38(1):16-21.
Volume 39, No. 1 (November, 2017)
Development of Indigenous Biofilm for Enhanced Biogas Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent
Md Zahangir Alam, Nurfarhana Abdul Hanid
Page 1 – 8
AbstractPalm oil mill effluent (POME), high content of organic substances can be a great source for production of renewable energy i.e. biogas through microbial biodegradation. The production of biogas has widely been discovered, however, it shows a problem with the low yield of biogas produced. Thus, in order to overcome this problem, a process was used by using indigenous biofilm as a simultaneous pretreatment (hydrolysis) and biogas production. The studies on isolation, purification and screening of biofilm producing bacteria were conducted to evaluate the simultaneous pretreatment and biogas production. The results showed that the developed biofilm enhanced the biogas production with the operating pH, total suspended solid (TSS) and biofilm which were found to be 4-8, 1.5- 4.5 % and 2-4 g respectively. Based on the experiment conducted, the optimum conditions for the biogas production were at pH 8, TSS of 3.0% and biofilm used of 3 g and the highest biogas yield was 382 ml within 5 days of anaerobic digestion. Thus, anaerobic digestion of POME using indigenous biofilm to produce biogas at high yield could be an alternative and effective solution to reduce the source of pollution to the environment.
CiteMLA
Md Zahangir, Alam, et al. ” Development of Indigenous Biofilm for Enhanced Biogas Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 39.1 (2017): 1-8.
APA
Md Zahangir, A., & Nurfarhana, A. H. (2017). Development of Indigenous Biofilm for Enhanced Biogas Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 39(1), 1-8.
Chicago
Md Zahangir Alam, and Nurfarhana Abdul Hanid. “Development of Indigenous Biofilm for Enhanced Biogas Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 39, no. 1 (2017): 1-8.
Harvard
Md Zahangir, A., Nurfarhana A.H., 2017. Development of Indigenous Biofilm for Enhanced Biogas Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 39(1), pp.1-8.
Vancouver
Md Zahangir A, Nurfarhana AH. Development of Indigenous Biofilm for Enhanced Biogas Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;39(1):1-8.

The Application of Multiphase DEM for the Prediction of Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) Deposition in Sewer Pipe Lines
Iman AF Husain, Ma’an Fahmi Alkhatib, Mohammed Saedi Jami, Mohamed E.S Mirghani, Zaki Zainudin, Asif Hoda
Page 9 – 16

AbstractFat oil and grease (FOG) deposition into sewer pipes can block the pipes and restrict the wastewater flow causing backflows and sanitary sewer overflows (SSOs). Understanding the wastewater flow and transport of FOG particles is a key step for predicting the particles deposition and blockage formation. ANSYS FLUENT was used for simulating the flow of FOG particles and its deposition onto the sewer pipe. The multiphase Eularian-Lagrangian model with discrete Phase method (DPM) was utilized for developing the CFD model. The kinetic parameters and physical values are based on previous experimental work and literature. The CFD Eularian-DEM multiphase model has shown a good potential for simulating the wastewater flow and demonstrated the applicability of CFD to simulate and track the transport and deposition of FOG particles into the sewer pipe walls.
CiteMLA
Iman, AF Husain, et al. “The Application of Multiphase DEM for the Prediction of Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) Deposition in Sewer Pipe Lines.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 39.1 (2017): 9-16.
APA
Iman AF, H., Ma’an Fahmi, A., Mohammed Saedi, J., Mohamed E.S M., Zaki, Z., & Asif, H. (2017). The Application of Multiphase DEM for the Prediction of Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) Deposition in Sewer Pipe Lines. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 39(1), 9-16.
Chicago
Iman AF Husain, Ma’an Fahmi Alkhatib, Mohammed Saedi Jami, Mohamed E.S Mirghani, Zaki Zainudin, and Asif Hoda. “The Application of Multiphase DEM for the Prediction of Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) Deposition in Sewer Pipe Lines.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 39, no. 1 (2017): 9-16.
Harvard
Iman AF, H., Ma’an Fahmi, A., Mohammed Saedi, J., Mohamed E.S M., Zaki, Z., Asif, H., 2017. The Application of Multiphase DEM for the Prediction of Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) Deposition in Sewer Pipe Lines. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 39(1), pp.9-16.
Vancouver
Iman AF H, Ma’an Fahmi A, Mohammed Saedi J, Mohamed ES M, Zaki Z, Asif, H. The Application of Multiphase DEM for the Prediction of Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) Deposition in Sewer Pipe Lines. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;39(1):9-16.

Flow Characteristic of Blunt- edged Delta Wing at High Angle of Attack
Nurulhuda Tajuddin, Shabudin Mat, Mazuriah Said, Shumaimi Mansor
Page 17 – 25

AbstractThe main objective of this project is to investigate the flow characteristics of the VFE2 blunt edged delta wing profiles at high angle of attack. The vortex is developed on the upper surface of delta wing and this flow physics is very complicated. The vortex flow on the sharp-edged wing develops in the Apex region. Different flow topology is observed for the blunt-edge wing. The vortex on the blunt-edged wing is not developed in the apex region but at a certain cord wise position based on angle of attack, Reynolds number and leading edge bluntness. The primary vortex moved upstream with increasing angle of attack. The problem is that this vortex will be formed up to the apex if the angle of attack is further increased. No data available at higher angle of attack of beyond ? = 30° during the VFE-2 experiments due to the constraint of the experimental work. The data from the surface pressure measurement performed at 1×10^6 and 2×10^6 is presented in this paper. The experiments were conducted at Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Low Speed Tunnel (UTM-LST) with maximum speed of 83 m/s. The data were interpreted using pressure coefficient, Cp against distance of pressure tube that based on the delta wing chord. Apart from that, tuft method was also performed to visualize the flow characteristics above the surface of delta wing at high angle of attack. The results highlight interesting flow physics above blunt-edged wing at high angle of attack. The result shows that the primary moves upstream closed the apex at high angles of attack.
CiteMLA
Nurulhuda, Tajuddin, et al. “Flow Characteristic of Blunt- Edged Delta Wing at High Angle of Attack.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 39.1 (2017): 17-25.
APA
Nurulhuda, T., Shabudin, M., Mazuriah, S., & Shumaimi, M. (2017). Flow Characteristic of Blunt- Edged Delta Wing at High Angle of Attack. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 39(1), 17-25.
Chicago
Nurulhuda Tajuddin, Shabudin Mat, Mazuriah Said, and Shumaimi Mansor. “Flow Characteristic of Blunt- Edged Delta Wing at High Angle of Attack.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 39, no. 1 (2017): 17-25.
Harvard
Nurulhuda, T., Shabudin, M., Mazuriah, S., Shumaimi, M., 2017. Flow Characteristic of Blunt- Edged Delta Wing at High Angle of Attack. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 39(1), pp.17-25.
Vancouver
Nurulhuda T, Shabudin M, Mazuriah S, Shumaimi M. Flow Characteristic of Blunt- Edged Delta Wing at High Angle of Attack. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;39(1):17-25.

A Review on Multiple Functions of Ionic Liquid in Biodiesel Production
Atikah Mohamed Sharikh, Sarina Sulaiman, Azlin Suhaida Azmi
Page 26 – 35

AbstractScarcity of petroleum and constant concern over environmental problems caused by diesel fuels has promoted production of biodiesel from renewable sources. Biodiesel synthesized from transesterification methods in the presence of acid or base catalyst or enzyme requires huge amount of solvent, particularly from alcohol to affirm high production yield. Inevitably, the process results in bulky waste that demands appropriate attention. In attempt to tackle the problem, ionic liquid has been identified to be the most potential substitute for conventional catalyst and solvent required in the biodiesel conversion. Ionic liquid that is widely known as ‘green chemical’ can be synthesized to meet reaction requirement by careful selection of anion and cations, with correct proportion of each to produce desired mixture. This paper reviews recent applications of ionic liquid in biodiesel production as catalyst, solvent and co-solvent. Since there are few ways in which ionic liquid can be categorized, this paper highlights classification of ionic liquids into two major groups? namely acidic and basic ionic liquid. Discussion on these tswo groups covers their dual- functions in biodiesel production which are as solvent or co-solvent and catalyst as well as the limitation of each group in the biodiesel production.
CiteMLA
Atikah Mohamed, Sharikh, et al. “A Review on Multiple Functions of Ionic Liquid in Biodiesel Production.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 39.1 (2017): 26-35.
APA
Atikah, M. S., Sarina, S., & Azlin Suhaida, A.(2017). A Review on Multiple Functions of Ionic Liquid in Biodiesel Production. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 39(1), 26-35.
Chicago
Atikah Mohamed Sharikh, Sarina Sulaiman, and Azlin Suhaida Azmi. “A Review on Multiple Functions of Ionic Liquid in Biodiesel Production.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 39, no. 1 (2017): 26-35.
Harvard
Atikah, M.S., Sarina, S., Azlin Suhaida, A., 2017. A Review on Multiple Functions of Ionic Liquid in Biodiesel Production. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 39(1), pp.26-35.
Vancouver
Atikah MS, Sarina S, Azlin Suhaida A. A Review on Multiple Functions of Ionic Liquid in Biodiesel Production. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;39(1):26-35.

Influences of External Store on Aerodynamic Performance of UTM-LST Generic Light Aircraft Model
Muhammad Zaki Abdul Manaf, Shabudin Mat, Shuhaimi Mansor, Mohd Nazri Nasir, Tholudin Mat Lazim, Wan Khairuddin Wan Ali, Wan Zaidi Wan Omar, Zurriati Mohd Ali, Ainullotfi Abdul-latif, Mastura Abd Wahid, Md Nizam Dahalan, Norazila Othman
Page 36 – 46

AbstractThis paper discusses the impact of the external store on the aerodynamic performance of the light aircraft model in the subsonic region. Light aircrafts are normally used to train pilots, survey, leisure and transportation. To date, there have been a lot of small aircrafts were used for a strategic purposes where an external store either external fuel storage or armament has been installed on its wing. Examples of such aircraft are KAI-KA1, A29 Super Tucano and Beechcraft AT-6. Therefore it is important to study the effect of this external store installation on the aerodynamic characteristics of a small aircraft. An available light aircraft model of UTM Low speed wind tunnel (UTM-LST) has been modified so that a generic external store can be mounted on the lower surface of the wing. Two set of experiments were carried out on the model which were; the experimental with the external store and followed by the experimental without external store as a benchmark of tested configuration. The experiments were conducted at 2 different speeds of 26 and 39 m/s that corresponding to 0.4 × 10^6 and 0.6 × 10^6 Reynolds numbers respectively. Three measurement techniques were employed on each configuration. The first measurement was the 6 component forces and moments measurement technique. The second technique was the pressure measurement on the wing while the final test was the tufts flow visualization. The result of steady balance indicates that external store has no effect on coefficient of lift at low attack angle but it shows that there was a reduction of lift coefficient by 2% at higher angle of attack. The data showed that the coefficient of drag increases by 4% when the external is installed. Suprisingly, the installation of store does not give significance effects on the pitching moment coefficient. An interesting feature is observed from surface pressure studies, the results obtained show that there is an increase in the pressure coefficient if the external is mounted on the wing at a low angle of attack, while this change does not occur at high attack angle.
CiteMLA
Muhammad Zaki, Abdul Manaf, et al. “Influences of External Store on Aerodynamic Performance of UTM-LST Generic Light Aircraft Model.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 39.1 (2017): 36-46.
APA
Muhammad Zaki, A. M., Shabudin, M., Shuhaimi, M., Mohd Nazri, N., Tholudin, M. L., Wan Khairuddin W. A., Wan Zaidi, W. O., Zurriati, M. A., Ainullotfi, A. L., Mastura, A. W., Md Nizam, D., & Norazila, O.(2017). Influences of External Store on Aerodynamic Performance of UTM-LST Generic Light Aircraft Model. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 39(1), 36-46.
Chicago
Muhammad Zaki Abdul Manaf, Shabudin Mat, Shuhaimi Mansor, Mohd Nazri Nasir, Tholudin Mat Lazim, Wan Khairuddin Wan Ali, Wan Zaidi Wan Omar, Zurriati Mohd Ali, Ainullotfi Abdul-latif, Mastura Abd Wahid, Md Nizam Dahalan, and Norazila Othman. “Influences of External Store on Aerodynamic Performance of UTM-LST Generic Light Aircraft Model.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 39, no. 1 (2017): 36-46.
Harvard
Muhammad Zaki, A.M., Shabudin, M., Shuhaimi, M., Mohd Nazri, N., Tholudin, M.L., Wan Khairuddin W. A., Wan Zaidi, W.O., Zurriati, M.A., Ainullotfi, A.L., Mastura, A.W., Md Nizam, D., Norazila, O., 2017. Influences of External Store on Aerodynamic Performance of UTM-LST Generic Light Aircraft Model. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 39(1), pp.36-46.
Vancouver
Muhammad Zaki AM, Shabudin M, Shuhaimi M, Mohd Nazri N, Tholudin ML, Wan Khairuddin WA, Wan Zaidi WO, Zurriati MA, Ainullotfi AL, Mastura AW, Md Nizam D, Norazila O. Influences of External Store on Aerodynamic Performance of UTM-LST Generic Light Aircraft Model. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;39(1):36-46.
Volume 40, No. 1 (December, 2017)
Influence of Operating Variables on the In-Situ Transesterification using CaO/Al2(SO4)3 Derived from Waste
Sarina Sulaiman, Mohd Ihsan Rosdi, Dzun N. Jimat, Maizirwan Mel, Parveen Jamal
Page 1 – 6
AbstractThe purpose of this research project is to investigate the effects of amount of catalyst, the ratio of solid to methanol and different temperature on the biodiesel yield. Solid coconut waste and heterogeneous catalyst derived from the waste, which is calcium oxide (CaO) are used to produce biodiesel and also examine the kinetics of the reactive extraction. In this project, the heterogeneous catalyst is produced by combining solid coconut waste and egg shells and finally treating it with Al2 (SO4 )3 . Then, the mixture of wastes was calcinated under high temperature. Then, solid coconut waste in situ transesterification experiment were conducted at different amount of catalysts (2-6wt%), temperature (50-65°C) and methanol to oil ratio (6:1 – 12:1). The optimum parameters were the solid to methanol ratio, temperature and mixing speed which were at 1:10, 60 °C and 350 rpm respectively with highest yield of 47 wt%. The result proves that the biodiesel conversion increase with methanol, but the reaction did not change and decrease after achieving certain percentage of methanol.
CiteMLA
Sarina, Sulaiman, et al. “Influence of Operating Variables on the In-Situ Transesterification using CaO/Al2(SO4)3 Derived from Waste.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 40.1 (2017): 1-6.
APA
Sarina, S., Mohd Ihsan, R., Dzun, N. J., Maizirwan, M., & Parveen J.(2017). Influence of Operating Variables on the In-Situ Transesterification using CaO/Al2(SO4)3 Derived from Waste. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 40(1), 1-6.
Chicago
Sarina Sulaiman, Mohd Ihsan Rosdi, Dzun N. Jimat, Maizirwan Mel, and Parveen Jamal. “Influence of Operating Variables on the In-Situ Transesterification using CaO/Al2(SO4)3 Derived from Waste.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 40, no. 1 (2017): 1-6.
Harvard
Sarina, S., Mohd Ihsan, R., Dzun, N.J., Maizirwan, M., Parveen J., 2017. Influence of Operating Variables on the In-Situ Transesterification using CaO/Al2(SO4)3 Derived from Waste. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 40(1), pp.1-6.
Vancouver
Sarina S, Mohd Ihsan R, Dzun, NJ, Maizirwan M, Parveen J. Influence of Operating Variables on the In-Situ Transesterification using CaO/Al2(SO4)3 Derived from Waste. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;40(1):1-6.

Effects of Co-digestion of Camel Dung and Municipal Solid Wastes on Quality of Biogas, Methane and Biofertilizer Production
Benaissa Nawel Kheira, Belkheir Dadamoussa, Abdelaziz Bendraoua, Maizirwan Mel, Brahim Labed
Page 7 – 17

AbstractBiogas and biofertilizer production from anaerobic digestion of local organic solid waste in Algeria is an attractive choice for greener and cleaner environment. In this paper, the study focused on the effect of co-digestion of municipal solid organic wastes (MSW) and camel dung (CD) for the quality production of biogas (methane) and bio fertilizer products. The concentration of methane production is the preeminent aim of this work. The experiment was set by feedstocks preparation where organic waste was mixed with tap water at 1:1 ratio and it allowed to digest at temperature of 40 °C. The operating hydraulic retention time (HRT) was set at 35 days. Physicochemical properties of feedstocks and constituent elements of the digestate were determined by American Public Health Association methods. The experimental study indicated that underdefined operational conditions such as constant organic loading rate (OLR) of 0.6 kg per day, hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 35 days and temperature of 40C from MSW and MSW and CD mixtures of ratio at one to one resulted in a higher methane production (57.3%) compared to monodigestion of camel dung that produced 45.6% of CH4) in a pH range between 7.0 to 8.1. The improvement has also found related to high biodegradability of the MSW, the slight ammonium concentration, the optimization of the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C/N 25.8:1) and to the well-balanced nutrients content of the feedstock. The digestate coming from anaerobic co-digestion has also used as bio-fertilizer and this by-product has a benefit to avoid the harmful effect in the digester system and in the surrounding environment. It is shown clearly that the MSW and CD are highly desirable substrates for anaerobic co-digestion with regards to their good biodegradability, high methane yield and good bio-fertilizer quality.
CiteMLA
Benaissa Nawel, Kheira, et al. “Effects of Co-digestion of Camel Dung and Municipal Solid Wastes on Quality of Biogas, Methane and Biofertilizer Production.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 40.1 (2017): 7-17.
APA
Benaissa, N. K., Belkheir, D., Abdelaziz, B., Maizirwan, M., & Brahim, L.(2017). Effects of Co-digestion of Camel Dung and Municipal Solid Wastes on Quality of Biogas, Methane and Biofertilizer Production. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 40(1), 7-17.
Chicago
Benaissa Nawel Kheira, Belkheir Dadamoussa, Abdelaziz Bendraoua, Maizirwan Mel, and Brahim Labed. ” Effects of Co-digestion of Camel Dung and Municipal Solid Wastes on Quality of Biogas, Methane and Biofertilizer Production.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 40, no. 1 (2017): 7-17.
Harvard
Benaissa, N.K., Belkheir, D., Abdelaziz, B., Maizirwan, M., & Brahim, L., 2017. Effects of Co-digestion of Camel Dung and Municipal Solid Wastes on Quality of Biogas, Methane and Biofertilizer Production. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 40(1), pp.7-17.
Vancouver
Benaissa NK, Belkheir D, Abdelaziz B, Maizirwan M, Brahim L. Effects of Co-digestion of Camel Dung and Municipal Solid Wastes on Quality of Biogas, Methane and Biofertilizer Production. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;40(1):7-17.

Wind Tunnel Experiments on a Generic Sharp-Edge Delta Wing UAV Model
Nadhirah Mohd Zain, Shabudin Mat, Khushairi Amri Kasim, Shuhaimi Mansor, Md. Nizam Dahalan, Norazila Othman
Page 18 – 26

AbstractDelta wing is a triangular shape platform from a plan view. Delta wing can be applied to aircraft development as well as UAV. However, the flow around delta wing is very complicated and unresolved to date. On the upper surface of the wing, vortex is developed which need more studies to understand this flow physics. This paper discusses an experiment study of active flow control applied on the sharp-edged generic delta wing UAV. This paper focuses on the effect of rotating propeller on the vortex properties above a generic 550 swept angle model. The model has an overall length of 0.99 meter and the experiments were performed in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Low Speed wind tunnel sized of 1.5 x 2.0 m^2. In this experiment, the experiments were conducted at a speed of 18 m/s. In order to differentiate the effect of propeller size on the vortex system, the experiment was carried out in three stages, i.e., experimental without propeller called as clean wing configuration and followed by the experiment with propeller diameter of 13”. The final experiment was the experiment with propeller diameter of 14”. During the experiments, two measurement techniques were employed; steady forces and surface pressure measurements. The experimental data highlights an impact of propeller size on the coefficients of lift, drag, and moment and vortex system of the delta-shaped UAV. The results obtained indicate that the lift is increased particularly at high angle of attack. The results also show that vortex breakdown is delayed further aft of the wing when propeller rotating at about 5000 RPM.
CiteMLA
Nadhirah, Mohd Zain, et al. “Wind Tunnel Experiments on a Generic Sharp-Edge Delta Wing UAV Model.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 40.1 (2017): 18-26.
APA
Nadhirah, M. Z., Shabudin, M., Khushairi, A. K., Shuhaimi, M., Md. Nizam, D., & Norazila, O.(2017). Wind Tunnel Experiments on a Generic Sharp-Edge Delta Wing UAV Model. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 40(1), 18-26.
Chicago
Nadhirah Mohd Zain, Shabudin Mat, Khushairi Amri Kasim, Shuhaimi Mansor, Md. Nizam Dahalan, and Norazila Othman.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 40, no. 1 (2017): 18-26.
Harvard
Nadhirah, M.Z., Shabudin, M., Khushairi, A.K., Shuhaimi, M., Md. Nizam, D., & Norazila, O., 2017. Wind Tunnel Experiments on a Generic Sharp-Edge Delta Wing UAV Model. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 40(1), pp.18-26.
Vancouver
Nadhirah MZ, Shabudin M, Khushairi AK, Shuhaimi M, Md. Nizam D, Norazila O. Wind Tunnel Experiments on a Generic Sharp-Edge Delta Wing UAV Model. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;40(1):18-26.

