Common Types of Fuels in Steam Power Plant: A Review
Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences
Volume 23 No. 1, July 2016, Pages 1-24
M. A. Khattak1,*, M. A. Ashraff1, M. Ikmal1, A. Syafiq1, M. Hazritz1
1Department of Nuclear Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Energy Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai Johor, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
Steam power plant, classification of power plants, types of fuels, plant efficiency
Steam power plant plays essential roles in the generation of electrical energy. Steam power plant divided into two types which are conventional steam power plant and nonconventional steam power plant. The common type of conventional steam power plant are thermal power plant, nuclear power plant and natural gas power plant while common type of non-conventional steam power plant are geothermal power plant, biogas power plant and biomass power plant. This paper reviews the common type of fuels used in the steam power plant in order to produce steam and indirectly generating electricity. Fuel candidates encompass the entire spectrum from gases to solids. Gaseous fuels include natural gas, process gas, low-Btu coal gas and vaporized fuel oil gas. Liquid fuels can vary from light volatile naphtha through kerosene to the heavy viscous residuals. A final fuel group contains high-ash crudes and residuals. The basic fundamental of steam power plant operation and its essential equipment is also considered. The major type of steam power plant used is thermal power plant or coal power plant which account for almost 41% of the world electric generation with efficiency ranges from 32% to 42%. Besides, this paper reviews the features and characteristic of the common fuels used, the waste products from the fuels, advantages and disadvantages of the fuels and cost of the fuels. It is marked that several common type of fuels used in steam power plant are identified as fossil fuels, waste heats, waste fuels, and nuclear fuels.
CITE THIS ARTICLE
Khattak, M. A., et al. “Common Types of Fuels in Steam Power Plant: A Review.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 23.1 (2016): 1-24.
Khattak, M. A., Ashraff, M. A., Ikmal, M., Syafiq, A., & Hazritz, M. (2016). Common Types of Fuels in Steam Power Plant: A Review. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 23(1), 1-24.
Khattak, M. A., M. A. Ashraff, M. Ikmal, A. Syafiq, and M. Hazritz. “Common Types of Fuels in Steam Power Plant: A Review.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 23, no. 1 (2016): 1-24.
Khattak, M.A., Ashraff, M.A., Ikmal, M., Syafiq, A. and Hazritz, M., 2016. Common Types of Fuels in Steam Power Plant: A Review. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 23(1), pp.1-24.
Khattak, MA, Ashraff, MA, Ikmal, M, Syafiq, A, Hazritz, M. Common Types of Fuels in Steam Power Plant: A Review. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2016;23(1):1-24.
 Teir, Sebastian. “Basics of Steam Generation.” Helsinki: Energy Engineering and Environmental Protection Publications (2002).
 Kenneth, W. (n.d.). Chapter 2. In Fundamentals of Steam Power (p. 35). doi: http://www.personal.utulsa.edu/~kenneth-weston/chapter2.pdf.
 Williamson, A. R. (Oct 17, 1989). U.S. Patent No. US4873829 A. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
 Hans, P. (Nov 22, 1977). U.S. Patent No. US4058974 A. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
 Robert, H., & Lothrop, M. (May 20, 1952). U.S. Patent No. US2596968 A. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
 Chaplin, R. A. “Power plant technology.” Vol-1, Encyclopedia of life support system (1986).
 Thermal Power Generation Plant or Thermal Power Station. (n.d.). Retrieved May 17, 2016, from http://www.electrical4u.com/thermal-power-generation-plant-or-thermalpower-station/.
 Nuclear Power Station or Nuclear Power Plant. (n.d.). Retrieved May 17, 2016, from http://www.electrical4u.com/nuclear-power-station-or-nuclear-power-plant/.
 Heinemann, B., Soares, C., & Hill, M. (1998). Gas Turbines In Simple Cycle & Combined Cycle Applications (2nd ed., Bloch & Soares, C.). doi:https://www.netl.doe.gov/File Library/Research/Coal/energysystems/turbines/handbook/1-1.pdf
 Thermal Power Plant Classification [Web log post]. (2009, October 4). Retrieved May 18, 2016, from http://thermal-powerplant.blogspot.my/2010/05/thermal-power-plantclassification.html.
