Optimization of Moisturizing Clay Soap Containing Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Seed Extract Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design

Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences
Volume 43 No. 1, March 2018, Pages 45-57

Siti Salwa Abd Gani1,2,3,*, Nor Fadzillah Mokhtar2,4, Uswatun Hasanah Zaidan5, Farrah Payyadhah Borhan1, Khalijah Talha2, Nur Fauwizah Azahar3
1Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Putra Infoport, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2Centre of Foundation Studies for Agricultural Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang Selangor, Malaysia
3Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
4Institute for Mathematical Research (INSPEM), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
5Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: ssalwaag@upm.edu.my

KEYWORDS

Pitaya, mixture design, saponification, clay

ABSTRACT

Pitaya seed oil, extracted from red pitaya seeds, was utilized as a major antioxidant source in soap formulation for skin application. Bentonite (grey clay powder) with various beneficial properties also was incorporated in the formulation to enhance the positive effect toward skin’s structure. The influence of the main compositions of soap formulation containing different fatty acid and oils (cocoa butter, virgin coconut oil, olive oil, palm oil) on the hardness of the soap that undergoes saponification process was investigated by employing D-optimal mixture experimental design. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out and the polynomial regression for prepared soap hardness in terms of the six design factors was developed by utilizing the experimental data. Results revealed that the best soap formulation included 9.027% A, 29.098% B, 19.588% C, 9.223% D, 23.860% E and 9.204% F. The results showed that the hardness of the soap was greatly affected by the different in the level of fatty acid and oils in the formulation. Depending on the appropriate level of those six variables, the production of moisturizing clay soap containing pitaya seed extract with the most desirable properties which is much better than those of commercial ones is possible.

CITE THIS ARTICLE

MLA
Abd Gani, Siti Salwa, et al. “Optimization of Moisturizing Clay Soap Containing Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Seed Extract Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43.1 (2018): 45-57.

APA
Abd Gani, S. S., Mokhtar, N. F., Zaidan, U. H., Borhan, F. P., Talha, K., & Azahar, N. F. (2018). Optimization of Moisturizing Clay Soap Containing Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Seed Extract Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), 45-57.

Chicago
Abd Gani, Siti Salwa, Nor Fadzillah Mokhtar, Uswatun Hasanah Zaidan, Farrah Payyadhah Borhan, Khalijah Talha, and Nur Fauwizah Azahar. “Optimization of Moisturizing Clay Soap Containing Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Seed Extract Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design.” Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 43, no. 1 (2018): 45-57.

Harvard
Abd Gani, S.S., Mokhtar, N.F., Zaidan, U.H., Borhan, F.P., Talha, K. and Azahar, N.F., 2018. Optimization of Moisturizing Clay Soap Containing Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Seed Extract Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 43(1), pp.45-57.

Vancouver
Abd Gani, SS, Mokhtar, NF, Zaidan, UH, Borhan, FP, Talha, K, Azahar, NF. Optimization of Moisturizing Clay Soap Containing Pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) Seed Extract Using D-Optimal Mixture Experimental Design. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2018;43(1):45-57.

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