Superaugmented Pitching Motion of UTM CAMAR UAV using Advanced Flying Handling Qualities
Shuhaimi Mansor, Yasser Nogoud, Shabudin Mat, Md. Nizam Dahalan, Ainullotfi Abdul-latif
Page 27 – 37

AbstractThis paper focused of a robust flight control system (FCS) for a small UAV. The main objective of this design is to ensure the small UAV can fly safely in severe gusty conditions. The Superaugmentation FCS consisted of Stability Augmentation System (SAS) and Command Stability Augmentation System (CSAS) was developed in UTMLST to improve the dynamic characteristics of the longitudinal stability of UAV; i.e UTM Camar. A combination of the variable stability technique along with advanced flying and handling qualities (FHQ) requirements are used to reduce the gust effect on the aircraft or UAV. The results obtained from the simulation studies showed that the superaugmented aircraft can be operated in severe gust environments than augmented aircraft. The result from here has reduced strain on the elevator activity in both extreme and calm weather conditions. Moreover, the superaugmentation FCS in the longitudinal axis meets the requirements of the level 1 handling qualities specification in flight phase.
CiteMLA
Shuhaimi, Mansor, et al. “Superaugmented Pitching Motion of UTM CAMAR UAV using Advanced Flying Handling Qualities.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 40.1 (2017): 27-37.
APA
Shuhaimi, M., Yasser, N., Shabudin, M., Md. Nizam, D., & Ainullotfi, A. L.(2017). Superaugmented Pitching Motion of UTM CAMAR UAV using Advanced Flying Handling Qualities. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 40(1), 27-37.
Chicago
Shuhaimi Mansor, Yasser Nogoud, Shabudin Mat, Md. Nizam Dahalan, and Ainullotfi Abdul-latif. “Superaugmented Pitching Motion of UTM CAMAR UAV using Advanced Flying Handling Qualities” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 40, no. 1 (2017): 27-37.
Harvard
Shuhaimi, M., Yasser, N., Shabudin, M., Md. Nizam, D., & Ainullotfi, A.L., 2017. Superaugmented Pitching Motion of UTM CAMAR UAV using Advanced Flying Handling Qualities. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 40(1), pp.27-37.
Vancouver
Shuhaimi M, Yasser N, Shabudin M, Md. Nizam D, Ainullotfi AL. Superaugmented Pitching Motion of UTM CAMAR UAV using Advanced Flying Handling Qualities. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;40(1):27-37.

Effect of Viscoelastic Behaviour of Cellulose Oil Palm Fiber (COPF) Modified 60-70 Asphalt Binder for Deterioration for Roads and Highways
Md. Maniruzzaman A Aziz, Ahmed Wsoo Hamad, Abdulmalik Musa Maleka, Fauzan Mohd Jakarni
Page 38 – 45

AbstractThis paper dealt with the viscoelastic behaviour of Cellulose Oil Palm Fiber (COPF) modified 60-70 penetration grade asphalt binder for the deterioration of roads. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effect of various COPF content on the physical and rheological properties of penetration grade 60-70 asphalt binder. Laboratory tests performed comprises of viscosity, penetration, softening point, short & long term ageing and complex shear modulus (G*). The COPF was blended in 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0% by weight of asphalt binder including 0% as control. The COPF modified asphalt binder showed an increasing viscosity and softening point with increase of COPF content, whereas penetration decreases as the COPF increases for the binder. The complex shear modulus (G*), rutting factor (G*/sin ?) and fatigue factor (G*sin ?) show significant improvement for the modified samples compared to unmodified samples. The results indicated that the COPF modified asphalt binder has high potential to resist permanent (rutting) deformation and fatigue cracking than the unmodified sample.
CiteMLA
Md., Maniruzzaman, et al. “Effect of Viscoelastic Behaviour of Cellulose Oil Palm Fiber (COPF) Modified 60-70 Asphalt Binder for Deterioration for Roads and Highways.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 40.1 (2017): 38-45.
APA
Md. Maniruzzaman, A. A., Ahmed Wsoo, H., Abdulmalik Musa, M., & Fauzan, M. J.(2017). Effect of Viscoelastic Behaviour of Cellulose Oil Palm Fiber (COPF) Modified 60-70 Asphalt Binder for Deterioration for Roads and Highways. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 40(1), 38-45.
Chicago
Md. Maniruzzaman A Aziz, Ahmed Wsoo Hamad, Abdulmalik Musa Maleka, and Fauzan Mohd Jakarni. ” Effect of Viscoelastic Behaviour of Cellulose Oil Palm Fiber (COPF) Modified 60-70 Asphalt Binder for Deterioration for Roads and Highways.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 40, no. 1 (2017): 38-45.
Harvard
Md. Maniruzzaman, A.A., Ahmed Wsoo, H., Abdulmalik Musa, M., Fauzan, M.J., 2017. Effect of Viscoelastic Behaviour of Cellulose Oil Palm Fiber (COPF) Modified 60-70 Asphalt Binder for Deterioration for Roads and Highways. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 40(1), pp.38-45.
Vancouver
Md. Maniruzzaman AA, Ahmed Wsoo H, Abdulmalik Musa M, Fauzan MJ. Effect of Viscoelastic Behaviour of Cellulose Oil Palm Fiber (COPF) Modified 60-70 Asphalt Binder for Deterioration for Roads and Highways. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;40(1):38-45.

Aerodynamic Study of Air Flow over A Curved Fin Rocket
Md Nizam Dahalan, Ahmad Fitri Suni, Iskandar Shah Ishak, Nik Ahmad Ridhwan Nik Mohd, Shabudin Mat
Page 46 – 58

AbstractThis paper summarizes a study of the aerodynamic characteristics of a curved fin rocket. The study was conducted with the use of semi-empirical method and numerical simulation. The semi-empirical method was implemented with USAF DATCOM as a reference. The ANSYS Fluent was used for the numerical simulation. The curved fin rocket configuration included a conical nose, a cylindrical body, and four curved fins attached symmetrically at the aft body of the rocket. The semiempirical method and numerical simulations were undertaken at various Mach numbers, which were 0.15, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 for subsonic speed. For supersonic speed, the Mach numbers were 1.2, 1.4 and 2.0. The angle of attack varied from 0? to 25? for each speed, at 5? increments. The compared results included those attained from wind tunnel testing, USAF DATCOM, numerical simulation, and those results gathered from previous researchers. According to the results, each method resulted in the same trend, and followed typical rocket aerodynamic characteristic trends.
CiteMLA
Md Nizam, Dahalan, et al. “Aerodynamic Study of Air Flow over A Curved Fin Rocket.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 40.1 (2017): 46-58.
APA
Md Nizam, D., Ahmad Fitri, S., Iskandar Shah, I., Nik Ahmad Ridhwan, N. M., & Shabudin, M.(2017). Aerodynamic Study of Air Flow over A Curved Fin Rocket. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 40(1), 46-58.
Chicago
Md Nizam Dahalan, Ahmad Fitri Suni, Iskandar Shah Ishak, Nik Ahmad Ridhwan Nik Mohd, and Shabudin Mat. “Aerodynamic Study of Air Flow over A Curved Fin Rocket.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 40, no. 1 (2017): 46-58.
Harvard
Md Nizam, D., Ahmad Fitri, S., Iskandar Shah, I., Nik Ahmad Ridhwan, N.M., Shabudin, M., 2017. Aerodynamic Study of Air Flow over A Curved Fin Rocket. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 40(1), pp.46-58.
Vancouver
Md Nizam D, Ahmad Fitri S, Iskandar Shah I, Nik Ahmad Ridhwan NM, Shabudin M. Aerodynamic Study of Air Flow over A Curved Fin Rocket. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;40(1):46-58.

Computational Analysis of Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Circular Tube Fitted with Different Inserts
Ahmed. L. Abdullah, Fuat Yilmaz
Page 59 – 69

AbstractHeat transfer enhancement of air flow using wire coiled of an isosceles triangular cross-section and twisted tape inserted in a tube have been investigated under turbulent flow regime. A simulation technique is employed to simulate the swirling flow with three different pitch ratios (P/D = 1,2, and 3). The isosceles triangle side length to tube diameter is (a/D = 0.2 and 0.4) and (a/D=0.93) of the twisted tape at a distance (s) of 2 mm from the tube wall for the both in the range of Reynolds number from 4000 to 20,000. The heat transfer enhancement represented by a Nusselt number (Nu) and friction factor (f) in turbulent flow regime is numerically investigated using CFD package (Ansys FLUENT) to investigate the physical behavior of the thermal and fluid flows under uniform heat-flux. The results show that the use of twisted tape and isosceles coiled wire lead to a considerable increase in heat transfer and pressure drop in comparison with the plane tube. The Nusselt number increases with the increase of triangle side length and twist width and with the decrease of pitch ratio. The highest overall enhancement efficiency of 126% and 150% are achieved for the isosceles triangle wire coil with a/D = 0.4 and twisted tape, respectively at P/D = 1 and Reynolds number of 20000.
CiteMLA
Ahmed L, Abdullah, et al. “Computational Analysis of Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Circular Tube Fitted with Different Inserts.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 40.1 (2017): 59-69.
APA
Ahmed, L. A., & Fuat, Y.(2017). Computational Analysis of Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Circular Tube Fitted with Different Inserts. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 40(1), 59-69.
Chicago
Ahmed L. Abdullah, and Fuat Yilmaz. “Computational Analysis of Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Circular Tube Fitted with Different Inserts.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 40, no. 1 (2017): 59-69.
Harvard
Ahmed L.A., Fuat, Y., 2017. Computational Analysis of Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Circular Tube Fitted with Different Inserts. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 40(1), pp.59-69.
Vancouver
Ahmed LA, Fuat Y. Computational Analysis of Heat Transfer Enhancement in a Circular Tube Fitted with Different Inserts. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;40(1):59-69.

Experimental Study of UTM New Sport Complex
Norazila Othman, Shabudin Mat, Mastura Ab. Wahid, Shuhaimi Mansor, Md. Nizam Dahalan
Page 70 – 78

AbstractWind loading is generally dominated by the separated wind flow over the roof, which resulted in pressure distribution that varies greatly in both space and time. The objective of this project is to investigate the flow visualisation of UTM new sport complex roof in wind tunnel experiment. The UTM stadium model with the scale 1:40 was used in the wind tunnel test experiment. Two different methods were employed in this research which is flow visualisation test by using smoke generator and pressure measurements on the top surface of the roof. For flow visualisation, the images were captured by using digital camera while the pressure measurement data were measured using pressure scanner. The wind tunnel test has been done successfully and the results from both wind tunnel tests were compared for validation purpose.
CiteMLA
Norazila, Othman, et al. “Experimental Study of UTM New Sport Complex.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 40.1 (2017): 70-78.
APA
Norazila, O., Shabudin, M., Mastura, A. W., Shuhaimi, M., & Md. Nizam, D.(2017). Experimental Study of UTM New Sport Complex. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 40(1), 70-78.
Chicago
Norazila Othman, Shabudin Mat, Mastura Ab. Wahid, Shuhaimi Mansor, and Md. Nizam Dahalan. “Experimental Study of UTM New Sport Complex.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 40, no. 1 (2017): 70-78.
Harvard
Norazila, O., Shabudin, M., Mastura, A.W., Shuhaimi, M., Md. Nizam, D., 2017. Experimental Study of UTM New Sport Complex. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 40(1), pp.70-78.
Vancouver
Norazila O, Shabudin M, Mastura AW, Shuhaimi M, Md. Nizam D. Experimental Study of UTM New Sport Complex. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2017;40(1):70-78.
Volume 41, No. 1 (January, 2018)
Wind Tunnel Study of the Effect Zigzag Tape on Aerodynamics Performance of A Wind Turbine Airfoil
Seyed Reza Jafari Gahraz, Tholudin Mat Lazim, Masoud Darbandi
Page 1 – 9
AbstractA wind tunnel study was performed on the FFA-W-3-270 airfoil, which form a segment of a 1.25 MW wind turbine blade, to examine the effect of fixed roughness height and position using a zigzag tape boundary layer trip strip. Tests were conducted at a Reynolds number of 1×106 over a wide range of angles of attack. The zigzag tape, as an artificial roughness device, not only triggers a premature transition in the flow whereby laminar flow regimes change to turbulent, but also increases the momentum thickness of the turbulent boundary layer and change the airfoil camber. The 60o zigzag tape of 0.5 mm and 1 mm height was placed on the suction side of the airfoil at different chord wise locations. The result indicated that the thicker and the closer the tape to the leading edge had more influence on the boundary layer. Due to a drop in the flow velocity at the tape, the static pressure increased. Consequently, the tripped airfoil developed a lower pressure on the suction side in comparison to the clean airfoil. The maximum lift coefficient decreased by up to 31.5% for the 1 mm tape height located at 5% of the chord and the stall occurs at a lower angle of attack.
CiteMLA
Seyed Reza, Jafari Gahraz, et al. “Wind Tunnel Study of the Effect Zigzag Tape on Aerodynamics Performance of A Wind Turbine Airfoil.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 41.1 (2018): 1-9.
APA
Seyed Reza, J. G., Tholudin, M. L., & Masoud, D.(2018). Wind Tunnel Study of the Effect Zigzag Tape on Aerodynamics Performance of A Wind Turbine Airfoil. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 41(1), 1-9.
Chicago
Seyed Reza Jafari Gahraz, Tholudin Mat Lazim, and Masoud Darbandi. “Wind Tunnel Study of the Effect Zigzag Tape on Aerodynamics Performance of A Wind Turbine Airfoil.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 41, no. 1 (2018): 1-9.
Harvard
Seyed Reza, J.G., Tholudin, M.L., Masoud, D., 2018. Wind Tunnel Study of the Effect Zigzag Tape on Aerodynamics Performance of A Wind Turbine Airfoil. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 41(1), pp.1-9.
Vancouver
Seyed Reza JG, Tholudin ML, Masoud D. Wind Tunnel Study of the Effect Zigzag Tape on Aerodynamics Performance of A Wind Turbine Airfoil. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;41(1):1-9.

Numerical Simulation of the Attached Growth Reactor with Different Arrangement of Bio-Balls
Gasim Hayder, Puniyarasen Perumulselum
Page 10 – 20

AbstractTwo different simulations were run using ANSYS CFX to analyze the effect of aeration on the balls and to identify the effect of different arrangement on aeration. From the first simulation, close fin ball arrangement was chosen as the best arrangement because the forces acting on the surface of fin ball and inside the fin ball in this arrangement are optimum. When the forces are too low, the scouring process will not occur which promote thicker and excessive biofilm grow which will lead to clogging while when the forces acting on bio-balls are high, detachment of biofilm from the surface will occur. From the second simulation, loose fin ball arrangement and loose cage ball arrangement were chosen as the best arrangement because there is less blue contours zone which indicates the wastewater saturated faster.
CiteMLA
Gasim, Hayder, et al. “Numerical Simulation of the Attached Growth Reactor with Different Arrangement of Bio-Balls.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 41.1 (2018): 10-20.
APA
Gasim, H., & Puniyarasen, P.(2018). Numerical Simulation of the Attached Growth Reactor with Different Arrangement of Bio-Balls. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 41(1), 10-20.
Chicago
Gasim Hayder, and Puniyarasen Perumulselum. “Numerical Simulation of the Attached Growth Reactor with Different Arrangement of Bio-Balls.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 41, no. 1 (2018): 10-20.
Harvard
Gasim, H., Puniyarasen, P., 2018. Numerical Simulation of the Attached Growth Reactor with Different Arrangement of Bio-Balls. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 41(1), pp.10-20.
Vancouver
Gasim H, Puniyarasen P. Numerical Simulation of the Attached Growth Reactor with Different Arrangement of Bio-Balls. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;41(1):10-20.
Volume 42, No. 1 (February, 2018)
Enhanced k-Means Clustering Algorithm for Malaria Image Segmentation
Aimi Salihah Abdul Nasir, Mohd Yusoff Mashor, Zeehaida Mohamed
Page 1 – 15
AbstractClustering is one of the most commonly used digital image segmentation technique in multifarious fields including medical image segmentation. In essence, this study proposes clustering algorithm to acquire good segmented images of Plasmodium Vivax malaria parasite species via unsupervised pixel segmentation. In this study, enhanced k-means (EKM) clustering algorithm which is an enhanced version of the conventional k-means (KM) clustering algorithm has been proposed for malaria slide image segmentation. In the proposed EKM clustering algorithm, the concept of variance and a new version of transferring process for clustered members are used to assist the assignation of data to the proper centre during the process of clustering, so that good segmented image can be generated. The satisfactory sensitivity together with the high specificity and accuracy values obtained from an average of 100 malaria images, indicates that the EKM algorithm has provided good segmentation performances as compared to k-means, fuzzy c-means and moving k-means clustering algorithms. Good segmented malaria parasite and clean segmented malaria image has been acquired using the proposed clustering algorithm. Hence, the proposed EKM clustering can be considered as an image segmentation tool for segmenting the malaria images.
CiteMLA
Aimi Salihah, Abdul Nasir, et al. “Enhanced k-Means Clustering Algorithm for Malaria Image Segmentation.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42.1 (2018): 1-15.
APA
Aimi Salihah, A. N., Mohd Yusoff, M., & Zeehaida, M. (2018). Enhanced k-Means Clustering Algorithm for Malaria Image Segmentation. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), 1-15.
Chicago
Aimi Salihah Abdul Nasir, Mohd Yusoff Mashor, and Zeehaida Mohamed. “Enhanced k-Means Clustering Algorithm for Malaria Image Segmentation.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42, no. 1 (2018): 1-15.
Harvard
Aimi Salihah, A.N., Mohd Yusoff, M., Zeehaida, M., 2018. Enhanced k-Means Clustering Algorithm for Malaria Image Segmentation. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), pp.1-15.
Vancouver
Aimi Salihah AN, Mohd Yusoff M, Zeehaida M. Enhanced k-Means Clustering Algorithm for Malaria Image Segmentation. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;42(1):1-15.

Synthesis and Characterization of New Cholinium-based Ionic Liquids for Antimicrobial Application
Khairulazhar Jumbri, Nor Suzy Farahana Mah Noh, Nur Afiqah Ahmad, Mohd Basyaruddin Abdul Rahman, Haslina Ahmad
Page 16 – 23

AbstractA series of new cholinium-based ionic liquids (ILs) was synthesized by using simple neutralization reaction. The synthesized ILs were choline 3,5-dinitrosalicylate, choline gallate, choline s-(+)-2-(4-isobutylphenyl)propionate, choline behenate and choline peracetate. All the synthesized cholinium-based ILs were characterized by using FT-IR, 1 H and 13C NMR, mass spectrometry, thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry. Result obtained from all characterization techniques confirmed the formation of these cholinium-based ILs. These ILs were then tested for their antimicrobial properties. Anti-microbial test was carried out towards seven types of bacteria which consist of three Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis (B29), Staphylococcus aureus (S276), Staphylococcus epidermidis (S273), two Gram-negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 15442) and Escherichia coli (E266) and two types of yeasts, Candida albicans (9002) and Candida tropicalis (A3). Streptomycin and Nystatin were used for all bacteria as standard. There is one cholinium-based IL shows excellent inhibition of microbes from growth. Choline peracetate was found to inhibit Candida albicans (9002) as good as the standard, Streptomycin which perform highest of inhibition zone diameter, 25 mm.
CiteMLA
Khairulazhar, Jumbri, et al. “Synthesis and Characterization of New Cholinium-based Ionic Liquids for Antimicrobial Application.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42.1 (2018): 16-23.
APA
Khairulazhar, J., Nor Suzy Farahana, M. N., Nur Afiqah, A., Mohd Basyaruddin, A. R., & Haslina, A.(2018).Synthesis and Characterization of New Cholinium-based Ionic Liquids for Antimicrobial Application. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), 16-23.
Chicago
Khairulazhar Jumbri, Nor Suzy Farahana Mah Noh, Nur Afiqah Ahmad, Mohd Basyaruddin Abdul Rahman, and Haslina Ahmad. “Synthesis and Characterization of New Cholinium-based Ionic Liquids for Antimicrobial Application.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42, no. 1 (2018): 16-23.
Harvard
Khairulazhar, J., Nor Suzy Farahana, M.N., Nur Afiqah, A., Mohd Basyaruddin, A.R., Haslina, A., 2018. Synthesis and Characterization of New Cholinium-based Ionic Liquids for Antimicrobial Application. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), pp.16-23.
Vancouver
Khairulazhar J, Nor Suzy Farahana MN, Nur Afiqah A, Mohd Basyaruddin AR, Haslina A. Synthesis and Characterization of New Cholinium-based Ionic Liquids for Antimicrobial Application. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;42(1):16-23.

Effect of Microwave-Assisted Processing on Quality Characteristics of Pineapple Jam
Nur Aisyah Mohd Ismail, Norazlin Abdullah, Norhayati Muhammad
Page 24 – 30

AbstractTraditional heating method of pineapple puree during the production of pineapple jam can cause over degradation of quality of the fresh pineapple. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine optimum microwave-assisted processing conditions for producing pineapple jam which could reduce water activity, and meets minimum requirement for pH and total soluble solids contents of fruit jam. The experiment was designed using full-factorial experimental design, which the power and time of the microwave processing were chosen as the independent variables, while the water activity, pH and total soluble solids (TSS) content of the pineapple jam were determined as dependent variables. The microwave treatment was optimised to achieve ideal properties of pineapple jam. The optimum microwave processing of pineapple jam was obtained at 800 Watts of power for 8 minutes. The usage of domestic microwave oven for the pineapple jam production also results in acceptable pineapple jam with 62% of consumers’ preference compared to conventional fruit jam sold in the marketplace.
CiteMLA
Nur Aisyah, Mohd Ismail, et al. “Effect of Microwave-Assisted Processing on Quality Characteristics of Pineapple Jam.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42.1 (2018): 24-30.
APA
Nur Aisyah, M. I., Norazlin, A., & Norhayati, M.(2018). Effect of Microwave-Assisted Processing on Quality Characteristics of Pineapple Jam. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), 24-30.
Chicago
Nur Aisyah Mohd Ismail, Norazlin Abdullah, and Norhayati Muhammad. “Effect of Microwave-Assisted Processing on Quality Characteristics of Pineapple Jam.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42, no. 1 (2018): 24-30.
Harvard
Nur Aisyah, M.I., Norazlin, A., Norhayati, M., 2018. Effect of Microwave-Assisted Processing on Quality Characteristics of Pineapple Jam. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), pp.24-30.
Vancouver
Nur Aisyah MI, Norazlin A, Norhayati M. Effect of Microwave-Assisted Processing on Quality Characteristics of Pineapple Jam. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;42(1):24-30.