 IAEA (International Energy Agency). http://www.iea.org/statistics/topics/CO2emissions/.
 CAESAR, 2009. European Best Practice Guidelines for Assessment of CO2 CaptureTechnologies. D 4.9 Report, http://www.gecos.polimi.it/research/EBTFbestpracticeguide.pdf
 Atsonios, K., K. Panopoulos, P. Grammelis, and E. Kakaras. “Exergetic comparison of CO 2 capture techniques from solid fossil fuel power plants.”International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control 45 (2016): 106-117.
 NGSA;NaturalGasSupplyAssociation. ?http://www.naturalgas.org?; 2012 [accessed 30.10.12].
 Wood, David A., Chikezie Nwaoha, and Brian F. Towler. “Gas-to-liquids (GTL): A review of an industry offering several routes for monetizing natural gas.” Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering 9 (2012): 196-208.
 Al-Sobhi, S. A., and A. Elkamel. “Simulation and optimization of natural gas processing and production network consisting of LNG, GTL, and methanol facilities.” Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering 23 (2015): 500-508.
 Energy Information Administration (EIA), 2013. International Energy Outlook 2013. Electricity. Report Number: DOE/EIA-0484(2013). http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/archive/ieo13/electricity.cfm (accessed 17.02.16).
 Gupta, Sreenath B., Bipin Bihari, Munidhar Biruduganti, and Raj Sekar.Natural gas fired reciprocating engines for power generation: Concerns and recent advances. INTECH Open Access Publisher, 2012.
 LM6000 on-site operation and maintenance manual, GEK 105059, vol. 1; 2003.
 General electric LM6000. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/; 5 Dec 2012.
 Aydin, Hakan. “Exergetic sustainability analysis of LM6000 gas turbine power plant with steam cycle.” Energy 57 (2013): 766-774.
 Islas, Jorge, and Genice Grande. “Abatement costs of SO 2-control options in the Mexican electric-power sector.” Applied energy 85, no. 2 (2008): 80-94.
 Statistical Report on 42 Years of Activities of Iran Electric Power Industry, 2009. Ministry of Energy, Tavanir Company, Iran. Available via /http://www2.tavanir.org.ir/farsi/projects/web-amar-latin/>.
 Huang, C., C. H. Chen, L. Li, Z. Cheng, H. L. Wang, H. Y. Huang, D. G. Streets, Y. J. Wang, G. F. Zhang, and Y. R. Chen. “Emission inventory of anthropogenic air pollutants and VOC species in the Yangtze River Delta region, China.” Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 11, no. 9 (2011): 4105-4120.
 Al-Gharib, S. A., A. Elkamel, and C. G. J. Baker. “A multi-criteria decision approach for choosing and ranking SO2 emission reduction measures for a network of power stations.” World Review of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development 4, no. 2-3 (2007): 196-225.
 Nazari, S., O. Shahhoseini, A. Sohrabi-Kashani, S. Davari, H. Sahabi, and A. Rezaeian. “SO 2 pollution of heavy oil-fired steam power plants in Iran.”Energy Policy 43 (2012): 456-465.
 UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention Climate Change), 2010. Fuel Switching of AmirKabir Sugarcane Plant. Germany. Available via /http: //cdm.unfccc.int/ Projects/ Validation/DB/JG2327UBTYKD59K1IY7HT5ADANH89Z/view.html>.
 What is biomass? <
 Rahman, Shaikh Rashedur, Mumtahina Rahman Nahid-Al-Mahmud, Md Yeakub Hussain, and Md Sekendar Ali. “Overview of biomass energy.” InInternational Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, vol. 2, no. 11 (November-2013). ESRSA Publications, 2013.
 United Nations Environment Programme. Int. Environmental Technology Centre, Converting waste agricultural biomass into a resource, compendium of technologies. Osaka/Shiga,Japan.DTI/1203/JP.
