Properties of Chemically Treated Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) Fibres
Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences
Volume 57, No. 1, May 2019, Pages 57-68
Zawawi Ibrahim1,*, Mansur Ahmad2, Astimar Abdul Aziz1, Ridzuan Ramli1, Kamarudin Hassan1, Aisyah Humaira Alias3
1 Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB), Biomass Technology Centre, Engineering and Processing Division, Jalan Sekolah, Pekan Bangi Lama, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia
2 Faculty of Applied Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40400 Shah Alam Selangor, Malaysia
3 Institute of Tropical Forestry and Forest Product (INTROP), Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
Zawawi, Ibrahim, et al. "Properties of Chemically Treated Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) Fibres." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 57.1 (2019): 57-68.
Zawawi, I., Mansur, A., Astimar, A. A., Ridzuan, R., Kamarudin, H., & Aisyah Humaira, A.(2019). Properties of Chemically Treated Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) Fibres. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 57(1), 57-68.
Zawawi Ibrahim, Mansur Ahmad, Astimar Abdul Aziz, Ridzuan Ramli, Kamarudin Hassan, and Aisyah Humaira Alias."Properties of Chemically Treated Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) Fibres." Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 57, no. 1 (2019): 57-68.
Zawawi, I., Mansur, A., Astimar, A.A., Ridzuan, R., Kamarudin, H., Aisyah Humaira, A., 2019. Properties of Chemically Treated Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) Fibres. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences 57(1), pp. 57-68.
Zawawi I, Mansur A, Astimar AA, Ridzuan R, Kamarudin H, Aisyah Humaira A. Properties of Chemically Treated Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) Fibres. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences. 2019;57(1): 57-68.
Sodium hydroxide (NaOH); Acetic acid, Silica bodies; Fibre surface; Tensile strength; Chemical composition; Fibre morphology
Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) fibres have been used in the production of many types of bio-composites, such as fibreboards and fibre-reinforced plastic composite. Hence, the understanding of the EFB characteristic is very important in determining the quality of the products. In this study, the physical, mechanical, anatomical and surface properties of the EFB fibres have been analysed, and the properties of two types of treated EFB fibres; 1) alkaline treated fibre, and 2) acid treated fibres were investigated. The fibres were treated with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and acetic acid at different concentration levels (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8%). The effects of the treatments towards the physical, chemical, mechanical and anatomical properties of EFB fibre after they were subjected to thermo-mechanical pulping (TMP) were studied along with the chemical composition, tensile strength and fibre morphology of the treated fibres. The results from the study indicated that the concentration levels of both NaOH and acetic acid had influenced the fibre properties.
 Çolak, Semra, Gürsel Çolako?lu, Ismail Aydin, and Hülya Kalaycio?lu. "Effects of steaming process on some properties of eucalyptus particleboard bonded with UF and MUF adhesives." Building and environment 42, no. 1 (2007): 304-309.
 Hill, C. A. S., and H. P. S. Abdul Khalil. "Effect of fiber treatments on mechanical properties of coir or oil palm fiber reinforced polyester composites." Journal of Applied Polymer Science 78, no. 9 (2000): 1685-1697.
 Varma, I. K., SR Anantha Krishnan, and S. Krishnamoorthy. "Effect of chemical treatment on mechanical properties and moisture regain of jute fibers." Textile Research Journal 58, no. 9 (1988): 537-543.
 Loh, X. H., M. Daud, M. Ahadlin, and Mohd Zulkefli Selamat. "Study on Fibre Length and Composition of Kenaf-Polypropylene (K-PP) Composite for Automobile Interior Parts." In Applied Mechanics and Materials, vol. 695, pp. 36-39. Trans Tech Publications, 2015.
 Malaysian Palm Oil Board (2018). “Economics & Industry Development Division,” (http://bepi.mpob.gov.my/index.php/en/statistics/area/189-area-2018/857-oil-palm-planted-area-as-at-dec-2018.html), Accessed 14 February 2019.
 Abdullah, Che Ku, Mohammad Jawaid, HPS Abdul Khalil, A. Zaidon, and Anne Hadiyane. "Oil palm trunk polymer composite: Morphology, water absorption, and thickness swelling behaviours." BioResources 7, no. 3 (2012): 2948-2959.
 Mohamad, Husin, R. Ridzuan, M. Anis, W. H. Wan Hasamudin, H. Kamaruddin, M. Ropandi, and A. A. Astimar. "Research and development of oil palm biomass utilization in wood-based industries." Journal of Palm Oil Developments 36 (2002): 1-5.