Potential of Staphylococcus Xylosus Strain for Recovering Nickel Ions from Aqueous Solutions
Adel Ali Saeed Abduh Algheethi, Efaq Noman, Radin Maya Saphira Radin Mohamed, Mohamed Osman Abdel-Monem, Amir Hashim Mohd Kassim
Page 31 – 37

AbstractThe potential of bacterial biomass for the biosorption of heavy metals has investigated extensively. However, the bacterial species exhibited different affinities toward the heavy metals ions based on their differences in cell wall characteristics, structure and physiological status (living or dead cells). In this study, the potential of living and dead cells of Staphylococcus xylosus 222W for removal nickel ions from aqueous solution as a function for physiological status, nickel and biomass concentrations, time, pH and temperature was investigated. The pre-treatment of bacterial cells was performed by the heating at 100 ºC for 15 min. The removal experiments were conducted in the lab scale. The results revealed that the dead cells exhibited more efficiency in removing nickel ions than living cells at all investigated concentrations (2 to 10 mM). The biosorption efficiency (E %) increased with increasing in biomass cells to limit concentrations (0.1 to 1 g dry wt L-1). The maximum removal of nickel was 81.41 vs. 77.10 % by living and dead cells, respectively achieved after 9 and 10 hrs of the incubation period, respectively. The acidic conditions decrease the efficiency of metal removal, while the optimal removal was recorded at pH 8 for both biomass (living and dead cells). The maximum uptake capacity of S. xylosus 222W (living and dead cells) was recorded at 37oC, the percentage removed being 75.90 vs. 84.92 %, respectively. It can be concluded that S. xylosus 222W exhibited high potential and affinity to remove of nickel ions from aqueous solution.
CiteMLA
Adel Ali Saeed, Abduh Algheethi, et al. “Potential of Staphylococcus Xylosus Strain for Recovering Nickel Ions from Aqueous Solutions.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42.1 (2018): 31-37.
APA
Adel Ali Saeed, A. A., Efaq, N., Radin Maya Saphira, R. M., Mohamed Osman, A. M., & Amir Hashim, M. K. “Potential of Staphylococcus Xylosus Strain for Recovering Nickel Ions from Aqueous Solutions.(2018). Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), 31-37.
Chicago
Adel Ali Saeed Abduh Algheethi, Efaq Noman, Radin Maya Saphira Radin Mohamed, Mohamed Osman Abdel-Monem, and Amir Hashim Mohd Kassim. “Potential of Staphylococcus Xylosus Strain for Recovering Nickel Ions from Aqueous Solutions.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42, no. 1 (2018): 31-37.
Harvard
Adel Ali Saeed, A.A., Efaq, N., Radin Maya Saphira, R.M., Mohamed Osman, A.M., Amir Hashim, M.K., 2018. Potential of Staphylococcus Xylosus Strain for Recovering Nickel Ions from Aqueous Solutions. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), pp.31-37.
Vancouver
Adel Ali Saeed AA, Efaq N, Radin Maya Saphira RM, Mohamed Osman AM, Amir Hashim MK. Potential of Staphylococcus Xylosus Strain for Recovering Nickel Ions from Aqueous Solutions. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;42(1):31-37.

Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Membrane in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids
Soong Guan Theng, Khairulazhar Jumbri, Mohd Dzul Hakim Wirza
Page 38 – 45

AbstractThe polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane has been a popular material in membrane separation process. In this work, molecular dynamic (MD) simulation was done on the PVDF membrane with 100 wt% water, 100 wt% 1,3-dialkylimidazolium bromide ([C2bim]Br) ionic liquid (IL), 100 wt% heptane and 50 wt% IL at GROningen MAchine for Chemical Simulations (GROMACS). The results were evaluated based on potential energy, root mean square deviation (RMSD), root mean square fluctuation (RMSF), radial distribution function (RDF) and contact angle. The stability and interaction of PVDF were evaluated. Results reveal that PVDF has a stronger interaction to [C2bim]+ cation compared to water, heptane and bromine anion. At high concentration of IL, potential energy and RMSD were lower. RDF reveals that [C2bim]+ cation is dominant at short distance (less than 1 nm), indicating that strong interaction of cation with PVDF. Contact angle analysis proved that PVDF membrane is a hydrophobic and oleophilic membrane. IL has a good wettability characteristic on PVDF at high concentration and vice versa. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is an effective tool whose results can be used as reference prior to further experimental approach.
CiteMLA
Soong Guan, Theng, et al. “Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Membrane in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42.1 (2018): 38-45.
APA
Soong, G. T., Khairulazhar, J., & Mohd Dzul, H. W. “Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Membrane in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids (2018). Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Membrane in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), 38-45.
Chicago
Soong Guan Theng, Khairulazhar Jumbri, and Mohd Dzul Hakim Wirza.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42, no. 1 (2018): 38-45.
Harvard
Soong, G.T., Khairulazhar, J., Mohd Dzul, H.W., 2018. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Membrane in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), pp.38-45.
Vancouver
Soong GT, Khairulazhar J, Mohd Dzul, HW. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Membrane in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;42(1):38-45.

Tailoring MCM-41 Mesoporous Silica Particles through Modified Sol-Gel Process for Gas Separation
Wong Yean Sang, Oh Pei Ching
Page 46 – 56

AbstractMobil Composition of Matter-41 (MCM-41) is recognized as a potential filler to enhance permeability of mixed matrix membrane (MMM). However, the required loading for available micron-sized MCM-41 was considerably high in order to achieve desired separation performance. In this work, reduced-size MCM-41 was synthesized to minimize filler loading, improve surface modification and enhance polymer-filler compatibility during membrane fabrication. The effect of reaction condition, stirring rate and type of post-synthesis washing solution used on particle diameter of resultant MCM-41 were investigated. It was found that MCM-41 produced at room temperature condition yielded particles with smaller diameter, higher specific surface area and enhanced mesopore structure. Increase of stirring rate up to 500 rpm during synthesis also reduced the particle diameter. In addition, replacing water with methanol as the post-synthesis washing solution to remove bromide ions from the precipitate was able to further reduce the particle size by inhibiting polycondensation reaction. It was also noticed that particle diameter of MCM-41 is optimized with 15 hours of calcination.
CiteMLA
Wong, Yean Sang, et al. “Tailoring MCM-41 Mesoporous Silica Particles through Modified Sol-Gel Process for Gas Separation.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42.1 (2018): 46-56.
APA
Wong, Y. S., & Oh, P. C.(2018). Tailoring MCM-41 Mesoporous Silica Particles through Modified Sol-Gel Process for Gas Separation. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), 46-56.
Chicago
Wong Yean Sang, and Oh Pei Ching. “Tailoring MCM-41 Mesoporous Silica Particles through Modified Sol-Gel Process for Gas Separation.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42, no. 1 (2018): 46-56.
Harvard
Wong, Y.S., Oh, P.C., 2018. Tailoring MCM-41 Mesoporous Silica Particles through Modified Sol-Gel Process for Gas Separation. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), pp.46-56.
Vancouver
Wong YS, Oh PC. Tailoring MCM-41 Mesoporous Silica Particles through Modified Sol-Gel Process for Gas Separation. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;42(1):46-56.

Identification of Most Tolerant Lichen Species to Vehicular Traffic’s Pollutants: A Case Study at Batu Pahat
Norhayati Muhammad, Nor Haslina Hashim, Nur Ain Khairuddin, Hasliza Yusof, Samsiah Jusoh, Azlan Abas, Balkis A Talip, Norazlin Abdullah, Laily Din
Page 57 – 64

AbstractBio-indicators are organisms that can be used for the identification and qualitative determination of human generated environmental factors. The decreasing population of sensitive lichens in specific regions around the world due to low air quality level has make lichens as a bio-indicator for air pollution. Lichen is a result of symbiotic association of fungus and alga and well known for having wide variety of sensitivity towards environmental stressors such as air quality and climate change. This study aims to identify the most tolerant lichen species to vehicular traffic’s pollutant at Batu Pahat urban and suburban areas by using Index of Atmospheric Purity (IAP) method. The color spot test, thin layer chromatography (TLC) profiling and morphological analysis were employed for species identification. The results have shown that Dirinaria picta has been identified as the most tolerant lichen against pollutants from vehicle traffic. The results also indicated that the air quality of Batu Pahat town/urban area could be considered as moderately clean.
CiteMLA
Norhayati, Muhammad, et al. “Identification of Most Tolerant Lichen Species to Vehicular Traffic’s Pollutants: A Case Study at Batu Pahat.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42.1 (2018): 57-64.
APA
Norhayati, M., Nor Haslina, H., Nur Ain, K., Hasliza, Y., Samsiah, J., Azlan, A., Balkis, A. T., Norazlin, A., & Laily, D.(2018). Identification of Most Tolerant Lichen Species to Vehicular Traffic’s Pollutants: A Case Study at Batu Pahat. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), 57-64.
Chicago
Norhayati Muhammad, Nor Haslina Hashim, Nur Ain Khairuddin, Hasliza Yusof, Samsiah Jusoh, Azlan Abas, Balkis A Talip, Norazlin Abdullah, and Laily Din. “Identification of Most Tolerant Lichen Species to Vehicular Traffic’s Pollutants: A Case Study at Batu Pahat.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42, no. 1 (2018): 57-64.
Harvard
Norhayati, M., Nor Haslina, H., Nur Ain, K., Hasliza, Y., Samsiah, J., Azlan, A., Balkis, A.T., Norazlin, A., & Laily, D., 2018. Identification of Most Tolerant Lichen Species to Vehicular Traffic’s Pollutants: A Case Study at Batu Pahat. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), pp.57-64.
Vancouver
Norhayati M, Nor Haslina H, Nur Ain K, Hasliza Y, Samsiah J, Azlan A, Balkis AT, Norazlin A, Laily D. Identification of Most Tolerant Lichen Species to Vehicular Traffic’s Pollutants: A Case Study at Batu Pahat. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;42(1):57-64.

Investigation of Carbon Dioxide Solubility in Aqueous N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA)-1- butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([bmim][Ac]) Hybrid Solvent
Sintayehu Mekuria Hailegiorgis, Saleem Nawaz Khan, Nur Hanis H Abdolah, Muhammad Ayoub, Aklilu Tesfamichael
Page 65 – 71

AbstractIn this research work, aqueous hybrid solvents were prepared at different concentrations of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, [bmim][Ac] as ionic liquids (ILs) and N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) for the capturing of carbon dioxide (CO2 ). The concentration of MDEA was kept constant at 30 wt% in every hybrid solvent investigated. The solubility of CO2 in the hybrid solvent was investigated by varying the concentration of [bmim][Ac] in the aqueous hybrid solvent as 10 wt% and 20 wt%. For comparison, the solubility experiment was also conducted for pure aqueous MDEA solvent. Addition of [bmim][Ac] in the hybrid solvent reasonably enhanced the solubility of CO2 as compared to its solubility in pure aqueous MDEA solvent. The loading capacity of hybrid solvent was also improved significantly with hybrid solvents. Further increasing the concentration of [bmim][Ac] from 10 wt% to 20 wt% has demonstrated a decrease in the solubility of CO2 into the hybrid solvent. The effect of pressure on loading capacity and rate of absorption was also investigated by increasing the pressure from 10 bar to 20 bar. Both loading capacity and rate of absorption increased with increasing pressure. Promising results were achieved using hybrid solvents for capturing of CO2.
CiteMLA
Sintayehu, Mekuria Hailegiorgis, et al. “Investigation of Carbon Dioxide Solubility in Aqueous N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA)-1- butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([bmim][Ac]) Hybrid Solvent.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42.1 (2018): 65-71.
APA
Sintayehu, M. H., Saleem, N. K., Nur Hanis, H. A., Muhammad, A., & Aklilu, T.(2018). Investigation of Carbon Dioxide Solubility in Aqueous N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA)-1- butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([bmim][Ac]) Hybrid Solvent. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), 65-71.
Chicago
Sintayehu Mekuria Hailegiorgis, Saleem Nawaz Khan, Nur Hanis H Abdolah, Muhammad Ayoub, and Aklilu Tesfamichael. “Investigation of Carbon Dioxide Solubility in Aqueous N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA)-1- butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([bmim][Ac]) Hybrid Solvent.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42, no. 1 (2018): 65-71.
Harvard
Sintayehu, M.H., Saleem, N.K., Nur Hanis, H.A., Muhammad, A., Aklilu, T., 2018. Investigation of Carbon Dioxide Solubility in Aqueous N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA)-1- butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([bmim][Ac]) Hybrid Solvent. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), pp.65-71.
Vancouver
Sintayehu MH, Saleem NK, Nur Hanis HA, Muhammad A, Aklilu T. Investigation of Carbon Dioxide Solubility in Aqueous N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA)-1- butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([bmim][Ac]) Hybrid Solvent. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;42(1):65-71.

Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potential of Stingless Bee (Heterotrigona itama) By-Products
Rabieatul Adawieah Md Akhir, Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar, Shuaibu Babaji Sanusi
Page 72 – 79

AbstractBee bread is the pollen that has been stored in the cells of the honeycomb with various enzymes and honey, which undergoes lactic acid fermentation, while propolis is a resinous material collected by bees from buds of the plants and transform it using bee enzymes. The main objective of this research was to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the stingless bee bread and propolis extracted using 70% ethanol and n-hexane. The antioxidant activity of sample extracts were determined by 2,2,-di-phenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6- sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assays while for the antimicrobial activity, the sample extracts were analyzed using disc diffusion and broth macrodilution assay. For the DPPH and ABTS assays, the results showed that ethanolic extract of bee bread showed the highest percentage of free radical scavenging as compared to other samples with the values of 93.60 ± 0.03% and 97.95±0.01%, respectively. However, FRAP value for both hexanic extract samples, bee bread and propolis have the values of 0.85±0.0 mM FE/g and 0.87±0.00 mM FE/g respectively which were higher than ethanolic extract samples, 2.41±0.02 mM FE/g (bee bread) and 6.64±0.04 mM FE/g (propolis). For disc diffusion assay, the results showed that ethanolic extract of bee bread and propolis as well as hexanic extract of propolis were able to inhibit all tested bacteria in varying diameter of the inhibition zone. Broth macrodilution assay showed minimum inhibition zone (MIC) ranging from <6.67 to 33.33 µL/mL. As the conclusion, all of the samples in this study displayed antioxidant and antimicrobial effect but there are different in the degree of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity exhibited between each of the samples.
CiteMLA
Rabieatul Adawieah, Md Akhir, et al. “Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potential of Stingless Bee (Heterotrigona itama) By-Products.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42.1 (2018): 72-79.
APA
Rabieatul Adawieah, M. A., Mohd Fadzelly, A. B., & Shuaibu, B. S.(2018). Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potential of Stingless Bee (Heterotrigona itama) By-Products. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), 72-79.
Chicago
Rabieatul Adawieah Md Akhir, Mohd Fadzelly Abu Bakar, and Shuaibu Babaji Sanusi. “Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potential of Stingless Bee (Heterotrigona itama) By-Products.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42, no. 1 (2018): 72-79.
Harvard
Rabieatul Adawieah, M.A., Mohd Fadzelly, A.B., Shuaibu, B.S., 2018. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potential of Stingless Bee (Heterotrigona itama) By-Products. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), pp.72-79.
Vancouver
Rabieatul Adawieah MA, Mohd Fadzelly AB, Shuaibu BS. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potential of Stingless Bee (Heterotrigona itama) By-Products. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;42(1):72-79.

Antioxidant Assay of Alstonia Angustifolia Ethanolic Leaf Extract
Nurhidayah Ab Rahim, Noorzafiza Zakaria, Syarifah Masyitah Habib Dzulkarnain, Nazar Mohd Zabadi Mohd Azahar, Mahmood Ameen Abdulla
Page 80 – 86

AbstractIn current study, the ability of the ethanolic extract of Alstonia angustifolia in scavenging free radicals was assessed by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 ) radical scavenging assay. The results suggested that the ethanolic extract of A. angustifolia leaves has a notable antioxidant activity. In FRAP assay, it showed that the extract have higher total antioxidant activity with FRAP value is 1868.33 µM/g Fe (ii) dry mass ± 0.15 than the control, quercetin with FRAP value is 1336.9 µM/g Fe (II) dry mass ± 0.12 and ascorbic acid with FRAP value is 1720 µM/g Fe (II) dry mass ± 0.02. For DPPH assay, the IC50 value of the extract is 384.77 while the IC50 value of standards of ascorbic acid and quercetin are 18.07 µg/ml and 39.60 µg/ml, respectively. For H2O2 scavenging assay, the IC50 value for the extract was discovered to be 186.77 µg/ml compared to standard ascorbic acid 466.56 µg/ml. Thus, the study suggests that A. angustifolia ethanolic leaf extract has a good origin of natural antioxidants and might be beneficial in impeding the oxidative stress progression thus averting diseases that related to free radicals.
CiteMLA
Nurhidayah, Ab Rahim, et al. “Antioxidant Assay of Alstonia Angustifolia Ethanolic Leaf Extract.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42.1 (2018): 80-86.
APA
Nurhidayah, A. R., Noorzafiza, Z., Syarifah Masyitah, H. D., Nazar Mohd Zabadi, M. A., & Mahmood Ameen, A.(2018). Antioxidant Assay of Alstonia Angustifolia Ethanolic Leaf Extract. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), 80-86.
Chicago
Nurhidayah Ab Rahim, Noorzafiza Zakaria, Syarifah Masyitah Habib Dzulkarnain, Nazar Mohd Zabadi Mohd Azahar, and Mahmood Ameen Abdulla. “Antioxidant Assay of Alstonia Angustifolia Ethanolic Leaf Extract.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42, no. 1 (2018): 80-86.
Harvard
Nurhidayah, A.R., Noorzafiza, Z., Syarifah Masyitah, H.D., Nazar Mohd Zabadi, M.A., Mahmood Ameen, A., 2018. Antioxidant Assay of Alstonia Angustifolia Ethanolic Leaf Extract. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), pp.80-86.
Vancouver
Nurhidayah AR, Noorzafiza Z, Syarifah Masyitah HD, Nazar Mohd Zabadi MA, Mahmood Ameen A. Antioxidant Assay of Alstonia Angustifolia Ethanolic Leaf Extract. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;42(1):80-86.

The Influence of Fluctuating Light Condition on Photosynthetic Acclimation in Arabidopsis Thaliana
Furzani Pa’ee, Giles Johnson
Page 87 – 95

AbstractPhotoacclimation is a process by which photosynthetic capacity is regulated in response to environmental adjustments in terms of light regime. Photoacclimation is essential in determining the photosynthetic capacity to optimize light use and to avoid potentially damaging effects. Previous work in our laboratory has identified a gene, gpt2 (At1g61800) that is essential for plants to acclimate to an increase and decrease of growth irradiance, separately. To investigate the photoacclimation ability towards fluctuating natural light condition in Arabidopsis thaliana, photosynthetic capacity was measured in plants of the accession Wassileskija (WS) and in plants lacking expression of the gene At1g61800 (WS-gpt2). The experiment was carried out over a time span from early Autumn to early Spring season in 2010-2011 and 2011- 2012. The seedlings were grown in an unheated greenhouse in Manchester, UK without supplementary lighting. Gas exchange measurements, chlorophyll fluorescence analysis and chlorophyll content estimation were performed on WS and WS-gpt2 and it showed that both sets of plants could acclimate to fluctuating natural light condition. Therefore, it is suggested that the mechanisms of acclimation in a separate growth light condition is mechanistically distinct than the mechanism under fluctuating natural light condition.
CiteMLA
Furzani, Pa’ee, et al. “The Influence of Fluctuating Light Condition on Photosynthetic Acclimation in Arabidopsis Thaliana.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42.1 (2018): 87-95.
APA
Furzani, P., & Giles, J.(2018). The Influence of Fluctuating Light Condition on Photosynthetic Acclimation in Arabidopsis Thaliana. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), 87-95.
Chicago
Furzani Pa’ee, and Giles Johnson. “The Influence of Fluctuating Light Condition on Photosynthetic Acclimation in Arabidopsis Thaliana.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42, no. 1 (2018): 87-95.
Harvard
Furzani, P., Giles, J., 2018. The Influence of Fluctuating Light Condition on Photosynthetic Acclimation in Arabidopsis Thaliana. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), pp.87-95.
Vancouver
Furzani P, Giles J. The Influence of Fluctuating Light Condition on Photosynthetic Acclimation in Arabidopsis Thaliana. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;42(1):87-95.

