Thermal Comfort Requirements for Different Occupants in Malaysian Hospital In-patient Wards
Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences
Volume 43 No. 1, March 2018, Pages 128-140
Waqas Khalid1,2, Sheikh Ahmad Zaki1,*, Hom Bahadur Rijal3, Fitri Yakub1
1Malaysia International Institute of Technology, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Yahya Petra, 54100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
2School of Mechanical & Manufacturing Engineering, National University of Sciences and Technology, H-12, 44000 Islamabad, Pakistan
3Department of Restoration Ecology & Built Environment, Faculty of Environmental Studies, Tokyo City University, 224-8551 Yokohama, Japan
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
Thermal comfort, hospital ward, airconditioning, patient, thermal sensation vote, comfort temperature
It is important and challenging to provide suitable thermal comfort conditions in hospital building due to widely varying conditions requirements by different types of occupants. The precise control of temperature and humidity is vital in hot-humid ospitals as these affect diseases, infections and allergies etc. indirectly. A field study comprising of thermal environment evaluation and thermal comfort survey, has been conducted in one Malaysian hospital in-patient wards with 315 respondents. Thermal comfort requirements of patients, visitors and nurses have been investigated. The patient rooms as well as nurse workstations were found bit overcooled by patients, visitors and nurses. Thermal preference of no change by patients and visitors whereas lower temperature was observed by nursing staff in wards. A bit humid air was preferred by all respondents as mean humidity sensation vote was bit drier for all of them. The air movement was acceptable for all respondents in wards as mean percentage of acceptance for every group was more than 91%. Comfort temperatures based on operative temperature for patients, visitors and nurses have been found as 25.7, 25.5 and 23.5°C which can be used as deign guides for hospital HVAC system by local building service engineers and researchers.
CITE THIS ARTICLE
Khalid, Waqas, et al. “Thermal Comfort Requirements for Different Occupants in Malaysian Hospital In-patient Wards.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43.1 (2018): 128-140.
Khalid, W., Zaki, S. A., Rijal, H. B., & Yakub, F. (2018). Thermal Comfort Requirements for Different Occupants in Malaysian Hospital In-patient Wards. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), 128-140.
Khalid, Waqas, Sheikh Ahmad Zaki, Hom Bahadur Rijal, and Fitri Yakub. “Thermal Comfort Requirements for Different Occupants in Malaysian Hospital In-patient Wards.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43, no. 1 (2018): 128-140.
Khalid, W., Zaki, S.A., Rijal, H.B. and Yakub, F., 2018. Thermal Comfort Requirements for Different Occupants in Malaysian Hospital In-patient Wards. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), pp.128-140.
Khalid, W, Zaki, SA, Rijal, HB, Yakub, F. Thermal Comfort Requirements for Different Occupants in Malaysian Hospital In-patient Wards. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;43(1):128-140.
 Solomon, S., ed. Climate change 2007-the physical science basis: Working group I contribution to the fourth assessment report of the IPCC. Vol. 4. Cambridge university press, 2007.
 Teske, S., Pregger, T., Simon, S., Naegler, T., Graus, W., and Lins, C. “Energy [R] evolution 2010—a sustainable world energy outlook.” Energy Efficiency 4, no. 3 (2011): 409-433.
 Bertoldi, P., and Rezessy, S. “Tradable white certificate schemes: fundamental concepts.” Energy efficiency 1, no. 4 (2008): 237-255.
 Ma, H., Lu, W., Yin, L., and Shen, X. “Public Building Energy Consumption Level and Influencing Factors in Tianjin.” Energy Procedia 88 (2016): 146-152.
 Moghimi, S., Azizpour, F., Mat, S., Lim, C.H. Salleh, E., and Sopian, K. “Building energy index and end-use energy analysis in large-scale hospitals—case study in Malaysia.” Energy Efficiency 7, no. 2 (2014): 243-256.
 Damiati, S.A., Zaki, S.A., Rijal, H.B. and Wonorahardjo, S. “Field study on adaptive thermal comfort in office buildings in Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, and Japan during hot and humid season.” Building and Environment 109 (2016): 208-223.
 Malaysia, D. o. S. 2014. Energy efficiency and use of renewable energy for non-residential buildings-Code of Practice, Malaysian Standard: Cyberjaya, Malaysia. MS1525: 2014.
 Sookchaiya, T., Monyakul, V., and Thepa, S. “Assessment of the thermal environment effects on human comfort and health for the development of novel air conditioning system in tropical regions.” Energy and Buildings42, no. 10 (2010): 1692-1702.
 Skoog, J., Fransson, N., and Jagemar, L. “Thermal environment in Swedish hospitals: summer and winter measurements.” Energy and Buildings 37, no. 8 (2005): 872-877.
 Verheyen, J., Theys, N., Allonsius, L., and Descamps, F. “Thermal comfort of patients: Objective and subjective measurements in patient rooms of a Belgian healthcare facility.” Building and Environment 46, no. 5 (2011): 1195-1204.