 Rozman, H. D., G. S. Tay, R. N. Kumar, A. Abusamah, H. Ismail, and Z. A. Mohd. Ishak. "The effect of oil extraction of the oil palm empty fruit bunch on the mechanical properties of polypropylene–oil palm empty fruit bunch–glass fibre hybrid composites." Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering 40, no. 2 (2001): 103-115.
 Khalil, HPS Abdul, M. Jawaid, A. Hassan, M. T. Paridah, and A. Zaidon. "Oil palm biomass fibres and recent advancement in oil palm biomass fibres based hybrid biocomposites." In Composites and their applications. IntechOpen, 2012.
 Lin, Zengxiang, He Huang, Hongman Zhang, Lin Zhang, Lishi Yan, and Jingwen Chen. "Ball milling pretreatment of corn stover for enhancing the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis." Applied biochemistry and biotechnology 162, no. 7 (2010): 1872-1880.
 Tay, G. S., and H. D. Rozman. "Chemical modification of oil palm empty fruit bunch: Determination of optimum condition and characterization." Journal of applied polymer science 106, no. 3 (2007): 1697-1706.
 Hamisan, A. F., S. Abd-Aziz, K. Kamaruddin, UK Md Shah, N. Shahab, and M. A. Hassan. "Delignification of oil palm empty fruit bunch using chemical and microbial pretreatment methods." International Journal of Agricultural Research 4, no. 8 (2009): 250-256.
 Sreekala, M. S., M. G. Kumaran, and Sabu Thomas. "Oil palm fibers: Morphology, chemical composition, surface modification, and mechanical properties." Journal of Applied Polymer Science 66, no. 5 (1997): 821-835.
 Astimar, Abdul Aziz, Mokhtar Anis, and Husin Mohamad. Preparation of cellulose from oil palm empty fruit bunches via ethanol digestionEffect of acid and alkali catalysts. No. A-. 2002.
 Abdelmouleh, M., S. Boufi, M. Ns Belgacem, and A. Dufresne. "Short natural-fibre reinforced polyethylene and natural rubber composites: effect of silane coupling agents and fibres loading." Composites science and technology 67, no. 7-8 (2007): 1627-1639.
 Affandi, R. D., R. Santiagoo, A. W. M. Kahar, and M. Affandi. "Water Absorption Behavior of Palm Kernel Shell Filled Polypropylene/Recycled Acrylonitrile Butadiene Rubber Composites: Effects of ?-Methacryloxypropyltrimetho xysilane." Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering Knowledge 4, no. 1 (2018): 17-25.
 Ramli, Ridzuan, Stephen Shaler, and Mohd Ariff Jamaludin. "Properties of Medium Density Ties of Medium Density Fibreboard from Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fibre." Journal of Oil Palm Research 14, no. 2 (2002): 34-40.
 Mohanty, A. K., Manjusri Misra, and Lawrence T. Drzal. "Surface modifications of natural fibers and performance of the resulting biocomposites: an overview." Composite interfaces 8, no. 5 (2001): 313-343.
 Taha, I., L. Steuernagel, and G. Ziegmann. "Optimization of the alkali treatment process of date palm fibres for polymeric composites." Composite Interfaces 14, no. 7-9 (2007): 669-684.
 Ibrahim, Mohamad Ikhwan, Rozzeta Dolah, M. Y. M. Zuhri, S. Sharif, and M. Hassan. "Chemical treatment evaluation of tensile properties for single Kenaf fiber." Journal of Advanced Research in Applied Mechanics 32 (2016): 9-14.
 Sreekala, M. S., and S. Thomas. "Effect of fibre surface modification on water-sorption characteristics of oil palm fibres." Composites Science and Technology 63, no. 6 (2003): 861-869.
 Islam, Md Saiful, Sinin Hamdan, I. Jusoh, Md Rezaur Rahman, and Abu Saleh Ahmed. "The effect of alkali pretreatment on mechanical and morphological properties of tropical wood polymer composites." Materials & Design 33 (2012): 419-424.
 Mwaikambo, Leonard Y., and Martin P. Ansell. "Chemical modification of hemp, sisal, jute, and kapok fibers by alkalization." Journal of applied polymer science 84, no. 12 (2002): 2222-2234.
 Osmani, Sharifah Nur Aqilah Wan, Fathilah Ali, and Sarah Amalina Adli. "Effect of Acid Hydrolysis Treated Pineapple Fiber in Plasticized Polylactic Acid Composite." Journal of Advanced Research in Materials Science 50, no. 1 (2018): 14-18.
 Faisal, ZH Tengku, Faisal Amri, H. Salmah, and Iqmal Tahir. "The effect of acetic acid on properties of coconut shell filled low density polyethylene composites." Indonesian Journal of Chemistry 10, no. 3 (2010): 334-340.