Solubility of CO2 in Piperazine (PZ) Activated Aqueous N-Methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) Solvent under High Pressure
Saleem Nawaz Khan, Sintayehu Mekuria Hailegiorgis, Zakaria Man, Azmi Mohd Shariff
Page 96 – 102

AbstractIn this research work, piperazine (PZ) was used to activate the performance of aqueous N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) solvent for the capturing of CO2 . The solubility experiments were conducted at a temperature and pressure ranges of 303.15 to 333.15 K, and 2 to 50 bar, respectively. The solubility of CO2 was investigated in terms of CO2 loading capacity as the ratio between the quantities of moles of CO2 absorbed to the total amount of moles of solvent used. It was observed that CO2 loading has increased with increasing the partial pressure of CO2 while increasing the temperature has a negative effect as the loading capacity has decreased with increase in system’s temperature. The CO2 loading capacity of the solvent investigated in this research work has demonstrated better performance as compared to conventionally used alkanolamines solvents.
CiteMLA
Saleem, Nawaz Khan, et al. “Solubility of CO2 in Piperazine (PZ) Activated Aqueous N-Methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) Solvent under High Pressure.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42.1 (2018): 96-102.
APA
Saleem, N. K., Sintayehu, M. H., Zakaria, M., & Azmi, M. S.(2018). Solubility of CO2 in Piperazine (PZ) Activated Aqueous N-Methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) Solvent under High Pressure. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), 96-102.
Chicago
Saleem Nawaz Khan, Sintayehu Mekuria Hailegiorgis, Zakaria Man, and Azmi Mohd Shariff. “Solubility of CO2 in Piperazine (PZ) Activated Aqueous N-Methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) Solvent under High Pressure.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 42, no. 1 (2018): 96-102.
Harvard
Saleem, N.K., Sintayehu, M.H., Zakaria, M., Azmi, M.S., 2018. Solubility of CO2 in Piperazine (PZ) Activated Aqueous N-Methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) Solvent under High Pressure. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 42(1), pp.96-102.
Vancouver
Saleem NK, Sintayehu MH, Zakaria M, Azmi MS. Solubility of CO2 in Piperazine (PZ) Activated Aqueous N-Methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) Solvent under High Pressure. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;42(1):96-102.
Volume 43, No. 1 (March, 2018)
Aerodynamics of a Trapped Vortex Combustor: A Comparative Assessment of RANS Based CFD Models
Hesham Khalil, Khalid Saqr, Yehia Eldrainy, Walid Abdelghaffar
Page 1 – 19
AbstractTrapped vortex combustion, TVC, has shown promising results in terms of wide stability range and low pressure drop. However, previous experimental and numerical studies, which were limited to DNS, have provided only global performance assessments. Also, high computational cost limitations of DNS motivated the need for evaluating other lower cost turbulent models. Consequently, three RANS turbulence models were assessed in the present work; RKE, SST-KW, and RSM, using 2D numerical computations. In addition, the effect of inlet flow Re on cavity flow physics and stability was explored for more detailed physical insight. Ansys Fluent 12 has been used in the computations with the steady state compressible pressure based solver. RSM was found to have the least prediction error percentage against experimental data with maximum value of 12.1% for all cases studied compared with 23.9 % demonstrated by the SST-KW which was the least accurate model. Increasing inlet flow Re by order of magnitude had no apparent effect on the main flow structure for the same cavity size. However, the 300 % Re increase from 9229 to 27687 has led to 10 times increase in turbulence levels and 3 times increase in recirculation zone strength which confirms the high stability range of these combustors. Finally, multiple vortex structures, either behind the forebody for smaller cavity sizes of H/Df < 0.6 or behind the afterbody for larger cavity sizes H/Df > 1, were noticed to be the main reason behind increased pressure drop from 0.8 to 1.1%. This study was conducted as a ground base for future TVC analysis.
CiteMLA
Hesham, Khalil, et al. “Aerodynamics of a Trapped Vortex Combustor: A Comparative Assessment of RANS Based CFD Models.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43.1 (2018): 1-19.
APA
Hesham, K., Khalid, S., Yehia, E., & Walid, A.(2018). Aerodynamics of a Trapped Vortex Combustor: A Comparative Assessment of RANS Based CFD Models. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), 1-19.
Chicago
Hesham Khalil, Khalid Saqr, Yehia Eldrainy, and Walid Abdelghaffar. “Aerodynamics of a Trapped Vortex Combustor: A Comparative Assessment of RANS Based CFD Models.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43, no. 1 (2018): 1-19.
Harvard
Hesham, K., Khalid, S., Yehia, E., Walid, A., 2018. Aerodynamics of a Trapped Vortex Combustor: A Comparative Assessment of RANS Based CFD Models. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), pp.1-19.
Vancouver
Hesham K, Khalid S, Yehia E, Walid A. Aerodynamics of a Trapped Vortex Combustor: A Comparative Assessment of RANS Based CFD Models. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;43(1):1-19.

Volume Displacement Simulation Impact on the Water Hydraulic Hybrid Driveline Performance
Ahmad Anas Yusof, Saiful Akmal Sabaruddin, Mohd Noor Asril Saadun, Faizil Wasbari
Page 20 – 36

AbstractThe impact of volume displacement simulation on the Water Hydraulic Hybrid Driveline performance is presented in this paper. Hydraulic hybrid system vehicles depend on oil based hydraulic fluid. Therefore, natural concerns of environment and safety promote the uses of the water-based hydraulic hybrid system. The focus of this paper is to gather simulation data of the potential on using water hydraulic technology in hydraulic hybrid systems. In this paper, an extensive study on the mathematical modeling and simulation by using Matlab/Simulink has been conducted to determine the feasibility of water compared to oil, HyspinAWS68 in term of the performance of the hydraulic hybrid driveline. The simulation result indicates that the best performance of hydraulic hybrid driveline is at the specification of volumetric displacement of 250 cm3 /rev.
CiteMLA
Ahmad Anas, Yusof, et al. “Volume Displacement Simulation Impact on the Water Hydraulic Hybrid Driveline Performance.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43.1 (2018): 20-36.
APA
Ahmad Anas, Y., Saiful Akmal, S., Mohd Noor Asril, S., & Faizil, W.(2018). Volume Displacement Simulation Impact on the Water Hydraulic Hybrid Driveline Performance. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), 20-36.
Chicago
Ahmad Anas Yusof, Saiful Akmal Sabaruddin, Mohd Noor Asril Saadun, and Faizil Wasbari. “Volume Displacement Simulation Impact on the Water Hydraulic Hybrid Driveline Performance.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43, no. 1 (2018): 20-36.
Harvard
Ahmad Anas, Y., Saiful Akmal, S., Mohd Noor Asril, S., Faizil, W., 2018. Volume Displacement Simulation Impact on the Water Hydraulic Hybrid Driveline Performance. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), pp.20-36.
Vancouver
Ahmad Anas Y, Saiful Akmal S, Mohd Noor Asril S, Faizil W. Volume Displacement Simulation Impact on the Water Hydraulic Hybrid Driveline Performance. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;43(1):20-36.

Experimental Study of Composites Material Based on Thermal Analysis
Wan Azani Mustafa, Syahrul Affandi Saidi, Mustaffa Zainal, Ragunathan Santiagoo
Page 37 – 44

AbstractOne of the most significant current discussions in material properties is the chemical treatment effect on the proposed materials. In this paper, the effects of NaOH and ?APS silane treatments on the characteristics and thermal analysis of Polypropylene (PP) /Recycled Acrylonitrile Butadiene (NBRr) / Banana Skin Powder (BSP) was studied. The heated two roll mill was used to melt, mix the compositors at a temperature of 180?C to produce six different fibre loading (70/30/5, 70/30/10, 70/30/15, 70/30/20, 70/30/25 and 70/30/30w/w). The effects of NaOH and ?-APS silane treatment on PP/NBRr/BSP composites were analyzed by Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Based on the results, the ?-APS silane treated PP/NBRr/BSP composites has higher improvement on mechanical properties compared to the NaOH treated PP/NBRr/BSP composites, followed by the weakest mechanical properties of untreated PP/NBRr/BSP composites. These were due to good compatibility and stronger interaction between Si-O-Si moieties with the surface of fiber for ?-APS silane treated BSP. Both ?-APS silane and NaOH treated PP/NBRr/BSP composites have the same improvement of thermal properties and better than untreated PP/NBRr/BSP composites. DSC results also showed ?-APS silane treated composite has a higher crystalline portion than untreated PP/NBRr/BSP composites. The results presented here may facilitate improvements in the material properties, especially Polypropylene (PP) /Recycle Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBRr) /Banana Skin Powder (Bsp) Composites with NaOH and ?-Aps Silane Treatment.
CiteMLA
Wan Azani, Mustafa, et al. “Experimental Study of Composites Material Based on Thermal Analysis.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43.1 (2018): 37-44.
APA
Wan Azani, M., Syahrul Affandi, S., Mustaffa, Z., & Ragunathan, S.(2018). Experimental Study of Composites Material Based on Thermal Analysis. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), 37-44.
Chicago
Wan Azani Mustafa, Syahrul Affandi Saidi, Mustaffa Zainal, and Ragunathan Santiagoo. “Experimental Study of Composites Material Based on Thermal Analysis.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43, no. 1 (2018): 37-44.
Harvard
Wan Azani, M., Syahrul Affandi, S., Mustaffa, Z., Ragunathan, S., 2018. Experimental Study of Composites Material Based on Thermal Analysis. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), pp.37-44.
Vancouver
Wan Azani M, Syahrul Affandi S, Mustaffa Z, Ragunathan S. Experimental Study of Composites Material Based on Thermal Analysis. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;43(1):37-44.

Optimization of Moisturizing Clay Soap Containing Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Seed Extract Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design
Siti Salwa Abd Gani, Nor Fadzillah Mokhtar, Uswatun Hasanah Zaidan, Farrah Payyadhah Borhan, Khalijah Talha, Nur Fauwizah Azahar
Page 45 – 57

AbstractPitaya seed oil, extracted from red pitaya seeds, was utilized as a major antioxidant source in soap formulation for skin application. Bentonite (grey clay powder) with various beneficial properties also was incorporated in the formulation to enhance the positive effect toward skin’s structure. The influence of the main compositions of soap formulation containing different fatty acid and oils (cocoa butter, virgin coconut oil, olive oil, palm oil) on the hardness of the soap that undergoes saponification process was investigated by employing D-optimal mixture experimental design. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out and the polynomial regression for prepared soap hardness in terms of the six design factors was developed by utilizing the experimental data. Results revealed that the best soap formulation included 9.027% A, 29.098% B, 19.588% C, 9.223% D, 23.860% E and 9.204% F. The results showed that the hardness of the soap was greatly affected by the different in the level of fatty acid and oils in the formulation. Depending on the appropriate level of those six variables, the production of moisturizing clay soap containing pitaya seed extract with the most desirable properties which is much better than those of commercial ones is possible.
CiteMLA
Siti Salwa, Abd Gani, et al. “Optimization of Moisturizing Clay Soap Containing Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Seed Extract Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43.1 (2018): 45-57.
APA
Siti Salwa, A. G., Nor Fadzillah, M., Uswatun Hasanah, Z., Farrah Payyadhah, B., Khalijah, T., & Nur Fauwizah, A.(2018). Optimization of Moisturizing Clay Soap Containing Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Seed Extract Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), 45-57.
Chicago
Siti Salwa Abd Gani, Nor Fadzillah Mokhtar, Uswatun Hasanah Zaidan, Farrah Payyadhah Borhan, Khalijah Talha, and Nur Fauwizah Azahar. “Optimization of Moisturizing Clay Soap Containing Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Seed Extract Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43, no. 1 (2018): 45-57.
Harvard
Siti Salwa, A.G., Nor Fadzillah, M., Uswatun Hasanah, Z., Farrah Payyadhah, B., Khalijah, T., Nur Fauwizah, A., 2018. Optimization of Moisturizing Clay Soap Containing Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Seed Extract Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), pp.45-57.
Vancouver
Siti Salwa AG, Nor Fadzillah M, Uswatun Hasanah Z, Farrah Payyadhah B, Khalijah T, Nur Fauwizah A. Optimization of Moisturizing Clay Soap Containing Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Seed Extract Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;43(1):45-57.

Biodiesel: A Review on Next Generation Fuels
Jishnu Sreenath, Anand Pai
Page 58 – 66

AbstractThe importance of biodiesel production was studied and analyzed based on research papers and theses published by different authors in various e-journals. The hike in fossil fuel prices with increase in usage demands, has forced the research to find new alternatives to petroleum fuels. Despite this, there is a crucial need to protect the environment from harmful effects of fossil fuels. Biodiesel is a renewable alternate fuel substitute that can be obtained by using various chemical methods such as transesterification, acid-catalyzed methanolysis etc. detailed survey of available literature is taken to review the different research achievements on different aqueous as well as land species for producing biodiesel as an alternative fuel for a compression ignition engine, problems associated with their production, such as the oil quality and quantity and also the methodology used for their production. In addition to this, general properties of oils taken from different natural species as well as techniques of biodiesel production and utilization have been collected.
CiteMLA
Jishnu, Sreenath, et al. “Biodiesel: A Review on Next Generation Fuels.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43.1 (2018): 58-66.
APA
Jishnu, S., & Anand, P.(2018). Biodiesel: A Review on Next Generation Fuels. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), 58-66.
Chicago
Jishnu Sreenath, and Anand Pai. “Biodiesel: A Review on Next Generation Fuels.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43, no. 1 (2018): 58-66.
Harvard
Jishnu, S., Anand, P., 2018. Biodiesel: A Review on Next Generation Fuels. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), pp.58-66.
Vancouver
Jishnu S, Anand P. Biodiesel: A Review on Next Generation Fuels. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;43(1):58-66.

Slip Effects on Peristaltic Transport of Casson Fluid in an Inclined Elastic Tube with Porous Walls
Manjunatha Gudekote, Rajashekhar Choudhari
Page 67 – 80

AbstractThe present study investigates the combined effects of slip and inclination on peristaltic transport of Casson fluid in an elastic tube with porous walls. The modeled governing equations are solved analytically by considering the long wavelength and small Reynolds number approximations. A parametric analysis has been presented to study the effects of Darcy number, the angle of inclination, elastic parameters, velocity slip, yield stress, amplitude ratio, inlet and outlet radius on volumetric flow rate. The study reveals that an increase in the angle of inclination has a proportional increase in the pressure rise. Also, an increase in the porosity has a significant reduction in the pressure rise.
CiteMLA
Manjunatha, Gudekote, et al. “Slip Effects on Peristaltic Transport of Casson Fluid in an Inclined Elastic Tube with Porous Walls.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43.1 (2018): 67-80.
APA
Manjunatha, G., & Rajashekhar, C.(2018). Slip Effects on Peristaltic Transport of Casson Fluid in an Inclined Elastic Tube with Porous Walls. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), 67-80.
Chicago
Manjunatha Gudekote, and Rajashekhar Choudhari. “Slip Effects on Peristaltic Transport of Casson Fluid in an Inclined Elastic Tube with Porous Walls.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43, no. 1 (2018): 67-80.
Harvard
Manjunatha, G., Rajashekhar, C., 2018. Slip Effects on Peristaltic Transport of Casson Fluid in an Inclined Elastic Tube with Porous Walls. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), pp.67-80.
Vancouver
Manjunatha G, Rajashekhar C. Slip Effects on Peristaltic Transport of Casson Fluid in an Inclined Elastic Tube with Porous Walls. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;43(1):67-80.

Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Blood Flow in Aorta using OpenFOAM
Mohamad Shukri Zakaria, Farzad Ismail, Masaaki Tamagawa, Ahmad Fazli Abdul Azi, Surjatin Wiriadidjaya, Adi Azrif Basri, Kamarul Arifin Ahmad
Page 81 – 89

AbstractUnderstanding of flow pattern behaviour inside the aorta contributes significantly in diseases treatment artificial design. Objective of present study is to simulate the blood flow in patient specific aorta using open source computational fluid dynamics (CFD) platform OpenFOAM. The real geometry was obtained from real male Malaysian patient. There are not much data available in literature incorporate real geometry of aorta due to complex geometry. The validation is done against existing experimental result of the 90 degree curve tube model. It was shown that our method is able to capture complex flow in the curve tube like secondary and separation flow that responsible for development of wall shear stress at the tube wall. These flow physics could have similarity in aorta blood flow. Finally, we apply our method with anatomy human aorta with pulsatile inlet condition. Further comparison is made with unstructured boundary fitted mesh. The final result shows that the detailed flow physics can be captured in an aorta.
CiteMLA
Mohamad Shukri, Zakaria, et al. “Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Blood Flow in Aorta using OpenFOAM.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43.1 (2018): 81-89.
APA
Mohamad Shukri, Z., Farzad, I., Masaaki, T., Ahmad Fazli, A. A., Surjatin, W., Adi Azrif, B., & Kamarul Arifin Ahmad.(2018). Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Blood Flow in Aorta using OpenFOAM. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), 81-89.
Chicago
Mohamad Shukri Zakaria, Farzad Ismail, Masaaki Tamagawa, Ahmad Fazli Abdul Azi, Surjatin Wiriadidjaya, Adi Azrif Basri, and Kamarul Arifin Ahmad. “Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Blood Flow in Aorta using OpenFOAM.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43, no. 1 (2018): 81-89.
Harvard
Mohamad Shukri, Z., Farzad, I., Masaaki, T., Ahmad Fazli, A.A., Surjatin, W., Adi Azrif, B., Kamarul Arifin, A., 2018. Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Blood Flow in Aorta using OpenFOAM. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), pp.81-89.
Vancouver
Mohamad Shukri Z, Farzad I, Masaaki T, Ahmad Fazli AA, Surjatin W, Adi Azrif B, Kamarul Arifin A. Computational Fluid Dynamics Study of Blood Flow in Aorta using OpenFOAM. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;43(1):81-89.

Response Surface Optimization of High Antioxidative Extraction from Curcuma Zedoaria Leaves
Siti Salwa Abd Gani, Nur Fauwizah Azahar, Nor Fadzillah Mokhtar
Page 90 – 103

AbstractResponse surface methodology (RSM) has been fully utilized in this study to model and optimize the extraction conditions for maximum antioxidant compounds activity from Curcuma zedoaria leaves. This work was carried out based on three factor/5 level of central composite rotatable design (CCRD) and three independent variables, namely extraction temperature (60-80? C), processing time (80-120min) and solvent concentration (70-90 v/v %). The experimental data was subjected to total antioxidant activity measured by the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhdrazyl (DPPH)-radical scavenging, ?-carotene bleaching (BCB) inhibition as well as ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). By using the desirability functions, the optimal conditions were found to be at temperature 75 ? C, 92 min and (90:10 v/v%) ethanol concentration for the highest total antioxidants values for DPPH, BCB and FRAP were 85.76%, 81.35 % and 5.08 mM Fe2+ g/DW respectively, which closely agreed with the predicted values of 87.59%, 82.29%, 5.25 mM Fe2+ g/DW respectively. Thus, indicating the suitability of the model employed in RSM to optimizing the extraction conditions.
CiteMLA
Siti Salwa, Abd Gani, et al. “Response Surface Optimization of High Antioxidative Extraction from Curcuma Zedoaria Leaves.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43.1 (2018): 90-103.
APA
Siti Salwa, A. G., Nur Fauwizah, A., & Nor Fadzillah, M.(2018).Response Surface Optimization of High Antioxidative Extraction from Curcuma Zedoaria Leaves. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), 90-103.
Chicago
Siti Salwa Abd Gani, Nur Fauwizah Azahar, and Nor Fadzillah Mokhtar. “Response Surface Optimization of High Antioxidative Extraction from Curcuma Zedoaria Leaves.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43, no. 1 (2018): 90-103.
Harvard
Siti Salwa, A.G., Nur Fauwizah, A., Nor Fadzillah, M., 2018. Response Surface Optimization of High Antioxidative Extraction from Curcuma Zedoaria Leaves. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), pp.90-103.
Vancouver
Siti Salwa AG, Nur Fauwizah A, Nor Fadzillah M. Response Surface Optimization of High Antioxidative Extraction from Curcuma Zedoaria Leaves. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;43(1):90-103.

Wind Tunnel Measurements on the Effect of Sprayer Speed on the Droplet Size Spectra
Nasir Salim Hassen, Nor Azwadi Che Sidik
Page 104 – 111

AbstractThe quality of agrochemical spraying depends on speed of the sprayer and cross wind. Dynamic spray mechanism was designed and installed in the wind tunnel for simulating the effect of speed of the sprayer and cross wind combinations on droplet spectra classifications (DSC). It is able to generate two dimensional spraying (2D) at uniform sprayer speeds under wind tunnel conditions. Droplet spectra classifications were studied using water sensitive papers (WSPs). The effect of cross wind and sprayer speed on dynamic spray was analysed and compared with reference spraying. The result of the tests showed that there were differences in the DSC when speed of the sprayer and wind speed increased. This spray mechanism was suitable for the assessment of the dynamic spray.
CiteMLA
Nasir Salim, Hassen, et al. “Wind Tunnel Measurements on the Effect of Sprayer Speed on the Droplet Size Spectra.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43.1 (2018): 104-111.
APA
Nasir Salim, H., & Nor Azwadi, C. S.(2018). Wind Tunnel Measurements on the Effect of Sprayer Speed on the Droplet Size Spectra. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), 104-111.
Chicago
Nasir Salim Hassen, and Nor Azwadi Che Sidik. “Wind Tunnel Measurements on the Effect of Sprayer Speed on the Droplet Size Spectra.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43, no. 1 (2018): 104-111.
Harvard
Nasir Salim, H., Nor Azwadi, C.S., 2018. Wind Tunnel Measurements on the Effect of Sprayer Speed on the Droplet Size Spectra. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), pp.104-111.
Vancouver
Nasir Salim H, Nor Azwadi CS. Wind Tunnel Measurements on the Effect of Sprayer Speed on the Droplet Size Spectra. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;43(1):104-111.