 Luoranen, Mika, Risto Soukka, Gintaras Denafas, and Mika Horttanainen. “Comparison of energy and material recovery of household waste management from the environmental point of view–Case Kaunas, Lithuania.”Applied Thermal Engineering 29, no. 5 (2009): 938-944.
 Advantages and disadvantages of recycling, conserve energy future, be green. Stay green. <
 Conserve energy future, Be green green. Stay green. <
 Suntana, Asep S., Kristiina A. Vogt, Eric C. Turnblom, and Ravi Upadhye. “Biomethanol potential in Indonesia: forest biomass as a source of bio-energy that reduces carbon emissions.” Applied Energy 86 (2009): S215-S221.
 David Pimentel, “Biomass Utilization, Limits of”, Cornell University, Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology, March 14, 2001
 Gumartini T. Biomass energy in the Asia-Pacific region: Current status, trends and future setting. Asia-Pacific forestry sector outlook study II; 2009. Working Paper No. APFSOS II/WP/2009/26.
 Advantages and disadvantages of biofuels, conserve energy future, be green green stay green. <
 Singhal, Shaleen, and Suneel Pandey. “Solid waste management in India: status and future directions.” TERI Information Monitor on Environmental Science 6, no. 1 (2001): 1-4.
 Heat recovery, “Find out how heat recovery systems to recover and re-use waste heat can reduce your organisaton’s energy consumption” <
 Waste heat recovery,
 U.S Department of Energy, Industrial Technologies Program, “Waste Heat Recovery: Technology and Opportunities in U.S. Industry”, BCS, Incorporated, March 2008.
 Hossain, Shekh Nisar, and Saiful Bari. “Waste heat recovery from the exhaust of a diesel generator using Rankine Cycle.” Energy Conversion and Management 75 (2013): 141-151.
 Hatazawa, M., H. Sugita, T. Ogawa, and Y. Seo. “Performance of a Thermoacoustic Sound Wave Generator driven with Waste Heat of Automobile Gasoline Engine.” Nippon Kikai Gakkai Ronbunshu B Hen(Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers Part B)(Japan) 16, no. 1 (2004): 292-299.
 Johnson, Valerie H. Heat-generated cooling opportunities in vehicles. No. 2002-01-1969. SAE Technical Paper, 2002.
 Boretti, Alberto A. “Transient operation of internal combustion engines with Rankine waste heat recovery systems.” Applied Thermal Engineering 48 (2012): 18-23.
 Institute, N.E. How Nuclear Reactors Work. 2016; Available from: http://www.nei.org/Knowledge-Center/How-Nuclear-Reactors-Work.
 USNRC. Pressurized Water Reactors. 2015; Available from: http://www.nrc.gov/reactors/pwrs.html.
 USNRC. Boiling Water Reactors. 2015; Available from: http://www.nrc.gov/reactors/bwrs.html.
 Association, W.N. The Nuclear Fuel Cycle. 2016; Available from: http://www.worldnuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/introduction/nuclear-fuel-cycleoverview.aspx.
 Shultis, J.K. and R.E. Faw, Fundamentals of Nuclear Science and Engineering Second Edition. 2007: CRC press.
 Lamarsh, J.R., Introduction to nuclear engineering. 1975.
 Association, W.N. Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel. 2016; Available from: http://www.world-nuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/fuelrecycling/mixed-oxide-fuel-mox.aspx.
 Association, W.N. Uranium Markets. 2015; Available from: http://www.worldnuclear.org/information-library/nuclear-fuel-cycle/uranium-resources/uraniummarkets.aspx.
 Whatisnuclear.com. Thorium as nuclear fuel. 2016; Available from: https://whatisnuclear.com/articles/thorium.html.
 The Efficiency of Power Plants of Differnt Types. (n.d.). Retrieved May 17, 2016, from http://www.brighthubengineering.com/power-plants/72369-compare-the-efficiencyof-different-power-plants/.