 Wang, F., Lee, M., Cheng, T., and Law, Y. “Field evaluation of thermal comfort and indoor environment quality for a hospital in a hot and humid climate.” HVAC&R Research 18, no. 4 (2012): 671-680.
 Hwang, R.L., Lin, T.P. Cheng, M.J. and Chien, J.H. “Patient thermal comfort requirement for hospital environments in Taiwan.” Building and environment 42, no. 8 (2007): 2980-2987.
 Hashiguchi, N., Hirakawa, M., Tochihara, Y., Kaji, Y., and Karaki, C. “Thermal environment and subjective responses of patients and staff in a hospital during winter.” Journal of physiological anthropology and Applied Human Science 24, no. 1 (2005): 111-115.
 Pourshaghaghy, A., and Omidvari, M. “Examination of thermal comfort in a hospital using PMV–PPD model.” Applied ergonomics 43, no. 6 (2012): 1089-1095.
 Khodakarami, J,, and Knight, l. “Required and current thermal conditions for occupants in Iranian hospitals.” HVAC&R Research 14, no. 2 (2008): 175-193.
 Yau, Y.H., and Chew, B.T. “Adaptive thermal comfort model for air-conditioned hospitals in Malaysia.” Building Services Engineering Research and Technology 35, no. 2 (2014): 117-138.
 Azizpour, F., S. Moghimi, Salleh, E., S.M., Lim, C.H. and Sopian, K. “Thermal comfort assessment of large-scale hospitals in tropical climates: A case study of University Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC).” Energy and Buildings 64 (2013): 317-322.
 Azizpour, F., Moghimi, S., Lim, C.H., Salleh, E., S. M. and Sopian, K. “A thermal comfort investigation of a facility department of a hospital in hot-humid climate: correlation between objective and subjective measurements.” Indoor and Built Environment 22, no. 5 (2013): 836-845.
 Yau, Y. H., and Chew, B. T. “Thermal comfort study of hospital workers in Malaysia.” Indoor air 19, no. 6 (2009): 500-510.
 Sattayakorn, S., Ichinose, M., and Sasaki, R. “Clarifying thermal comfort of healthcare occupants in tropical region: A case of indoor environment in Thai hospitals.” Energy and Buildings 149 (2017): 45-57.
 Sattayakorn, S., Ichinose, M., and Sasaki, R. 2017. Comfort in patient room of healthcare facilities in tropical region: A different requirement between patient and their companion, in S. Edinburgh (Ed) 33rd PLEA International Conference on Design to thrive, 1273-1280.
 Kushairi, A.A.A., Mahyuddin, N. Adnan, E., and Sulaiman, R. “Perceptions on thermal comfort in general wards for Malaysian hospitals.” Journal of Building Performance 6, no. 1 (2015).
 Extreme temperatures around the world. August, 2010 [cited 2010 18th September]; Available from: http://www.mherrera.org/temp.htm.
 World Weather Information Service – Kuala Lumpur. [cited 2010 18th September]; Available from: http://worldweather.wmo.int/020/c00082.htm.
 Swarno, H.A., Zaki, S.A., Yusup, Y., Ali, M.S.M., and Ahmad, N. H. 2017. Observation of diurnal variation of urban microclimate in Kuala Lumpur, Chemical Engineering Transactions, Malaysia, 56.
 Rijal, H.B., Humphreys, M.A. and Nicol, J.F. “Towards an adaptive model for thermal comfort in Japanese offices.” Building Research & Information 45, no. 7 (2017): 717-729.
 Handbook—Fundamentals, A., 2005. SI edition. Atlanta, GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers, Inc.
 ASHRAE, ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55-2017. Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy. Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc, Atlanta.
 Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH), Malaysia. Industry Code of Practice on Indoor Air Quality 2010. Ministry of Human Resources Malaysia. JKKP DP(S) 127/379/4-39. ISBN 983201471-3.
 Brager, G.S., and de Dear, R.J. “Thermal adaptation in the built environment: a literature review.” Energy and buildings 27, no. 1 (1998): 83-96.
 Rijal, H.B., Yoshida, H., and Umemiya, N. “Seasonal and regional differences in neutral temperatures in Nepalese traditional vernacular houses.” Building and Environment 45, no. 12 (2010): 2743-2753.
 Nicol, J.F., Humphreys, M.A., and Roaf, S. Adaptive thermal comfort: principles and practice. Routledge, 2012.
 Griffiths, I. “Thermal comfort studies in buildings with passive solar features.” Field Studies. Report to the Commission of the European Community, ENS35 90 (1990).
 Humphreys, M.A., Rijal, H.B., and Nicol, J.F. “Updating the adaptive relation between climate and comfort indoors; new insights and an extended database.” Building and Environment 63 (2013): 40-55.