Experimental and Numerical Studies of Porous Media Combustion in Micro Burner
Ayub Ahmed Janvekar, Mohd Zulkifly Abdullah, Zainal Arifin Ahmad, Aizat Abas, Mohammad Zuber, Ahmad Kamal Ismail, Ahmed Hussien, Pramod Kataraki, Mazlan Mohamed, Musavir Bashir, Azmi Husin, Khairil Fadzli
Page 112 – 120

AbstractPorous media combustion has been key point of interest for researchers from past couple of decades due its numerous advantages, such as remarkable low emission levels without compromising thermal efficiency. In this present work, dual layered micro burner was built with predefined thickness of reaction and preheat layer. Reaction layer was made up of alumina (discrete type) while preheat layer porcelain (foam type) material. Burner was successfully built to undergo both surface and submerged flames. A concept of equivalences ratio was enabled since its premixed combustion with natural air as one of the inlet along with butane. Trials were not just restricted at stoichiometric ratio but also carried out up to ultra-lean region. Additionally, numerical simulation was performed using commercially available computational fluid dynamics package so that porous media combustion phenomenon can be better analyzed and predicted. Finally, Thermal efficiency was calculated at critical equivalence ratios and emission parameters such as NOx and CO was continuously monitored which were under controlled limits.
CiteMLA
Ayub, Ahmed Janvekar, et al. “Experimental and Numerical Studies of Porous Media Combustion in Micro Burner.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43.1 (2018): 112-120.
APA
Ayub, A. J., Mohd Zulkifly, A., Zainal Arifin, A., Aizat, A., Mohammad Zuber, Ahmad Kamal, I., Ahmed Hussien, Pramod, K., Mazlan, M., Musavir, B., Azmi, H., & Khairil, F.(2018). Experimental and Numerical Studies of Porous Media Combustion in Micro Burner. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), 112-120.
Chicago
Ayub Ahmed Janvekar, Mohd Zulkifly Abdullah, Zainal Arifin Ahmad, Aizat Abas, Mohammad Zuber, Ahmad Kamal Ismail, Ahmed Hussien, Pramod Kataraki, Mazlan Mohamed, Musavir Bashir, Azmi Husin, and Khairil Fadzli. “Experimental and Numerical Studies of Porous Media Combustion in Micro Burner.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43, no. 1 (2018): 112-120.
Harvard
Ayub, A.J., Mohd Zulkifly, A., Zainal Arifin, A., Aizat, A., Mohammad Zuber, Ahmad Kamal, I., Ahmed Hussien, Pramod, K., Mazlan, M., Musavir, B., Azmi, H., Khairil, F., 2018. Experimental and Numerical Studies of Porous Media Combustion in Micro Burner. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), pp.112-120.
Vancouver
Ayub AJ, Mohd Zulkifly A, Zainal Arifin A, Aizat A, Mohammad Zuber, Ahmad Kamal I, Ahmed Hussien, Pramod K, Mazlan M, Musavir B, Azmi H, Khairil F. Experimental and Numerical Studies of Porous Media Combustion in Micro Burner. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;43(1):112-120.

A Proposed Compatibilizer Materials on Banana Skin Powder (BSP) Composites Using Different Temperature
Wan Azani Mustafa, Syahrul Affandi Saidi, Mustaffa Zainal, Ragunathan Santiagoo
Page 121 – 127

AbstractIn recent years, there has been an increasing interest in materials treatment in order to improve the properties. In this study, the effect of recycled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBRr) loadings and compatibilization of polypropylene maleic anhydride (PPMAH) in the polypropylene (PP) / recycled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBRr) / banana skin powder (BSP) composites was analysed. The proposed material involved a few steps such as the Polypropylene (PP) was melt at optimum temperature which is 230 o C. Next, the composites for both uncompatibilized and polypropylene maleic anhydride (PPMAH) compatibilized were mixed using heated two roll mill at specific temperature (180°C) with six different NBRr loadings rate. A few analysis techniques such as tensile properties and Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM) were conducted. The SEM micrographs show good attachment and better distribution of filler in the compatibilizer composite.
CiteMLA
Wan Azani, Mustafa, et al. “A Proposed Compatibilizer Materials on Banana Skin Powder (BSP) Composites Using Different Temperature.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43.1 (2018): 121-127.
APA
Wan Azani, M., Syahrul Affandi, S., Mustaffa, Z., & Ragunathan, S.(2018). A Proposed Compatibilizer Materials on Banana Skin Powder (BSP) Composites Using Different Temperature. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), 121-127.
Chicago
Wan Azani Mustafa, Syahrul Affandi Saidi, Mustaffa Zainal, and Ragunathan Santiagoo. “A Proposed Compatibilizer Materials on Banana Skin Powder (BSP) Composites Using Different Temperature.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43, no. 1 (2018): 121-127.
Harvard
Wan Azani, M., Syahrul Affandi, S., Mustaffa, Z., Ragunathan, S., 2018. A Proposed Compatibilizer Materials on Banana Skin Powder (BSP) Composites Using Different Temperature. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), pp.121-127.
Vancouver
Wan Azani M, Syahrul Affandi S, Mustaffa Z, Ragunathan S. A Proposed Compatibilizer Materials on Banana Skin Powder (BSP) Composites Using Different Temperature. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;43(1):121-127.

Thermal Comfort Requirements for Different Occupants in Malaysian Hospital In-patient Wards
Waqas Khalid, Sheikh Ahmad Zaki, Hom Bahadur Rijal, Fitri Yakub
Page 128 – 140

AbstractIt is important and challenging to provide suitable thermal comfort conditions in hospital building due to widely varying conditions requirements by different types of occupants. The precise control of temperature and humidity is vital in hot-humid hospitals as these affect diseases, infections and allergies etc. indirectly. A field study comprising of thermal environment evaluation and thermal comfort survey, has been conducted in one Malaysian hospital in-patient wards with 315 respondents. Thermal comfort requirements of patients, visitors and nurses have been investigated. The patient rooms as well as nurse workstations were found bit overcooled by patients, visitors and nurses. Thermal preference of no change by patients and visitors whereas lower temperature was observed by nursing staff in wards. A bit humid air was preferred by all respondents as mean humidity sensation vote was bit drier for all of them. The air movement was acceptable for all respondents in wards as mean percentage of acceptance for every group was more than 91%. Comfort temperatures based on operative temperature for patients, visitors and nurses have been found as 25.7, 25.5 and 23.5°C which can be used as deign guides for hospital HVAC system by local building service engineers and researchers.
CiteMLA
Waqas, Khalid, et al. ” Thermal Comfort Requirements for Different Occupants in Malaysian Hospital In-patient Wards.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43.1 (2018): 128-140.
APA
Waqas, K., Sheikh, A. Z., Hom Bahadur, R., & Fitri, Y.(2018). Thermal Comfort Requirements for Different Occupants in Malaysian Hospital In-patient Wards. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), 128-140.
Chicago
Waqas Khalid, Sheikh Ahmad Zaki, Hom Bahadur Rijal, and Fitri Yakub. “Thermal Comfort Requirements for Different Occupants in Malaysian Hospital In-patient Wards.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43, no. 1 (2018): 128-140.
Harvard
Waqas, K., Sheikh, A.Z., Hom Bahadur, R., Fitri, Y., 2018. Thermal Comfort Requirements for Different Occupants in Malaysian Hospital In-patient Wards. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), pp.128-140.
Vancouver
Waqas K, Sheikh AZ, Hom Bahadur R, Fitri Y. Thermal Comfort Requirements for Different Occupants in Malaysian Hospital In-patient Wards. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;43(1):128-140.

Experimental Study on Thermal and Tensile Properties on Polypropylene Maleic Anhydride as a Compatibilizer in Polypropylene/Sugarcane Bagasse Composite
Mustaffa Zainal, Muhammad Zaid Aihsan, Wan Azani Mustafa, Ragunathan Santiagoo
Page 141 – 148

AbstractThe effect of polypropylene maleic anhydride (PPMAH) as a compatibilizer in polypropylene (PP)/ sugarcane bagasse (SCB) composite were studied. The composite were prepared through melt mixing at the 180 o C for 7 minutes using 15 rpm rotor speed using heated two roll mill. The mixing was moulded into 1 mm thin sheet by using the hot press machine with temperature at the 180 o C for 10 minutes. Then, the sheet was cut into dumbbell shape for further analysis. The specimens were analysed for thermal and tensile properties. The thermal and tensile strength was found to be decreased with increasing of filler content. However, tensile strength and Young’s modules of the PP/SCB/PPMAH composite were found to increase, while the elongation at break showed the opposite trend as compared to the control composite.
CiteMLA
Mustaffa, Zainal, et al. “Experimental Study on Thermal and Tensile Properties on Polypropylene Maleic Anhydride as a Compatibilizer in Polypropylene/Sugarcane Bagasse Composite.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43.1 (2018): 141-148.
APA
Mustaffa, Z., Muhammad Zaid, A., Wan Azani, M., & Ragunathan, S.(2018). Experimental Study on Thermal and Tensile Properties on Polypropylene Maleic Anhydride as a Compatibilizer in Polypropylene/Sugarcane Bagasse Composite. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), 141-148.
Chicago
Mustaffa Zainal, Muhammad Zaid Aihsan, Wan Azani Mustafa, and Ragunathan Santiagoo. “Experimental Study on Thermal and Tensile Properties on Polypropylene Maleic Anhydride as a Compatibilizer in Polypropylene/Sugarcane Bagasse Composite.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43, no. 1 (2018): 141-148.
Harvard
Mustaffa, Z., Muhammad Zaid, A., Wan Azani, M., Ragunathan, S., 2018. Experimental Study on Thermal and Tensile Properties on Polypropylene Maleic Anhydride as a Compatibilizer in Polypropylene/Sugarcane Bagasse Composite. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), pp.141-148.
Vancouver
Mustaffa Z, Muhammad Zaid A, Wan Azani M, Ragunathan S. Experimental Study on Thermal and Tensile Properties on Polypropylene Maleic Anhydride as a Compatibilizer in Polypropylene/Sugarcane Bagasse Composite. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;43(1):141-148.

Numerical Study of the Entrance Effects in an Oscillatory Flow of a Standing-Wave Thermoacoustics
Siti Hajar Adni Mustaffa, Fatimah Al-Zahrah Mohd Saat, Ernie Mattokit
Page 149 – 157

AbstractEntrance effect and formation of the vortex structure play a vital role in understanding the flow physics at the channel entry especially in oscillatory flow inside the channel between thermoacoustic stack plates. The aims of the current study are to investigate the effect of flow frequency on the structure of the vortex shedding at the end of the stack plates and also the effect of the vortex formation at the end of the plates associated with “entrance effect”. The methods used are CFD simulation with ANSYS FLUENT as a solver. The flow was solved using laminar model and two-equation Shear-Stress Transport (SST) k-? turbulence model. The “entrance effect” and vortex flow phenomena has been studied for two drive ratios, DR (defined as ratio of maximum pressure amplitude to mean pressure) which are 0.65% and 1.0% at two frequencies of 13.1 Hz and 23.1 Hz. The results shows that at higher frequency, the entrance length becomes shorter. This can be emphasized that flow frequency plays a significant role as it affected the entrance length and vortex formation and structure of the flow.
CiteMLA
Siti Hajar Adni, Mustaffa, et al. “Numerical Study of the Entrance Effects in an Oscillatory Flow of a Standing-Wave Thermoacoustics.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43.1 (2018): 149-157.
APA
Siti Hajar Adni, M., Fatimah Al-Zahrah, M. S., & Ernie, M.(2018). Numerical Study of the Entrance Effects in an Oscillatory Flow of a Standing-Wave Thermoacoustics. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), 149-157.
Chicago
Siti Hajar Adni Mustaffa, Fatimah Al-Zahrah Mohd Saat, and Ernie Mattokit. “Numerical Study of the Entrance Effects in an Oscillatory Flow of a Standing-Wave Thermoacoustics.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43, no. 1 (2018): 149-157.
Harvard
Siti Hajar Adni, M., Fatimah Al-Zahrah, M.S., Ernie, M., 2018. Numerical Study of the Entrance Effects in an Oscillatory Flow of a Standing-Wave Thermoacoustics. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), pp.149-157.
Vancouver
Siti Hajar Adni M, Fatimah Al-Zahrah MS, Ernie M. Numerical Study of the Entrance Effects in an Oscillatory Flow of a Standing-Wave Thermoacoustics. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;43(1):149-157.
Volume 44, No. 1 (April, 2018)
Yaw Angle Effect on the Aerodynamic Performance of Hatchback Vehicle Fitted with Combo-Type Spoiler
Kwang-Yhee Chin, See-Yuan Cheng, Shuhaimi Mansor
Page 1 – 11
AbstractThis study investigated the effect of yaw angle on the aerodynamic performance of hatchback vehicle model fitted with a spoiler featuring a configuration combining the wing and strip spoiler designs. To date, majority of the tests performed on spoilers were done in a straight-ahead driving condition. However, the effect of spoiler is most demanded during cornering for stability reason. A RANS-based Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method was used to simulate the flow. Validation of the method was carried out by comparing the numerically obtained results with the experimental data. The findings show that both the drag coefficient, Cd, and lift coefficient, Cl had increased when the vehicle was subjected to higher yaw angle. The wing part of the spoiler did performed in favour of reducing the Cl , but its contribution to the overall Cl was only about 4.28%. The main body parts contributed to the decrease in Cd and Cl are the front and underbody, respectively.
CiteMLA
Kwang-Yhee, Chin, et al. “Yaw Angle Effect on the Aerodynamic Performance of Hatchback Vehicle Fitted with Combo-Type Spoiler.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44.1 (2018): 1-11.
APA
Kwang-Yhee, C., See-Yuan, C., & Shuhaimi, M.(2018). Yaw Angle Effect on the Aerodynamic Performance of Hatchback Vehicle Fitted with Combo-Type Spoiler. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), 1-11.
Chicago
Kwang-Yhee Chin, See-Yuan Cheng, and Shuhaimi Mansor. “Yaw Angle Effect on the Aerodynamic Performance of Hatchback Vehicle Fitted with Combo-Type Spoiler.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44, no. 1 (2018): 1-11.
Harvard
Kwang-Yhee, C., See-Yuan, C., Shuhaimi, M., 2018. Yaw Angle Effect on the Aerodynamic Performance of Hatchback Vehicle Fitted with Combo-Type Spoiler. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), pp.1-11.
Vancouver
Kwang-Yhee C, See-Yuan C, Shuhaimi M. Yaw Angle Effect on the Aerodynamic Performance of Hatchback Vehicle Fitted with Combo-Type Spoiler. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;44(1):1-11.

Impacts of Temperature on Airborne Particles in A Hospital Operating Room
Nazri Kamsah, Haslinda Mohamed Kamar, Muhammad Idrus Alhamid, Wong Keng Yinn
Page 12 – 23

AbstractA proper ventilation system is necessary for isolating and reducing airborne particles in a hospital operating room. Most healthcare uses a downward unidirectional (laminar) flow in the area of the operating table to give a sterile environment to the patient. However, the unidirectional downward airflow can easily be deviated due to a buoyancy force induced by heated surfaces such as a person’s and medical lamp’s surfaces. Therefore, the goal of this study is to investigate the effects of lamps and human body surface temperatures on particles distribution in the vicinity of the operating table inside an operating room. A simplified computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the operating room was developed using commercial software. An RNG k-epsilon turbulent flow model was used to simulate the airflow while a discrete phase model (DPM) was used to simulate the movement of the airborne particle of size 5 ?m. Results of CFD simulations show that when the surgical lamp and staff surface temperatures were prescribed at 45°C and 37°C, respectively, a more significant amount of particles appear to be on the floor of the adjacent area of the operating table head section. On average, the particle concentration in the vicinity of the operating table increases by 16%.
CiteMLA
Nazri, Kamsah, et al. “Impacts of Temperature on Airborne Particles in A Hospital Operating Room.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44.1 (2018): 12-23.
APA
Nazri, K., Haslinda, M. K., Muhammad Idrus, A., & Wong, K. Y.(2018). Impacts of Temperature on Airborne Particles in A Hospital Operating Room. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), 12-23.
Chicago
Nazri Kamsah, Haslinda Mohamed Kamar, Muhammad Idrus Alhamid, and Wong Keng Yinn. “Impacts of Temperature on Airborne Particles in A Hospital Operating Room.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44, no. 1 (2018): 12-23.
Harvard
Nazri, K., Haslinda, M.K., Muhammad Idrus, A., Wong, K.Y., 2018. Impacts of Temperature on Airborne Particles in A Hospital Operating Room. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), pp.12-23.
Vancouver
Nazri K, Haslinda MK, Muhammad Idrus A, Wong KY. Impacts of Temperature on Airborne Particles in A Hospital Operating Room. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;44(1):12-23.

Rudimentary Effects of Emblematic Gust Excitations on the Lift Performance of Coaxial Helicopter Rotor Blades
Ziad Abdul Awal, Mohd Shariff Ammoo, Shuhaimi Mansor, Iskandar Shah Ishak
Page 24 – 35

AbstractAerodynamic valuation plays an imperative role in understanding the characteristic response of a helicopter with respect to the airflow. Understanding the airflow around the helicopter is much more challenging compared to the flow field around a fixedwing aircraft. The situation becomes even more convoluted when environmental turbulences are introduced in the scene such as the gust wind loading, which is one of the most catastrophic commotions. Refereeing to the obvious, this study took out this daunting task to actually generate artificial gust and study its effects on the main rotor airflow physiognomies of a coaxially configured subscale helicopter. Quantitative data congregated by measuring the rotor induced airspeed underneath the rotor blades, which is quintessentially the lift/thrust, have revealed intriguing outcomes. The implementations of various strengths of active robust gust have caused the helicopter to experience half-hearted rolling motion pared with the incremental loss of altitude during hover. For forward flight, this investigation reveals the helicopter distinctively lost cruising speed along with the altitude as well when subjected to the gust. During hover and forward flight conditions, results depict that lift is decreased about 33% when subjected to the gust. These findings are alleged to be valuable for future research and development in the rotorcraft industry.
CiteMLA
Ziad, Abdul Awal, et al. “Rudimentary Effects of Emblematic Gust Excitations on the Lift Performance of Coaxial Helicopter Rotor Blades.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44.1 (2018): 24-35.
APA
Ziad, A. A., Mohd Shariff, A., Shuhaimi, M., & Iskandar Shah, I.(2018). Rudimentary Effects of Emblematic Gust Excitations on the Lift Performance of Coaxial Helicopter Rotor Blades. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), 24-35.
Chicago
Ziad Abdul Awal, Mohd Shariff Ammoo, Shuhaimi Mansor, and Iskandar Shah Ishak. “Rudimentary Effects of Emblematic Gust Excitations on the Lift Performance of Coaxial Helicopter Rotor Blades.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44, no. 1 (2018): 24-35.
Harvard
Ziad, A.A., Mohd Shariff, A., Shuhaimi, M., Iskandar Shah, I., 2018. Rudimentary Effects of Emblematic Gust Excitations on the Lift Performance of Coaxial Helicopter Rotor Blades. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), pp.24-35.
Vancouver
Ziad AA, Mohd Shariff A., Shuhaimi M, Iskandar Shah I. Rudimentary Effects of Emblematic Gust Excitations on the Lift Performance of Coaxial Helicopter Rotor Blades. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;44(1):24-35.

Reducing Flow Separation in T-Junction Pipe Using Vortex Generator: CFD Study
A Hamad, Syed Mohammed Aminuddin Aftab, Kamarul Arifin Ahmad
Page 36 – 46

AbstractWater Distribution Networks (WDN’s) are used for providing water to residential areas. These networks have various junctions and interconnections spanning hundreds of kilometers. In the current work CFD simulation is carried out initially to determine the location of flow separation and recirculation inside a T-junction. Furthermore a parametric study is carried out to reduce this separation by implementing Vortex Generators (VG’s). VG’s are most commonly used in aircrafts to reduce the flow separation. A parametric analysis is carried out considering three VG configurations and later an upgrade is carried out. Simulations are carried out using ANSYS Fluent. The results show that, implementation of VG’s effectively reduces the reverse flow and thus provides a solution to existing problem in Water Distribution Networks (WDN).
CiteMLA
A Hamad, et al. “Reducing Flow Separation in T-Junction Pipe Using Vortex Generator: CFD Study.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44.1 (2018): 36-46.
APA
A Hamad, Syed Mohammed Aminuddin, A., & Kamarul Arifin, A.(2018). Reducing Flow Separation in T-Junction Pipe Using Vortex Generator: CFD Study. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), 36-46.
Chicago
A Hamad, Syed Mohammed Aminuddin Aftab, and Kamarul Arifin Ahmad. “Reducing Flow Separation in T-Junction Pipe Using Vortex Generator: CFD Study.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44, no. 1 (2018): 36-46.
Harvard
A Hamad, Syed Mohammed Aminuddin, A., Kamarul Arifin, A., 2018. Reducing Flow Separation in T-Junction Pipe Using Vortex Generator: CFD Study. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), pp.36-46.
Vancouver
A Hamad, Syed Mohammed Aminuddin A, Kamarul Arifin A. Reducing Flow Separation in T-Junction Pipe Using Vortex Generator: CFD Study. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;44(1):36-46.

Effect of Screen Geometry on the Vortex Formation behind a Circular Cylinder
Azlin Mohd Azmi, Tongming Zhou
Page 47 – 54

AbstractThe wake region of a circular cylinder with and without shroud was experimentally investigated using smoke-wire flow visualization. The shrouds were made of screen cylinders, constructed from various screen meshes. The shroud-to-cylinder diameter ratio, D/d were 1.56 and 2.0 and the flow Reynolds number based on the cylinder diameter, Red was approximately 1000. The vortex formation process was investigated and the formation length, Lf was estimated from the flow visualization. The effect of a new dimensionless parameter, ?.dw/d (where ? is the screen porosity and dw is the mesh wire diameter) on the vortex formation length was also examined. Results showed that the formation length was greater at gap ratio of 2.0 than that at 1.6, with smaller wake width observed in the former in comparison to that in the latter. The formation length also increased with increased non-dimensional parameter ?.dw/d after its critical value was reached.
CiteMLA
Azlin, Mohd Azmi, et al. “Effect of Screen Geometry on the Vortex Formation behind a Circular Cylinder.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44.1 (2018): 47-54.
APA
Azlin, M. A., & Tongming, Z.(2018). Effect of Screen Geometry on the Vortex Formation behind a Circular Cylinder. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), 47-54.
Chicago
Azlin Mohd Azmi, and Tongming Zhou. “Effect of Screen Geometry on the Vortex Formation behind a Circular Cylinder.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44, no. 1 (2018): 47-54.
Harvard
Azlin, M.A., Tongming, Z., 2018. Effect of Screen Geometry on the Vortex Formation behind a Circular Cylinder. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), pp.47-54.
Vancouver
Azlin MA, Tongming Z. Effect of Screen Geometry on the Vortex Formation behind a Circular Cylinder. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;44(1):47-54.