 Tserki, V., N. E. Zafeiropoulos, F. Simon, and C. Panayiotou. "A study of the effect of acetylation and propionylation surface treatments on natural fibres." Composites Part A: applied science and manufacturing 36, no. 8 (2005): 1110-1118.
 Rowell, Roger M., and Judith Rowell. Paper and composites from agro-based resources. CRC press, 1996.
 Pan, Mingzhu, Dingguo Zhou, Xiaoyan Zhou, and Zhina Lian. "Improvement of straw surface characteristics via thermomechanical and chemical treatments." Bioresource Technology 101, no. 20 (2010): 7930-7934.
 STANDARD, ASTM. "ASTM D1106-96-Standard Test Method for Acid-Insoluble Lignin in Wood." West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International (2013).
 ASTM D1103-60. "Method of test for alpha-cellulose in wood." West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International (1977).
 Zhang, Ya Mei, Yang Lun Yu, and Wen Ji Yu. "Effect of thermal treatment on the physical and mechanical properties of Phyllostachys pubescen bamboo." European Journal of Wood and Wood Products 71, no. 1 (2013): 61-67.
 ASTM D3379-75. "Standard test method for tensile strength for high-modulus single filament materials." West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International (1999).
 Karnis, A. "Mechanism of fiber development in mechanical pulping." J. Pulp Paper Sci. 20, no. 10 (1994): J280.
 Kabir, M. M., H. Wang, K. T. Lau, F. Cardona, and T. Aravinthan. "Mechanical properties of chemically-treated hemp fibre reinforced sandwich composites." Composites Part B: Engineering 43, no. 2 (2012): 159-169.
 Mwaikambo, Leonard Y., Nick Tucker, and Andrew J. Clark. "Mechanical Properties of Hemp?Fibre?Reinforced Euphorbia Composites." Macromolecular Materials and Engineering 292, no. 9 (2007): 993-1000.
 Karthikeyan, A., and K. Balamurugan. "Effect of alkali treatment and fiber length on impact behavior of coir fiber reinforced epoxy composites." Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 71, no. 9 (2012): 627-631.
 John, Maya Jacob, and Rajesh D. Anandjiwala. "Recent developments in chemical modification and characterization of natural fiber?reinforced composites." Polymer composites 29, no. 2 (2008): 187-207.
 Siti Munirah, I., Khairiah, B., and Osman, H. "A study of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber. " Sains Malaysiana 41, no 12 (2012): 1579-1585.
 Shahriarinour, Mahdi, Mohd Noor Abdul Wahab, Arbakariya Bin Ariff, Shuhaimi Mustafa, and Rosfarizan Mohamad. "Effect of various pretreatments of oil palm empty fruit bunch fibres for subsequent use as substrate on the performance of cellulase production by Aspergillus terreus." BioResources 6, no. 1 (2010): 291-307.
 Law, Kwei-Nam, Wan Rosli Wan Daud, and Arniza Ghazali. "Morphological and chemical nature of fiber strands of oil palm empty-fruit-bunch (OPEFB)." BioResources 2, no. 3 (2007): 351-362.
 Omar, Farah Nadia, Mohd Afandi P. Mohammed, and Azhari Samsu Baharuddin. "Microstructure modelling of silica bodies from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fibres." BioResources 9, no. 1 (2013): 938-951.
 Bahrin, Ezyana Kamal, Azhari Samsu Baharuddin, Mohamad Faizal Ibrahim, Mohamad Nafis Abdul Razak, Alawi Sulaiman, Suraini Abd Aziz, Mohd Ali Hassan, Yoshihito Shirai, and Haruo Nishida. "Physicochemical property changes and enzymatic hydrolysis enhancement of oil palm empty fruit bunches treated with superheated steam." BioResources 7, no. 2 (2012): 1784-1801.
 Rosa, Morsyleide F., Bor-sen Chiou, Eliton S. Medeiros, Delilah F. Wood, Tina G. Williams, Luiz HC Mattoso, William J. Orts, and Syed H. Imam. "Effect of fiber treatments on tensile and thermal properties of starch/ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymers/coir biocomposites." Bioresource technology 100, no. 21 (2009): 5196-5202.
 Aji, I. S., S. M. Sapuan, E. S. Zainudin, and K. Abdan. "Kenaf fibres as reinforcement for polymeric composites: a review." International Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering 4, no. 3 (2009): 239-248.
 Flemming, Manfred, Gerhard Ziegmann, and Siegfried Roth. "Einführung." In Faserverbundbauweisen, pp. 1-5. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 1995.
 Pickering, Kim L., Y. Li, Roberta L. Farrell, and Mark Lay. "Interfacial modification of hemp fiber reinforced composites using fungal and alkali treatment." Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy 1, no. 1 (2007): 109-117.