Piston Surface Pressure of Piston- Cylinder System with Finite Piston Speed
Siti Nurul Akmal Yusof, Yutaka Asako, Tan Lit Ken, Nor Azwadi Che Sidik
Page 55 – 65

AbstractUnderstanding the thermodynamics’ fundamental are important for the advance of energy and environmental technologies. The study aims to derive an expression of the average pressure on the piston surface, ps p in an adiabatic piston-cylinder system during an irreversible process with finite piston speed using the kinetic molecular theory. Expressions for the average pressure on the piston surface, ps p are derived from the change of momentum and change of energy. The MaxwellBoltzmann distribution is used to estimate the gas molecule velocities. The piston surface pressure obtained from the change of momentum is 37.18% lower than that obtained by the previous study. The piston surface pressure obtained from the change of energy is 26.94% lower than that obtained by the previous study.
CiteMLA
Siti Nurul Akmal, Yusof, et al. “Piston Surface Pressure of Piston- Cylinder System with Finite Piston Speed.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44.1 (2018): 55-65.
APA
Siti Nurul Akmal, Y., Yutaka, A., Tan, L. K., & Nor Azwadi, C. S.(2018). Piston Surface Pressure of Piston- Cylinder System with Finite Piston Speed. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), 55-65.
Chicago
Siti Nurul Akmal Yusof, Yutaka Asako, Tan Lit Ken, and Nor Azwadi Che Sidik. “Piston Surface Pressure of Piston- Cylinder System with Finite Piston Speed.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44, no. 1 (2018): 55-65.
Harvard
Siti Nurul Akmal, Y., Yutaka, A., Tan, L.K., Nor Azwadi, C.S., 2018. Piston Surface Pressure of Piston- Cylinder System with Finite Piston Speed. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), pp.55-65.
Vancouver
Siti Nurul Akmal Y, Yutaka A, Tan LK, Nor Azwadi CS. Piston Surface Pressure of Piston- Cylinder System with Finite Piston Speed. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;44(1):55-65.

Critical Failure Strain of Oxide Scale in Boiler Austenitic Tubes
Yeo Wei Hong, Mohamed Hairol Mohd Ali, Zuruzi Abu Samah, Ahmad Syamaizar Ahmad Sabli, Mohd Asri Muhammad, Siti Mazulianawati Majid, Ahmad Shamil Abd Rahman, Judha Purbolaksono
Page 66 – 72

AbstractExfoliation of oxide scales is known to be associated with the stress and strain developed during the oxide growth. This paper presents a simple procedure to estimate the oxide scale growths and critical failure strains in boiler austenitic tubes over a period of time. In this work, a classical heat flow formula and the relationship between the Larson Miller Parameter (LMP) and the scale thickness were utilized. An approach called Advance Oxide Scale Failure Diagram (A-OSFD) was adopted. The oxide scale failure diagram would provide a general guidance to the power plant engineers to estimate the critical strains.The technique may be used as a supplementary condition monitoring tool for oxide scale growths and to evaluate the critical failure strains.
CiteMLA
Yeo, Wei Hong, et al. “Critical Failure Strain of Oxide Scale in Boiler Austenitic Tubes.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44.1 (2018): 66-72.
APA
Yeo, W. H., Mohamed Hairol, M. A., Zuruzi, A. S., Ahmad Syamaizar, A. S., Mohd Asri, M., Siti Mazulianawati, M., Ahmad Shamil, A. R., & Judha, P.(2018). Critical Failure Strain of Oxide Scale in Boiler Austenitic Tubes. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), 66-72.
Chicago
Yeo Wei Hong, Mohamed Hairol Mohd Ali, Zuruzi Abu Samah, Ahmad Syamaizar Ahmad Sabli, Mohd Asri Muhammad, Siti Mazulianawati Majid, Ahmad Shamil Abd Rahman, and Judha Purbolaksono. “Critical Failure Strain of Oxide Scale in Boiler Austenitic Tubes.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44, no. 1 (2018): 66-72.
Harvard
Yeo, W.H., Mohamed Hairol, M.A., Zuruzi, A.S., Ahmad Syamaizar, A.S., Mohd Asri, M., Siti Mazulianawati, M., Ahmad Shamil, A.R., Judha, P., 2018. Critical Failure Strain of Oxide Scale in Boiler Austenitic Tubes. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), pp.66-72.
Vancouver
Yeo WH, Mohamed Hairol MA, Zuruzi AS, Ahmad Syamaizar AS, Mohd Asri M, Siti Mazulianawati M, Ahmad Shamil AR, Judha P. Critical Failure Strain of Oxide Scale in Boiler Austenitic Tubes. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;44(1):66-72.

Assessing and Quality Tests of New PVC Electrical Cables Outer Sheath by Accelerated Thermal Ageing
M’hamed Beriache, Djelloul Saïh Merzouk, Nor Azwadi Che Sidik
Page 73 – 84

AbstractIn Algeria, XLPE and PVC are the most widely used materials in cable insulation industries. The severe climate conditions in Algeria, plus tremendous factors in stressing cables insulations and shorten their lifetime. This study presents results of a tested material (PVC ST2 IRIS) on medium and low voltage cable outer sheath using different experimental techniques, especially; elongation at break (EAB), hot stretching test, Thermal shock test and weight loss method and the thermomechanical properties to determine how valid and safe are the proposed outer sheath materials used in cables manufacturing. The obtained results show that, the mechanical properties after accelerated thermal aging are affected by less than 9% with those before aging. These results are conformed to the standard CEI recommendations. The findings of the present experimental work show that the new tested (PVC ST2 IRIS) material passed all the approval mechanical tests successfully, and has approved to be marketed and operated in practice.
CiteMLA
M’hamed, Beriache, et al. “Assessing and Quality Tests of New PVC Electrical Cables Outer Sheath by Accelerated Thermal Ageing.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44.1 (2018): 73-84.
APA
M’hamed, B., Djelloul Saïh, M., & Nor Azwadi, C. S.(2018). Assessing and Quality Tests of New PVC Electrical Cables Outer Sheath by Accelerated Thermal Ageing. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), 73-84.
Chicago
M’hamed Beriache, Djelloul Saïh Merzouk, and Nor Azwadi Che Sidik. “Assessing and Quality Tests of New PVC Electrical Cables Outer Sheath by Accelerated Thermal Ageing.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44, no. 1 (2018): 73-84.
Harvard
M’hamed, B., Djelloul Saïh, M., Nor Azwadi, C.S., 2018. Assessing and Quality Tests of New PVC Electrical Cables Outer Sheath by Accelerated Thermal Ageing. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), pp.73-84.
Vancouver
M’hamed B, Djelloul Saïh M, Nor Azwadi CS. Assessing and Quality Tests of New PVC Electrical Cables Outer Sheath by Accelerated Thermal Ageing. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;44(1):73-84.

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Thermosyphon Heat Pipe Performance at Various Inclination Angles
Bala Abdullahi, Ahmed El-Sayed, Raya Khalid Al-Dadah, Sa’ad Mahmoud, Abdel Fateh Mahrous, Nura Mu’az Muhammad, Sa’idu Bello Abbakar
Page 85 – 98

AbstractInterest in the use of heat pipes in solar applications is increasing due to their role in improving the heat transfer performance of solar collectors. In order to effectively utilise heat pipes, their performance under various operating conditions and inclination angles need to be investigated. In this work, numerical and experimental studies were carried out to investigate the effects of heat input and inclination angle on the wall temperature distributions and thermal resistance of thermosyphon heat pipe. A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model was developed using ANSYS Fluent to simulate the flow and mass transfer using volume of fluid (VOF) approach together with user – defined function (UDF) to simulate the phase change processes at various inclination angles. Experiments were carried out to validate the CFD model at heat inputs of 81.69W and 101.55W with temperature distribution results showing good agreement of ±4.2% average deviation. Also the predicted thermal resistance at different inclination angles showed good agreement with the experimental ones with maximum deviation of ±5.7%. Results showed that as the heat input increases, the heat pipe wall temperature increases and the thermal resistance decreases. Experimental and numerical results showed that increasing the inclination angle will improve the thermosyphon heat pipe performance to reach its maximum value at 90o, but this effect decreases as the heat input increases.
CiteMLA
Bala, Abdullahi, et al. “Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Thermosyphon Heat Pipe Performance at Various Inclination Angles.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44.1 (2018): 85-98.
APA
Bala, A., Ahmed, E., Raya Khalid, A., Sa’ad, M., Abdel Fateh, M., Nura Mu’az, M., & Sa’idu Bello, A.(2018). Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Thermosyphon Heat Pipe Performance at Various Inclination Angles. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), 85-98.
Chicago
Bala Abdullahi, Ahmed El-Sayed, Raya Khalid Al-Dadah, Sa’ad Mahmoud, Abdel Fateh Mahrous, Nura Mu’az Muhammad, and Sa’idu Bello Abbakar. “Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Thermosyphon Heat Pipe Performance at Various Inclination Angles.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44, no. 1 (2018): 85-98.
Harvard
Bala, A., Ahmed, E., Raya Khalid, A., Sa’ad, M., Abdel Fateh, M., Nura Mu’az, M., Sa’idu Bello, A., 2018. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Thermosyphon Heat Pipe Performance at Various Inclination Angles. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), pp.85-98.
Vancouver
Bala A, Ahmed E, Raya Khalid A, Sa’ad M, Abdel Fateh M, Nura Mu’az M, Sa’idu Bello A. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Thermosyphon Heat Pipe Performance at Various Inclination Angles. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;44(1):85-98.

Parametric Study to Determine Optimum HVAC in a Hospital Operation Theatre
Muneera Abs Farj, Syed Mohammed Aminuddin Aftab, Kamarul Arifin Ahmad
Page 99 – 122

AbstractComputational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation inside an Operation Theatre (OT), considering real world conditions such as temperature and airflow movement in the OT environment is carried out. Simulation is carried out using Phoenics software to predict the flow velocity and temperature distribution inside the OT. Parametric study is done to determine the most suitable inlet and outlet configuration. Only one out of the six cases provided the required cooling and reduced recirculation. Results indicated that the entire ceiling inlet with eight outlets was the best case, for further studies to be carried out considering contaminants.
CiteMLA
Muneera, Abs Farj, et al. “Parametric Study to Determine Optimum HVAC in a Hospital Operation Theatre.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44.1 (2018): 99-122.
APA
Muneera, A. F., Syed Mohammed Aminuddin, A., & Kamarul, A. A.(2018). Parametric Study to Determine Optimum HVAC in a Hospital Operation Theatre. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), 99-122.
Chicago
Muneera Abs Farj, Syed Mohammed Aminuddin Aftab, and Kamarul Arifin Ahmad. “Parametric Study to Determine Optimum HVAC in a Hospital Operation Theatre.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44, no. 1 (2018): 99-122.
Harvard
Muneera, A.F., Syed Mohammed Aminuddin, A., Kamarul, A.A., 2018. Parametric Study to Determine Optimum HVAC in a Hospital Operation Theatre. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), pp.99-122.
Vancouver
Muneera AF, Syed Mohammed Aminuddin A, Kamarul AA. Parametric Study to Determine Optimum HVAC in a Hospital Operation Theatre. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;44(1):99-122.

Heat Transport at Solid-Liquid Interfaces between Face-Centered Cubic Lattice and Liquid Alkanes
Abdul Rafeq Saleman, Fudhail Abdul Munir, Mohd Rody Mohammad Zin, Mohd Shukri Yob, Gota Kikugawa, Taku Ohara
Page 123 – 130

AbstractSolid-liquid (S-L) interfaces is widely used in lubrication and coating systems, in which the heat transport is the main problem for the system. In the recent years, lubrication and coating systems have been investigated up to the molecular scale to solve the problem of heat transport due to wear and friction. In molecular scale, the characteristics of heat transport are different from the conventional one. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to specifically investigate the characteristics of heat transport in the molecular scale at the S-L interfaces. The prime concern in this numerical investigation is the surface structure of solid and the type of liquid molecules. The characteristics of heat transport at the S-L interfaces are evaluated based on the temperature jump (TJ) and thermal boundary resistance (TBR) at the interfaces. It is found that the different TJs and TBRs can be observed for variation of the surface structures and the length of liquid molecules. The obtained results show that the surface structures and length of liquid molecules significantly affect the characteristics of heat transport at S-L interfaces.
CiteMLA
Abdul Rafeq, Saleman, et al. “Heat Transport at Solid-Liquid Interfaces between Face-Centered Cubic Lattice and Liquid Alkanes.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44.1 (2018): 123-130.
APA
Abdul Rafeq, S., Fudhail, A. M., Mohd Rody, M. Z., Mohd Shukri, Y., Gota, K., & Taku, O.(2018). Heat Transport at Solid-Liquid Interfaces between Face-Centered Cubic Lattice and Liquid Alkanes. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), 123-130.
Chicago
Abdul Rafeq Saleman, Fudhail Abdul Munir, Mohd Rody Mohammad Zin, Mohd Shukri Yob, Gota Kikugawa, and Taku Ohara. “Heat Transport at Solid-Liquid Interfaces between Face-Centered Cubic Lattice and Liquid Alkanes.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44, no. 1 (2018): 123-130.
Harvard
Abdul Rafeq, S., Fudhail, A.M., Mohd Rody, M.Z., Mohd Shukri, Y., Gota, K., Taku, O., 2018. Heat Transport at Solid-Liquid Interfaces between Face-Centered Cubic Lattice and Liquid Alkanes. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), pp.123-130.
Vancouver
Abdul Rafeq S, Fudhail AM, Mohd Rody MZ, Mohd Shukri Y, Gota K, Taku O. Heat Transport at Solid-Liquid Interfaces between Face-Centered Cubic Lattice and Liquid Alkanes. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;44(1):123-130.

Effect of MHD and Porosity on Exact Solutions and Flow of a Hybrid Casson-Nanofluid
Sidra Aman, Syazwani Mohd Zokri, Zulkhibri Ismail, Mohd Zuki Salleh, Ilyas Khan
Page 131 – 139

AbstractIn this work, a novel hybrid nanofluid model with advanced thermophysical properties is considered for Casson fluid. The exact solutions are evaluated for noninteger derivative equations via Laplace technique. The unsteady flow, MHD, radiation and porous medium are considered. For the hybrid concept, alumina and copper nanoparticles are used in this research investigation. The problem is modeled using Caputo definition of non-integer derivatives. The influence of concerned parameters is depicted physically and graphically on the heat, concentration and flow of the hybrid nanofluid. The effect of volume fraction of both the nanoparticles on flow of hybrid nanofluids is observed. It is found that velocity increases with increasing values of Gr, ? and k, whereas M decreases.
CiteMLA
Sidra, Aman, et al. “Effect of MHD and Porosity on Exact Solutions and Flow of a Hybrid Casson-Nanofluid.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44.1 (2018): 131-139.
APA
Sidra, A., Syazwani, M. Z., Zulkhibri, I., Mohd Zuki, S., & Ilyas, K.(2018). Effect of MHD and Porosity on Exact Solutions and Flow of a Hybrid Casson-Nanofluid. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), 131-139.
Chicago
Sidra Aman, Syazwani Mohd Zokri, Zulkhibri Ismail, Mohd Zuki Salleh, and Ilyas Khan. “Effect of MHD and Porosity on Exact Solutions and Flow of a Hybrid Casson-Nanofluid.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44, no. 1 (2018): 131-139.
Harvard
Sidra, A., Syazwani, M.Z., Zulkhibri, I., Mohd Zuki, S., Ilyas, K., 2018. Effect of MHD and Porosity on Exact Solutions and Flow of a Hybrid Casson-Nanofluid. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), pp.131-139.
Vancouver
Sidra A, Syazwani MZ, Zulkhibri I, Mohd Zuki S, Ilyas K. Effect of MHD and Porosity on Exact Solutions and Flow of a Hybrid Casson-Nanofluid. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;44(1):131-139.

Flow Past Two Interlocking Squares Cylinder at Low Reynolds Number
Muhamad Hafiz Md Jamal, Azlin Mohd Azmi
Page 140 – 148

AbstractFlow past two interlocking squares cylinder is largely unexplored in the field of bluff body wake. This paper aims to investigate the wake region behind this body at Re=150. The study was carried out numerically using ANSYS-Fluent solver with viscous-laminar model. The results obtained were compared with that of a square cylinder. It was observed that the flow separation was delayed at the downstream sharp corner of the two interlocking squares cylinder, resulting in an early interaction between the shear layers behind its wake. The maximum vorticity magnitude was slightly higher (of about 6%), indicating a higher intensity of vortices in the two interlocking squares wake than that of the square cylinder wake, consistent with the spectral analysis. A larger lift fluctuation with higher amplitude was also observed in the former in comparison to that in the latter.
CiteMLA
Muhamad Hafiz, Md Jamal, et al. “Flow Past Two Interlocking Squares Cylinder at Low Reynolds Number.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44.1 (2018): 140-148.
APA
Muhamad Hafiz, M. J., & Azlin, M. A.(2018). Flow Past Two Interlocking Squares Cylinder at Low Reynolds Number. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), 140-148.
Chicago
Muhamad Hafiz Md Jamal, and Azlin Mohd Azmi. “Flow Past Two Interlocking Squares Cylinder at Low Reynolds Number.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44, no. 1 (2018): 140-148.
Harvard
Muhamad Hafiz, M.J., Azlin, M.A., 2018. Flow Past Two Interlocking Squares Cylinder at Low Reynolds Number. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), pp.140-148.
Vancouver
Muhamad Hafiz MJ, Azlin MA. Flow Past Two Interlocking Squares Cylinder at Low Reynolds Number. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;44(1):140-148.

Simulation Study of Combustion Characteristics of Diesel-Ethanol-Palm Oil Methyl Ester Blends in Diesel Engine
Norhidayah Mat Taib, Mohd Radzi Abu Mansor, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan Mahmood, Nik Rosli Abdullah
Page 149 – 156

AbstractDiesel-ethanol-palm methyl ester (PME) blends are believed to be able to improve the combustion characteristics since diesel, ethanol, and PME have different fuel characteristics. This paper is aimed to study the combustion characteristics of pure diesel and diesel-ethanol-PME blends with different compositions through simulation works and to estimate the best fuel composition that can be used in real engine applications. A simulation work was conducted using seven different diesel-ethanolPME blends for a combustion based on a compression ignition Yanmar TF90 engine parameter by using a CONVERGE CFD software. Seven diesel-ethanol-PME blends (10 vol% to 40 vol%) PME were mixed in ethanol together with 50 vol% diesel fuel operated at 1600 RPM. High PME percentage increased the heat release rate (HRR). However, due to non-uniform chemical energy release from the reaction, the blends of 25 vol% PME with 25 vol% ethanol blends released the highest HRR. A high percentage of ethanol reduced the temperature and increased the heat release. From the cumulative heat release, ignition delay occurred for blends that had more than 15 vol% ethanol. In conclusion, blending ethanol and PME in diesel increased the combustion heat release rate to have better engine efficiency. However, the blend that contained more than 35 vol% ethanol was not suitable to be used in direct injection compressed ignition engine without any modification since the temperature and HRR of the blends is very low.
CiteMLA
Norhidayah, Mat Taib, et al. “Simulation Study of Combustion Characteristics of Diesel-Ethanol-Palm Oil Methyl Ester Blends in Diesel Engine.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44.1 (2018): 149-156.
APA
Norhidayah, M. T., Mohd Radzi, A. M., Wan Mohd Faizal, W. M., & Nik Rosli, A.(2018). Simulation Study of Combustion Characteristics of Diesel-Ethanol-Palm Oil Methyl Ester Blends in Diesel Engine. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), 149-156.
Chicago
Norhidayah Mat Taib, Mohd Radzi Abu Mansor, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan Mahmood, and Nik Rosli Abdullah. “Simulation Study of Combustion Characteristics of Diesel-Ethanol-Palm Oil Methyl Ester Blends in Diesel Engine.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44, no. 1 (2018): 149-156.
Harvard
Norhidayah, M.T., Mohd Radzi, A.M., Wan Mohd Faizal, W.M., Nik Rosli, A., 2018. Simulation Study of Combustion Characteristics of Diesel-Ethanol-Palm Oil Methyl Ester Blends in Diesel Engine. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), pp.149-156.
Vancouver
Norhidayah MT, Mohd Radzi AM, Wan Mohd Faizal WM, Nik Rosli A. Simulation Study of Combustion Characteristics of Diesel-Ethanol-Palm Oil Methyl Ester Blends in Diesel Engine. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;44(1):149-156.

The Effect of Single and Double Air Inlets on Swirling Flow in a Reactor of a Fluidized Bed Gasifier
Wasu Suksuwan, Makatar Wae-hayee, Maizirwan Mel
Page 157 – 166

AbstractIn this work, the effect of single and double air inlets on swirling flow in a reactor of fluidized bed gasifier was studied numerically. The reactor diameter (D) was 20 cm, and the reactor length was 7.5D. The geometry of the reactor bottom was conical. In order to generate swirling flow in the reactor, the air inlet pipe with inner diameter of 46.8 mm was assembled tangentially to the bottom of the reactor. The comparison of the effect of single and double air inlets were studied based on the same mass flow rate. A 3-D numerical model of the reactor was created using a commercial software of ANSYS Ver.15.0 (Fluent). The results showed that swirling flow at the bottom of the reactor for the case of double inlets was more uniform than that of single inlets. Therefore, double air inlets were applied to design and fabricate a swirling fluidized bed gasifier.
CiteMLA
Wasu, Suksuwan, et al. “The Effect of Single and Double Air Inlets on Swirling Flow in a Reactor of a Fluidized Bed Gasifier.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44.1 (2018): 157-166.
APA
Wasu, S., Makatar, W., & Maizirwan, M. (2018). The Effect of Single and Double Air Inlets on Swirling Flow in a Reactor of a Fluidized Bed Gasifier. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), 157-166.
Chicago
Wasu Suksuwan, Makatar Wae-hayee, and Maizirwan Mel. “The Effect of Single and Double Air Inlets on Swirling Flow in a Reactor of a Fluidized Bed Gasifier.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 44, no. 1 (2018): 157-166.
Harvard
Wasu, S., Makatar, W., Maizirwan, M., 2018. The Effect of Single and Double Air Inlets on Swirling Flow in a Reactor of a Fluidized Bed Gasifier. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 44(1), pp.157-166.
Vancouver
Wasu S, Makatar W, Maizirwan M. The Effect of Single and Double Air Inlets on Swirling Flow in a Reactor of a Fluidized Bed Gasifier. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;44(1):157-166.
Volume 45, No. 1 (May, 2018)
Review on Preparation Techniques, Properties and Performance of Hybrid Nanofluid in Recent Engineering Applications
Hong Wei Xian, Nor Azwadi Che Sidik, Siti Rahmah Aid, Tan Lit Ken, Yutaka Asako
Page 1 – 13

Experimental Evaluation of Kolmogorov’s -5/3 and 2/3 Power Laws in the Developing Turbulent Round Jet
Mohd Rusdy Yaacob, Rasmus Korslund Schlander, Preben Buchhave, Clara M.Velte
Page 14 – 21

Influence of Octane Number Rating on Performance, Emission and Combustion Characteristics in Spark Ignition Engine
Yew Heng Teoh, Heoy Geok How, Kok Hwa Yu, Hun Guan Chuah, Wai Loon Yin
Page 22 – 34

Development of Mini Pilot Fluidized Bed Gasifier for Industrial Approach: Preliminary Study Based on Continuous Operation
Wasu Suksuwan, Makatar Wae-hayee, Maizirwan Mel
Page 35 – 43

CFD Analysis on the Effect of Winglet Cant Angle on Aerodynamics of ONERA M6 Wing
Adnan Munshi, Erwin Sulaeman, Norfazzila Omar, Mohammad Yeakub Ali
Page 44 – 54

Numerical Study on Heat Transfer Performance Enhancement of Phase Change Material by Nanoparticles: A Review
Tung Hao Kean, Nor Azwadi Che Sidik, Yutaka Asako, Tan Lit Ken, Siti Rahmah Aid
Page 55 – 63

Flow Behaviour of a Feeder at Dendrite Coherency Point In Metal Castings
Nadiah Ahmad, Jerald Brevick
Page 64 – 72

Impact of Gasoline RON on Engine Vibration, Knock and Sound Level in a Single-Cylinder SI Engine
Heoy Geok How, Yew Heng Teoh, Kok Hwa Yu, Hun Guan Chuah, Kai Wen Samson Lim
Page 73 – 81

Study of Heat Transfer Characteristics on Sharp Turn Channels for Solar Collectors
Ahmad Syuhada, Muhammad Ilham Maulana
Page 82 – 91

Unsteady Natural Convection of Sodium Alginate Viscoplastic Casson Based Nanofluid Flow over a Vertical Plate with Leading Edge Accretion/Ablation
Abid Hussanan, Sidra Aman, Zulkhibri Ismail, Mohd Zuki Salleh, Basuki Widodo
Page 92 – 98

Development of High Temperature High Pressure (HTHP) Water Based Drilling Mud using Synthetic Polymers, and Nanoparticles
Mansoor Ali Khan, Hikmat Said Al-Salim, Leila Niloofar Arsanjani
Page 99 – 108

Numerical Investigation on the Influence of Gas Area Fraction on Developing Flow in a Pipe Containing Superhydrophobic Transverse Grooves
Kok Hwa Yu, Yew Heng Teoh, Mohd Azmi Ismail, Chih Fang Lee, Farzad Ismail
Page 109 – 115

Performance Comparison of NACA 6509 and 6712 on Pico Hydro Type Cross-Flow Turbine by Numerical Method
Dendy Adanta, Budiarso, Warjito, Ahmad Indra Siswantara, Aji Putro Prakoso
Page 116 – 127

Flow Pattern and Particle Contamination in Fluid Flow through Mitre Bend
Ainaa Maya Munira Ismail, Fazila Mohd Nawawi, Jamaludin Md. Sheriff
Page 128 – 140

The Developing Plane Channel Flow over Water-Repellent Surface Containing Transverse Grooves and Ribs
Kok Hwa Yu, Yan Xu Tan, Mohd Sharizal Abdul Aziz, Mohd Zulkifly Abdullah
Page 141 – 148

Analysing the Thermal Performance of Heat Pipe Using Copper Nanofluids
Aklilu Tesfamichael Baheta, Ahmed N. Oumer, Sintayehu M. Hailegiorgis
Page 149 – 155

CFD Simulation of Temperature and Air Flow Distribution inside Industrial Scale Solar Dryer
Arina Mohd Noh, Sohif Mat, Mohd Hafidz Ruslan
Page 156 – 164

A Comprehensive Review on Numerical and Experimental Study of Nanofluid Performance in Microchannel Heatsink (MCHS)
Wan Mohd Arif Aziz Japar, Nor Azwadi Che Sidik, Siti Rahmah Aid, Yutaka Asako, Tan Lit Ken
Page 165 – 176

Volume 46, No. 1 (June, 2018)
Nanoparticles: A Review on their Synthesis, Characterization and Physicochemical Properties for Energy Technology Industry
Ahmad Tajuddin Mohamad, Jesbains Kaur, Nor Azwadi Che Sidik, Saidur Rahman
Page 1 – 10

Acid-Modified Adsorbents from Sustainable Green-based Materials for Crude Oil Removal
Nazlina Zulbadli, Nabilah Zaini, Lim Yew Soon, Teng Yong Kang, Ahmed Abdulkarim Ali Al-Harf, Noor Shawal Nasri, Khairul Sozana Nor Kamarudin
Page 11 – 20

Assessment of Turbulence Modelling for Numerical Simulations into Pico Hydro Turbine
Dendy Adanta, Budiarso, Warjito, Ahmad Indra Siswantara
Page 21 – 31

Analytical Investigation of Thermoelectric Performance for Cooling Application
Looi Kar Kin, Aklilu Tesfamichael Baheta, Khairul Habib
Page 32 – 40

Effect of Calcium Carbonate Solution on Drag Reduction in a Pentagon Spiral Pipe
Sealtial Mau, Yanuar
Page 41 – 48

Applications of Nanofluids and Various Minichannel Configurations for Heat Transfer Improvement: A Review of Numerical Study
Nura Mu’az Muhammad, Nor Azwadi Che Sidik
Page 49 – 61

The Effect of Ventilation Hole Number on Flow Behavior and Heat Transfer of Rotary Drum Dryer
Sherly Hanifarianty, Thanansak Theppaya, Chayut Nuntadusit, Makatar Wae-Hayee
Page 62 – 72

The Stress Strain Behaviour Envelope for Granitic Residual Soil in Mobilised Shear Strength Perceptive
Abdul Samad Abdul Rahman, Mohd Jamaludin Md Noor, Ismacahyadi Bagus Mohd Jais, Mohd Raizamzamani Md Zain
Page 73 – 87

Lipid and Protein from Black Soldier Fly Larvae Fed with Self-Fermented Coconut Waste Medium
Siti Nuraini Mohd Noor, Jun Wei Lim, Man Kee Lam, Yoshimitsu Uemura, Thiam Leng Chew, Yeek Chia Ho, Mardawani Mohamad
Page 88 – 95

Energy Efficiency through Building Envelope in Malaysia and Singapore
Harimi Djamila, Mariani Rajin, Ahmad Nurfaidhi Rizalman
Page 96 – 105

Sugarcane Bagasse-based Adsorbent as an Alternative to Enhance the Harvesting Process of Chlorella vulgaris Biomass
Wan Nurain Farahah Wan Basri, Jun-Wei Lim, Mohamed Hasnain Isa, Lavania Baloo, Yoshimitsu Uemura, Mohammed J.K. Bashir, Yen-Cheong Lee, Dennis Ling Chuan Ching
Page 106 – 113

Estimated of Energy Saving from the Application of Roof Shade on the Refrigerated Container Storage Yard
Muhammad Arif Budiyanto, Takeshi Shinoda, Sunaryo, Firman Ady Nugroho, B Wibowo
Page 114 – 121

Seashell Structure under Binder Influence
Kamarul Azhar Kamarudin, Mohamed Nasrul Mohamed Hatta, Ranjhini Anpalagan, Al Emran Ismail, Noor Wahida Ab Baba, Mohd Khir Mohd Noor, Rosniza Hussin, Ahmad Sufian Abdullah
Page 122 – 128

Microwave Induced Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Biomass by using Layer Microwave Absorber in Reverse Flow Double Cylinder Reactor
Guan Sem Ho, Hasan Mohd Faizal, Farid Nasir Ani
Page 129 – 138

Structural Analysis and Morphological Study of Al2O3 nanofluids in Microchannel Heat Sink
Azlizul Aizat Razali, Azmahani Sadikin, Sallehuddin Shah Ayop
Page 139 – 146

Multiphase Flow in Solder Paste Stencil Printing Process using CFD approach
Mohd Syakirin Rusdi, Mohd Zulkifly Abdullah, Mohd Sharizal Abdul Aziz, Muhammad Khalil Abdullah@Harun, Srivalli Chellvarajoo, Azmi Husin, Parimalam Rethinasamy, Sivakumar Veerasamy
Page 147 – 152

Analysis of Water Hammer in Water-based Hydraulic Actuator System
Syarizal Bakri, Ahmad Anas Yusof, Saiful Akmal Sabarudin, Faizil Wasbari, Mohd Syafiq Husni
Page 153 – 160

Parametric Study of Thermoacoustic System using DeltaE
Dahlia Johari, Ernie Mattokit, Fatimah Al Zahrah Mohd Saat
Page 161 – 168

Comparison between Carbon Nanofiber (CNF) Nanofluid with Deionized Water on Tool Life and Surface Roughness in Turning of D2 Steel
Pay Jun Liew, Ainusyafiqah Shaaroni, Jeefferie Abd Razak, Mohd Hadzley Abu Bakar
Page 169 – 174

Turbulent Vortex Shedding across Internal Structure in Thermoacoustic Oscillatory Flow
Siti Hajar Adni Mustaffa, Fatimah Al Zahrah Mohd Saat, Ernie Mattokit
Page 175 – 184

Volume 47, No. 1 (July, 2018)
Advances in High Efficiency Photovoltaic Thermal Solar Collectors
Kamaruzzaman Sopian, Ali H.A. Alwaeli, Husam Abdulrasool Hasan, Ali Najah Al-Shamani
Page 1 – 7

Preparation and Characterization of Natural Fiber Filled Asphalt Based Damping Material
Qumrul Ahsan, Wong Teng Hui, Intan Sharhida Othman, Liew Pay Jun, Azma Putra
Page 8 – 15

Part II: Enhanced Performance of Concentrating Photovoltaic-Thermal Air Collector with Fresnel Lens and Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC)
Baljit Singh Sarban Singh, Chan Hoy Yen, Saleem Hussain Zaidi, Kamaruzzaman Sopian
Page 16 – 24

Microwatt Energy Harvesting by Exploiting Flow-Induced Vibration
Zinnyrah Methal, Mohamed Sukri Mat Ali, Nurshafinaz Mohd Maruai, Rasli Abd Ghani
Page 25 – 34

Exploration to Find Green Building Materials from Recycled Solid Wastes
Abdul Talib Din, Norzawahir Mohd Hafiz, Anika Zafiah Mohd Rus
Page 35 – 44

Combustion Performance of Firing Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil in an Oil Burner
Mohammad Nazri Mohd Ja’afar, Anis Athirah Mohd Azli, Muhammad Amirul Faiz Mohd Azman, Mazlan Said
Page 45 – 55

The Effects of Reynolds Number on Flow Separation of Naca Aerofoil
Muhammad Syahmi Abdul Hakim, Mastura Ab Wahid, Norazila Othman, Shabudin Mat, Shuhaimi Mansor, Md. Nizam Dahalan, Wan Khairuddin Wan Ali
Page 56 – 68

Kinematic and Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of an Underwater Manipulator Arm in Streamline and Blunt Body Arrangement
Ahmad Anas Yusof, Mohd Khairi Mohamad Nor, Shamsul Anuar Shamsudin, Mohd Rizal Alkahari
Page 69 – 88

Effect of Agar on Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Thermoplastic Sugar Palm Starch: Thermal Behavior
Ridhwan Jumaidin, Mohd Sapuan Salit, Mohamed Saiful Firdaus, Ahmad Fuad Ab Ghani, Mohd Yuhazri Yaakob, Nazri Huzaimi Zakaria, Fudhail Abdul Munir, Azrul Abidin Zakaria, Norhisyam Jenal
Page 89 – 96

Aerodynamic Noise Measurement In Anechoic Wind Tunnel of Rod-Airfoil With Leading Edge Serrations
Siti Ruhliah Lizarose Samion, Mohamed Sukri Mat Ali
Page 97 – 107

Numerical Study of Aerodynamic Performance of Hatchback Vehicle Fitted with a Strip Spoiler: Effect of Yaw Angle
See-Yuan Cheng, Shuhaimi Mansor, Mohd Azman Abdullah, Mohamad Shukri Zakaria
Page 108 – 118

Effect of Steel Fibre Volume Fraction on Thermal Performance of Lightweight Foamed Mortar (LFM) at Ambient Temperature
Md Azree Othuman Mydin, Mohd Nasrun Mohd Nawi, Muhammad Arkam Che Munaaim, Noridah Mohamad, Abdul Aziz Abdul Samad, Izwan Johari
Page 119 – 126

Determination of Thermal Properties of Lightweight Cellular Mortar (LCM) of Different Density Through Guarded Hot Plate Method
Md Azree Othuman Mydin, Mohd Nasrun Mohd Nawi, Muhammad Arkam Che Munaaim, Abdul Aziz Abdul Samad, Noridah Mohamad, Izwan Johari
Page 127 – 135

Simulation and Experimentation of Water Hydraulics Technology for Automatic Traditional Cookies Production
Ahmad Anas Yusof, Suhaimi Misha, Mohamed Hafiz Md Isa, Faizil Wasbari, Mohd Qadafie Ibrahim, Mohd Shahir Kasim
Page 136 – 150

Mesoporous Materials Synthesized by Novel Reflux Synthesis Method
Thiam Leng Chew, Cheng Kong Choy, Yin Fong Yeong, Jun Wei Lim, Abdul Latif Ahmad, Chii Dong Ho
Page 151 – 158

An Analysis of Occupants Response to Thermal Discomfort in Green and Conventional Buildings in Malaysia
Nurul Sakina Mokhtar Azizi, Suzanne Wilkinson, Mokhtar Azizi Mohd Din, Nuzaihan Aras Agus Salim
Page 159 – 171

Development of High Temperature Pressure (HTHP) Water Based Drilling Mud Using Synthetic Polymers, and Nanoparticles
Mansoor Ali Khan, Hikmat Said Al-Salim, Leila Niloofar Arsanjani
Page 172 – 182

Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Conversion Device Response Spectra
Brad Stappenbelt
Page 183 – 189

Numerical Studies On Unsteady Helicopter Main-Rotor-Hub Assembly Wake
Iskandar Shah Ishak, Shuhaimi Mansor, Tholudin Mat Lazim, Muhammad Riza Abd Rahman
Page 190 – 200

Analytical Solutions on the Flow of blood with the Effects of Hematocrit, Slip and TPMA in a porous tube
Rajashekhar Choudhari, Manjunatha Gudekote, Naveen Choudhari
Page 201 – 208

Volume 48, No. 1 (August, 2018)
Modelling and Simulation of Car Radiator: Effects of Fins under the Atmospheric Condition of Kano, Nigeria
Kabir Bashir Shariff, Bala Abdullahi, Saidu Bello Abubakar
Page 1 – 16

Evaluation of a Large Eddy Simulation on Thermal Boundary Condition in Underground Car Park
Ahmad Faiz Tharima, Mohd Zamri Yusoff, Md Mujibur Rahman
Page 17 – 24

Feasibility of Using Kaolin Suspension as Synthetic Sludge Sample
Qabas Marwan Abdulazeez, Mohammed Saedi Jami, Md Zahangir Alam
Page 25 – 39

Analysis of Stagnation Point flow of an Incompressible Viscous Fluid between Porous Plates with Velocity Slip
Ashwini Bhat, Nagaraj N Katagi
Page 40 – 52

A Review on Various Techniques and Recent Advances in Polymeric Additives to Mitigate Wax Problems in Crude Oil
SM Anisuzzaman, Yeow Wai Fong, Merlela Madsah
Page 53 – 64

Effect of Hot Pressing Temperature and Varying Veneer Density on the Properties of Oil Palm Sandwich Board
Anis Mokhtar, Mohd Shamim Ahmad, Kamarudin Hassan, Fazliana Abdul Hamid, Zawawi Ibrahim, Astimar Abdul Aziz
Page 65 – 79

Analysis of Porous Eliptical Slider through Semi-Analytical Technique
VS Sampath Kumar, NP Pai
Page 80 – 90

Development of Temperature Preference Learning System to Optimize the Energy Consumption in the Building
Khalil Azha Mohd Annuar, Jit Shen Quah, Muhammad Fahmi Miskon, Mohd Razali Mohamad Sapiee
Page 91 – 99

Effect of Cooling Load on the Performance of R22 Residential Split Air Conditioner when Retrofitted with Hydrocarbon Refrigerant (HCR22)
Azridjal Aziz, Thalal, Afdhal Kurniawan Mainil
Page 100 – 108

Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Hydrogen Rate and Loading Towards Engine Performance and Exhaust Emission
Mohamad Nordin Mohamad Norani, Tee Boon Tuan, Muhammad Zulfattah Zakaria
Page 109 – 116

Volume 48, No. 2 (August, 2018)
Effect of Silica (SiO2) Filler on Thermal Stability of Polysiloxane Composites
M. Azham Azmi, S. M. Yahya, S. Ahmad, S. Mahzan, M. Taib, H. A. Rahman, H. Taib
Page 117 – 124

A Review on Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma Actuator in Aeronautics Applications
Farah Ayiesya Zainuddin, Nazri Md Daud
Page 125 – 132

A Preliminary Study of BNT-BT Ceramics Prepared by Solid State Reaction
Nurul Jannah Mohamad, Umar Al-Amani Azlan, Mohammad Haniff Harun
Page 133 – 140

Intermediate Phases Formed during Synthesis of ?-Tricalcium Phosphate via Wet Precipitation and Hydrothermal Methods
Radzali Othman, Zaleha Mustafa, Nor Fatiha Ishak, Pham Trung Kien, Zurina Shamsudin, Zulkifli Mohd Rosli, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd Noor
Page 141 – 147

Surface Finish and Mechanical Properties of FDM Part After Blow Cold Vapor Treatment
Siti Nur Humaira Mazlan, Mohd Rizal Alkahari, Faiz Redza Ramli, Nurul Ain Maidin, Mohd Nizam Sudin, Ardzatul Ruziah Zolkaply
Page 148 – 155

Effect of Number of Baffles on Flow and Pressure Drop in a Shell Side of a Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers
A. Sadikin, N. Y. Khian, Y. P. Hwey, H. Y. Al-Mahdi, I. Taib, A. N. Sadikin, S. Md Salleh, S. S. Ayop
Page 156 – 164

Analysis of Porous Eliptical Slider through Semi-Analytical Technique
Ahmad Adzlan Fadzli Khairi, Mohamed Sukri Mat Ali
Page 165 – 175

Thermal Degradation of Malaysian Domestic Wastewater Sludge (DWS) Using Thermogravimetric Analysis Method
Mohd Safuan Zakaria, Suhaimi Hassan, Mohd Faizairi Mohd Noor
Page 176 – 182

Numerical Study For Flow Over A Realistic Generic Model, DrivAer, Using URANS
Nur Haziqah Shaharuddin, Mohamed Sukri Mat Ali, Shuhaimi Mansor, Sallehuddin Muhamad, Sheikh Ahmad Zaki
Page 183 – 195

Photovoltaic Thermal /Solar (PVT) Collector (PVT) System Based on Fluid Absorber Design: A Review
A.L. Abdullah, S. Misha, N. Tamaldin, M.A.M. Rosli, F.A. Sachit
Page 196 – 208

Volume 49, No. 1 (September, 2018)
Comparison of Univariate and Bivariate Parametric Model for Wind Energy Analysis
Nortazi Sanusi, Azami Zaharim, Sohif Mat, Kamaruzzaman Sopian
Page 1 – 10

Effects of Wall Thickness on Flame Stabilization Limits for Combustors with Wire Mesh
Fudhail Abdul Munir, Muhmmad Ikhwan Muazzam, Abdel Gader, Masato Mikami, Herman Saputro, Laila Fitriana
Page 11 – 17

Portable Grease Trap for Wastewater Management System: A Conceptual Design Approach
Mohamed Saiful Firdaus Hussin, Mohd Afdhal Shamsuddin, Ridhwan Jumaidin, Azrul Abidin Zakaria, Norhisyam Jenal
Page 18 – 24

Comparative Study on Energy Management and Efficiency Category in Sustainable Building Rating Schemes
Abdullahi Mohammed Usman, Kamil Abdullah, Mohd Faizal Mohideen Batcha
Page 25 – 35

Evaluation of Ozonolysis Pre-treatment for Xylose Production through Enzymatic Hydrolysis
Efri Mardawati, Herlin Herliansah, Qisthy Adillah, In In Hanidah, Robi Andoyo, Imas Siti Setiasih
Page 36 – 47

Phase Inversion and Pore Formation of PVDF Membrane with Silica as Additive
Charlene Sharmini Fernandes, Nik Abdul Hadi Md Nordin, Muhammad Roil Bilad, Aqsha Aqsha, Mohd Dzul Hakim Wirzal, Zulfan Adi Putra
Page 48 – 54

Performance of Sludge Palm Oil Combustion Using Waste Oil Burner
Muhammad Ahmar Zuber, Ahmad Muhsin Ithnin, Wira Jazair Yahya, Ahmad Danish Abd Wahab, Mohamad Azrin Ahmad
Page 55 – 61

Water Content Determination of Steam Generated Water-In-Diesel Emulsion
Dhani Avianto Sugeng, Ahmad Muhsin Ithnin, Nur Salsabilla Mohd Syahril Amri, Mohamad Azrin Ahmad, Wira Jazair Yahya
Page 62 – 68

Influence of Heat Treatment on the Isothermal Oxidation of Fe-40Ni-24Cr Alloy
Noraziana Parimin, Esah Hamzah, Astuty Amrin
Page 69 – 76

A Study on the Potential of Peltier in Generating Electricity Using Heat Loss at Engine and Exhaust Vehicle
Mohamad Haniff Harun, Muhammad Wahyuddin Nor Azmi, Mohd Shahrieel Mohd Aras, Umar Al-Amani Azlan, Arman Hadi Azahar, Khalil Azha Mohd Annuar, Mohd Firdaus Mohd Ab Halim, Muhamad Faizal Yaakub, Amar Faiz Zainal Abidin
Page 77 – 84

Volume 49, No. 2 (September, 2018)
The Effects of Different Carbonization Temperatures on the Properties of Electrospun Carbon Nanofibre from Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) Precursor
Nurain Abdul Munajat, Abdul Hamid Nurfaizey, Mohd Haizal Mohd Husin, Siti Hajar Sheikh Md. Fadzullah, Ghazali Omar, Mohd Azli Salim
Page 85 – 91

The Application of Calcium Oxide from Waste Cockle for Biodiesel Production from Used Cooking Oil via Microwave Heating System
Mahanum Mohd Zamberi, Farid Nasir Ani, Mohd Fadzli Abdollah
Page 92 – 100

Numerical Simulation on Wind-Driven Cross Ventilation in Square Arrays of Urban Buildings with Different Opening Positions
Sheikh Ahmad Zaki, Nur Farhana Mohamad Kasim, Naoki Ikegaya, Aya Hagishima, Mohamed Sukri Mat Ali
Page 101 – 114

Effect of the Blade Curvature Angle to Power Generation on the Drag Type Horizontal Axis Water Turbine
Muh Alwan Rosyidi, Arif Hidayat Purwono, Dominicus Danardono Dwi Prija Tjahjana, Eko Prasetya Budiana, Syamsul Hadi
Page 115 – 120

Flow Behavior and Injectability of SS17-4PH with PS and PE Binders in Powder Injection Molding
Najla Nazihah Mas’ood, Abu Bakar Sulong, Norhamidi Muhamad, Intan Fadhlina Mohamed, Farhana Mohd Foudzi, Mohd Ikram Ramli, Farrahshaida Mohd Salleh
Page 121 – 125

Correlation of Absorb Energy with PSD Energy and Area under Strain-Time Graph
Nurlaela Muhammad Said, Mohd Basri Ali, Kamarul Ariffin Zakaria
Page 126 – 137

Small Scale Hydro Turbines for Sustainable Rural Electrification Program
Masjuri Musa, Juhari Ab Razak, Musthafah Mohd Tahir, Imran Syakir Mohamad, Md Nazri Othman
Page 138 – 145

Simulation Study on the Effect of Rear-Wing Spoiler on the Open Aerodynamic Performance of Sedan Vehicle
Muhammad Zaid Nawam, Mohd Afzanizam Mohd Rosli, Nor Azwar Syahila Rosli
Page 146 – 154

Process Optimization of Biogas Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent: A Case Study of a Crude Palm Oil Factory in Muaro Jambi, Indonesia
Nazaruddin Sinaga, Syukran Bestari Nasution, Maizirwan Mel
Page 155 – 169

Impacts of Corrugation Profiles on The Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics in Trapezoidal Corrugated Channel Using Nanofluids
Raheem Kadhim Ajeel, Wan Saiful-Islam Wan Salim, Khalid Hasnan
Page 170 – 179

Volume 50, No. 1 (October, 2018)
Effect of Current Density and Fly Ash Composition on Nickel Grain Size and Hardness of Nickel-Fly Ash Composite Coating Deposited on Aluminum Alloy 6061
Intan Sharhida Othman, Muhamad Khaizaki Ahmad, Muhammad Zaimi Zainal Abidin, Qumrul Ahsan, Noraiham Mohamad, Syahrul Azwan Sundi
Page 1 – 9

Effectiveness of Corn Cob as a Thermal Isolation Material
Suhaila Sahat, Nor Farah Atiqah Ahmad, Siti Noor Aiin Mohd Razali, Masiri Kaamin, Mardiha Mokhtar, Nor Baizura Hamid, Norhayati Nyadiman
Page 10 – 15

Optimization of the Antioxidant Properties of the Polyherbal Formulations
Nur Fazira Abdul Rahim, Norhayati Muhammad, Norazlin Abdullah, Balkis A Talip, Nur Jihan Shahirah Dusuki
Page 16 – 25

Combined Adsorption and Biological Treatment for Landfill Leachate Management
Er Xin Yi, Seow Ta Wee, Chi Kim Lim, Zaharah Ibrahim, Ngai Weng Chan
Page 26 – 31

Extrinsic Activation Energy for Enhanced Solid-State Metallic Diffusion for Electrical Conductive Ink
Intan Fatihah Ahmad, Ghazali Omar, Mohd Azli Salim
Page 32 – 39

Structure Analysis on Polypropylene Maleic Anhydride (PPMAH) / Polypropylene (PP) / Recycled Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBRr) / Banana Skin Powder (BSP) Composites Treatment
Wan Azani Mustafa, Mustaffa Zainal, Ragunathan Santiagoo, Azlinda Abdul Ghani, Nurul Syazwani Othman, Ranggita Dwi Affandi
Page 40 – 46

The Effect of Aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (Aps-Silane) on Polypropylene(PP)/Recycled Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber(NBRr)/Palm Pressed Fiber (PPF) Composite
Wan Azani Mustafa, Mustaffa Zainal, Mohamad Nur Khairul Hafizi Rohani, Ragunathan Santiagoo
Page 47 – 54

Numerical Solution of Micropolar Casson Fluid Behaviour on Steady MHD Natural Convective Flow about A Solid Sphere
Hamzeh Taha Alkasasbeh
Page 55 – 66

Thermal Analysis of a Solar Absorption Cooling System with Hot and Cold Storage Tanks
Maki Haj Zaidan, Hameed Jassim Khalaf, Basil Abdullah Ahmed
Page 67 – 80

Flows Generated by Critical Opposing Thermosolutal Convection in Fluid Annular Cavities
Brahim El moustaine, Abdelkhalek Cheddadi
Page 81 – 88

Volume 50, No. 2 (October, 2018)
Wear Element Monitoring by Spectrometric Analysis in Automatic Transmission Bus
Norhanifah Abdul Rahman, Matzaini Katon
Page 89 – 96

The Effect of Fluidity of Palm Kernel Oil with Pour Point Depressant on Coefficient Of Friction Using Fourball Tribotester
Muhammad Arif Dandan, Wan Mohamad Aiman Wan Yahaya, Syahrullail Samion
Page 97 – 107

Effects of Dissipation and Radiation on Heat Transfer Flow of a Convective Rotating Cuo-Water Nano-fluid in a Vertical Channel
Madduleti Nagasasikala, Bommanna Lavanya
Page 108 – 117

Haemodynamics Study in Subject-Specific Abdominal Aorta with Renal Bifurcation using CFD – A Case Study
Shah Mohammed Abdul Khader, Adi Azriff, Raghuvir Pai, Mohammed Zubair, Kamarul Arifin Ahmad, Zanuldin Ahmad, Koteshwara Prakashini
Page 118 – 121

Study on Water Hammer Effect in Turbulent Flow through the Pipe System
Mohamad Nor Musa, Syahrullail Samion, Mohd Kameil Abdul Hamid, Wan Mohamad Aiman Wan Yahya, Eriza Paiman
Page 122 – 133

A Comparative Study of Levelized Cost of Electricity Between Photovoltaic and Concentrated Solar Powered Power Plants in Malaysia
Faizal Baharum, Muhamad Hanif Hassan, Mohd Dzulkarnaen Sudirman, Mohd Nasrun Mohd Nawi, Siti Halipah Ibrahim
Page 134 – 145

Factors Influencing Thermal Stress Development in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
Noor Shieela Kalib, Andanastuti Muchtar, Mahendra Rao Somalu, Ahmad Kamal Ariffin Mohd Ihsan, Nurul Ashikin Mohd Nazrul Aman, Nurul Akidah Baharuddin
Page 146 – 152

Fabrication Process of Cathode Materials for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
Wan Nor Anasuhah Wan Yusoff, Nur Wardah Norman, Abdullah Abdul Samat, Mahendra Rao Somalu, Andanastuti Muchtar, Nurul Akidah Baharuddin
Page 153 – 160

Building Energy Performance: A Case Study at G2 Building UTHM
Mohammad Kamil Abdullah, Mohd Hafiz Mohamad
Page 161 – 169

Effect of Reaction Temperature on Steam Methane Reforming’s yield over Coated Nickel Aluminide (Ni3Al) Catalyst in Micro Reactor
Rais Hanizam Madon, Mas Fawzi, Khairul Ilman Sarwani, Shahrul Azmir Osman, Mohd Azahari Razali, Abdul Wahab Mohammad
Page 170 – 177

Volume 51, No. 1 (November, 2018)
The Potential of Micro Hydro Generator Embedded at 100,000PE Sewerage Treatment Plant
Muhammad Arkam Che Munaaim, Thiri Zaw, Afizah Ayob, Norazmawati Md Sani, Md Azree Othuman Mydin
Page 1 – 7

Design and Optimizing of Geometric for Solar Updraft Tower using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)
Mohd Noor Asril Saadun, Nor Azwadi Che Sidik
Page 8 – 18

Thermoelectric Combined Heat and Power Generation System Integrated with Liquid-Fuel Stove
Mustafa Sabah Mahdi, Jasim Abdulateef, Ammar Mohammed Abdulateef
Page 19 – 30

Aerodynamic Analysis of a Dragonfly
Shiva Prasad Uppu, Dindigala Manisha, Gudey Dharani Devi, Pranav Chengalwa, Boppana Vaishnavi Devi
Page 31 – 41

Numerical study three-dimensional of mixed convection in a cavity: Influence of Reynolds and Grashof numbers
Razik Benderradji, Hamza Gouidmi, Djedid Taloub, Abdelhadi Beghidja
Page 42 – 52

A Comparison of Openflume Turbine Designs with Specific Speeds (Ns) Based on Power and Discharge Functions
Sanjaya Baroar Sakti Nasution, Warjito, Budiarso, Dendy Adanta
Page 53 – 60

Friction Factor Analysis of SiO2 and Al2O3 Nanofluids dispersed in 60 EGW and 40 EGW Base Fluids
Seshu Kumar Vandrangi, Sampath Emani, Korada Viswanatha Sharma, Gurunadh Velidi
Page 61 – 70

Numerical Investigation of Microjet Impingement of Water for Cooling Photovoltaic Solar Cell
Husam Abdulrasool Hasan, Kamaruzzaman Sopian, Kayser Aziz Ameen
Page 71 – 79

Haemodynamics Behaviour in Normal and Stenosed Renal Artery using Computational Fluid Dynamics
Shah Mohammed Abdul Khader, Adi Azriff, Cherian Johny, Raghuvir Pai, Mohammad Zuber, Kamarul Arifin Ahmad, Zanuldin Ahmad
Page 80 – 90

Numerical Study of Haemodynamics Behaviour in Normal and Single Stenosed Renal Artery using Fluid – Structure Interaction
Adi Azriff Basri, Shah Mohammed Abdul Khader, Cherian Johny, Raghuvir Pai, Muhammad Zuber, Kamarul Arifin Ahmad, Zanuldin Ahmad
Page 91 – 98

Volume 51, No. 2 (November, 2018)
Numerical Study on Vascular Grafts Prototypes
Shah Mohammed Abdul Khader, Goutam Thakur, Raghuvir Pai, Mahima Kapoor, Soujata Borbaruah, Keshava Ragavendra
Page 99 – 107

Optimised Biofuel Production via Catalytic Cracking of Residual Palm Oil Recovered from Spent Bleaching Earth (SBE) over Ni/HZSM-5 Zeolite
Mohd Lukman Musa, Ramli Mat, Tuan Amran Tuan Abdullah
Page 108 – 123

Effect of Viscosity and Heat Transfer on The Developed Marine Fuel Preheating System Utilizing Diesel Engine Exhaust
Ralph Martin Castellano, Antonio-Abdu Sami Magomnang, Eliseo Villanueva
Page 124 – 144

Heat Transfer Enhancement Using Nanofluids For Cooling A Central Processing Unit (CPU) System
Husam Abdulrasool Hasan, Zainab Alquziweeni, Kamaruzzaman Sopian
Page 145 – 157

Combined Effect of Piezo-Viscous Dependency and Non-Newtonian Couple Stresses in Porous Squeeze-Film Circular Plate
Vasanth Kumar, Hanumagowda Bannihalli Naganagowda, Jogyalla Santhosh Kumar, Raju Buchanahalli Thimmaiah
Page 158 – 168

Evaluation of Specific Heat Capacity and Density for Cellulose Nanocrystal-based Nanofluid
Kaaliarasan Ramachandran, Kumaran Kadirgama, Devarajan Ramasamy, Mahendran Samykano, Lingenthiran Samylingam, Faris Tarlochan, Gholamhassan Najafi
Page 169 – 186

PI/NCC-Based Tubular Carbon Membrane: Influence of Aging Times Towards Oxygen Separation Performance
Norazlianie Sazali, Wan Norhayati Wan Salleh, Ahmad Fauzi Ismail, Kumaran Kadirgama, Mahendran Samykano, Gholamhassan Najafi, Nur Izwanne Mahyon
Page 187 – 196

Thermal and Fluid Simulation of a New Diesel Engine Cooling Exhaust Gas Recirculation System to Reduce Exhaust Gas Emissions
Seyed Salar Hoseini, Gholamhassan Najafi, Barat Ghobadian
Page 197 – 208

Storage System Manufacturability, Portability and Modularity for a Pico Hydro Turbine
Dwijaya Febriansyah, Budiarso, Warjito, Keizo Watanabe, Dendy Adanta
Page 209 – 214

Effect of Holes System Designing for Low Energy Stove Using Coffee Husk Bio-Pellet as Solid Fuel
Soni Sisbudi Harsono, Prayogo B, Tasliman, Maizirwan Mel, Fabrobi Ridha
Page 215 – 226

Interconnect Development for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Application
Isyraf Aznam, Andanastuti Muchtar, Mahendra Rao Somalu, Mariyam Jameelah Ghazali, Joelle Chia Wen Mah, Nurul Akidah Baharuddin
Page 227 – 233

Water Transport Properties of Bio-Nanocomposites Reinforced by Sugar Palm (Arenga Pinnata) Nanofibrillated Cellulose
Rushdan Ahmad Ilyas, Salit Mohd Sapuan, Mohamad Ridzwan Ishak, Edi Syams Zainudin
Page 234 – 246

Effects of Air-Induced Duct Diameter on Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Multiple Impinging Jets
Kirttayoth Yeranee, Makatar Wae-hayee, Yu Rao, Chayut Nuntadusit
Page 247 – 258

Embodied Energy and CO2 Analysis of Industrialised Building System (IBS) and Conventional Building System
Siti Halipah Ibrahim, Nadia Zaini, Azhaili Baharun, Afzan Ahmad Zaini, Dona Rose Amer Koesmeri, Mohd Nasrun Mohd Nawi, Faizal Baharum
Page 259 – 266

Volume 52, No. 1 (December, 2018)
Material Treatment of Polypropylene (PP) / Recycle Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBrr) and Banana Skin Powder (BSP) using Thermal Mixing Techniques
Azlinda Abdul Ghani, Wan Azani Mustafa, Mohamad Nur Khairul Hafizi Rohani, Ragunathan Santiagoo, Mustaffa Zainal, Nurul Syazwani Othman
Page 1 – 11

Simulation Study of Computational Fluid Dynamics on Photovoltaic Thermal Water Collector with Different Designs of Absorber Tube
Mohd Afzanizam Mohd Rosli, Yap Joon Ping, Suhaimi Misha, Mohd Zaid Akop, Kamaruzzaman Sopian, Sohif Mat, Ali Najah Al-Shamani, Muhammad Asraf Saruni
Page 12 – 22

Factors Affecting the in-Situ Hydrolysis of Empty Fruit Bunches in Ionic Liquid Compatible Cellulase System
Amal Ahmed Elgharbawy, Md Zahangir Alam, Mohammed Moniruzzaman, Nassereldeen Ahmed Kabbashi, Parveen Jamal
Page 23 – 32

Numerical Investigation of Forced Convection Flow over Backward Facing Step Affected By A Baffle Position
Aadel Abdul Razzaq Alkumait, Maki Haj Zaidan, Thamir Khalil Ibrahim
Page 33 – 45

Mechanical Properties of Bamboo as Green Materials to Reduce the Global Warming Effect
Iskandar Yasin, Zainul Faizien Haza, Widarto Sutrisno
Page 46 – 54

Transformation of Carbon Dioxide into Methanol
Nurjehan Ezzatul Ahmad, Maizirwan Mel, Fatin Nabilah Murad, Nur Amalina Ramli, Zulaika Muhamad Sade, Ima Shahanaz Ahmad Zailani, Mohd Sharul Amri Rosmadi, Hamzah Mohd Salleh
Page 55 – 62

Peristaltic Flow of Herschel-Bulkley Fluid in an Elastic Tube with Slip at Porous Walls
Rajashekhar Choudhari, Manjunatha Gudekote, Hanumesh Vaidya, Kerehalli Vinayaka Prasad
Page 63 – 75

Preliminary Study on Designing and Development of a Synthesis Gas Analyser in the Process of Gasification
Muhamad Farhan Mohd Pu’ad, Khairul Azami Sidek, Maizirwan Mel
Page 76 – 84

Interactive Effect of Temperature, pH and Light Intensity on Biodesalination of Seawater by Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 and on the Cyanobacteria Growth
Azlin Suhaida Azmi, Fazrizatul Shakilla Sani, Fathilah Ali, Maizirwan Mel
Page 85 – 93

Taguchi Analysis of Combustion of Diesel and Bio-Diesel Blend utilizing Homogeneous Reactor Model
Anand Pai, Vaibhav Kumar Singh, Shailesh Suthar, Harshit Sharma
Page 94 – 103

Particle Separation using Acoustic Wave Device for Microfluidic Applications
Norazreen Abd Aziz, Mimie Asmiera Mohd Zain, Muhamad Ramdzan Buyong
Page 104 – 114

Volume 52, No. 2 (December, 2018)
A Short Review on the Proton Conducting Electrolytes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Applications
Nur Wardah Norman, Mahendra Rao Somalu, Andanastuti Muchtar
Page 115 – 122

Comparison on Thermal Resistance Performance of YSZ and Rare-Earth GZ Multilayer Thermal Barrier Coating at 1250?C Gas Turbine Combustor Liner
Salmi Mohd Yunus, Azril Dahari Johari, Shuib Husin
Page 123 – 128

A Study of Drying Uniformity in a New Design of Tray Dryer
Suhaimi Misha, Sohif Mat, Mohd Hafidz Ruslan, Elias Salleh, Kamaruzzaman Sopian
Page 129 – 138

Thermally Produced Nano Catalyst for Biodiesel Production: A Review
Nor Azyan Farrah Adila Zik, Sarina Sulaiman, Parveen Jamal
Page 139 – 147

Controllers Capabilities with Computational Tuning Algorithm in Nonlinear Electro-Hydraulic Actuator System
Chong Chee Soon, Rozaimi Ghazali, Chong Shin Horng, Chai Mau Shern, Yahaya Md. Sam, Ahmad Anas Yusof
Page 148 – 160

Application of Box-Behnken Design with Response Surface to Optimize Ventilation System in Underground Shelter
Azfarizal Mukhtar, Mohd Zamri Yusoff, Khai Ching Ng, Mohamad Fariz Mohamed Nasir
Page 161 – 173

Overview of Computational Fluid Dynamics Modelling in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell
Nurul Ashikin Mohd Nazrul Aman, Andanastuti Muchtar, Mahendra Rao Somalu, Masli Irwan Rosli, Noor Shieela Kalib
Page 174 – 181

A Comprehensive Review on Palm Oil and the Challenges using Vegetable Oil as Lubricant Base-Stock
Muhammad Arif Dandan, Wan Mohamad Aiman Wan Yahaya, Syahrullail Samion, Mohamad Nor Musa
Page 182 – 197

Numerical Simulation of Spark Ignition Engine with Pre Combustion Chamber (PCC)
Muhammad Ikhwan Muazzam, Fudhail Abdul Munir, Adnan Roseli, Mohd Shukri Yob, Ridhwan Jumaidin
Page 198 – 204

Illuminance Uniformity Using Public Works Department (PWD) Standard Design for Public Schools Classroom Design in Malaysia
Anselm Dass Mathalamuthu, Nik Lukman Nik Ibrahim, Vignes Ponniah, Mohd Wira Mohd Shafiei, Radzi Ismail
Page 205 – 214

Study on The Effect of Bluff Body with Slit in the Micro-Channel Combustor
W. M. A. W. Shuib, Azam Che Idris, Mohd Rashdan Saad, Mohd Faizal Hasan, Mohd Rosdzimin Abdul Rahman
Page 215 – 222

Effect of Thermal Cycles on Physical and Tensile Properties of Newly Modified NR/EPDM Blend
Noraiham Mohamad, K. Karim, R. L Lim, Hairul Effendy Ab Maulod, Jeefferie Abd Razak, Mohd Asyadi Azam, Mohd Shahir Kasim, Raja Izamshah
Page 223 – 231

Investigation of three Organic Fluids Effects on Exergy Analysis of a Combined Cycle: Organic Rankine Cycle / Vapor Compression Refrigeration
Rabah Touaibi, Hasan Köten, Michel Feidt, Ozlem Boydak
Page 232 – 245

The Effects of CO2 Variation on Hydrodynamic and Thermal Diffusive Stability of Biogas–Air Flame
Mohd Suardi Suhaimi, Aminuddin Saat, Mazlan Abdul Wahid, Mohd Fairus Mohd Yasin
Page 246 – 258

Formulating Water Based Paint with Red Natural Dyes
Moh. Thoyib, Catur Harsito, Basuki, Suyitno, Syamsul Hadi
Page 259 – 265

Journal Metrics

CiteScore: 1.06
CiteScore measures the average citations per document published in this title
Source: www.scopus.com

Impact Factor: 0.146
5-year impact factor: 0.146
Quartile: Q1
Source: http://www.mycite.my

google scholar
Source: https://scholar.google.com/


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