CFD-lettersISSN (Online)
: 2180-1363

Frequency : Continuos

Editor-in-Chief : Dr. Khalid M. Saqr (E-mail)
Technical Editor : Wan Mohd Arif Aziz Japar (E-mail)
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Aims and Scope : CFD Letters publishes as rapidly as possible manuscripts of high quality which addresses eminent topics of computational fluid dynamics theory and applications. Being an international, peer-reviewed, online and open access journal, CFD Letters presents a world-wide forum for the dissemination of knowledge among engineers, scientists and mathematicians working in the field of computational fluid mechanics.

Article of the month

Comparative study of upwind and averaging schemes with artificial dissipation for numerical solution for quasi-one-dimensional supersonic flow
Tohid Adibi, Aria Amrikachi

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PUBLISHED ARTICLES

PrefaceYear 2009Year 2010Year 2011Year 2012Year 2013Year 2014Year 2015Year 2016Year 2017Year 2018Year 2019
Editorial preface
Volume 1, No. 1
Towards a Better Understanding of TurbulenceABSTRACT
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REFERENCES
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CITE
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Hossam S Aly
Page II – III

Numerical Investigation of Incompressible Flow past Circular Tubes in Confined Channel
Shaligram Tiwari, S. Jayavel
Page 1 – 14

Prediction of Lift and Drag Coefficients on Stationary Capsule in Pipeline
Mohamed Farid Khalil, Sadek Zakaria Kassab,Ihab Gaber Adam,Mohamed Ahmed Samaha
Page 15 – 28

Experimental and Numerical Study of Spoiler Effect on Ship Stability: Effect of Spoiler Inclination Angle
Nabil Hassan Mostafa, Berge Ohanness Djebedjian, Emad Mohammed El-Said, Magdy Mohammed Abou Rayan
Page 29 – 42

2D Numerical Simulation of Fluid Flow over a Rectangular Prism
Milankumar Ramakant Nandgaonkar,Sumeet Suresh Thete,Kaustubh Ravindra Bhat
Page 43 – 49

Graphical User Interface (GUI) In MatLab for Solving The Pulsatile Flow in Blood Vessel
Badreddin Giuma Elghariani, Kahar bin Osman
Page 50 – 58

Volume 5, No. 4

Scalar Tuning of a Fluid Solver using Compact Scheme for a Supercomputer with a Distributed Memory Architecture

Hikaru Aono, Taku Nonomura, Nobuyuki Iizuka, Takahiko Ohsako, Tomohide Inari, Yasutoshi Hashimoto, Ryoji Takaki, Kozo Fujii
Page 132 – 142

Effect of Volume Fraction on the Performance and Separation Efficiency of a De-oiling Hydrocyclone
Kamel A. Elshorbagy, Amr Mohamed Abdelrazek, Mohamed Elsabaawy
Page 153 – 164

Scalar Tuning of a Fluid Solver using Compact Scheme for a Supercomputer with a Distributed Memory Architecture
Hikaru Aono, Taku Nonomura, Nobuyuki Iizuka, Takahiko Ohsako, Tomohide Inari, Yasutoshi Hashimoto, Ryoji Takaki, Kozo Fujii
Page 143 – 152

Cylindrical and Row Trenched Cooling Holes with Alignment Angle of 90 Degree at Different Blowing Ratios
M. A. Khattak, M. A. Ashraff, M. Ikmal, A. Syafiq and M. Hazritz
Page 165 – 173

Numerical Investigation on the Effect of Impeller Trimming on the Performance of a Modified
Layth Hasan Jawad, S. Abdullah, R. Zulkifli, W.M. F.W. Mahmood
Page 174 – 184

Protection of Bend from Erosion Caused by Gas-Particle Flows in Town Border Station
Javad Abolfazli Esfahani, Hamid Reza Karbasian, Aref Fozooni Kangarshahi, Ebrahim Barati
Page 185 – 192

Numerical Study of Mixed Convective Cooling in a Ventilated Cavity Utilizing a Guide Baffle
Wael El-Maghlany
Page 197 – 207

Comments on ‘A generalized lattice Boltzmann method for three-dimensional incompressible fluid flow simulation’
Rahmati and Ashrafizaadeh, Ridha Djebali, Bittagopal Mondal
Page 193 – 196

Volume 7, No. 1
Volume 8, No. 1
Volume 9, No. 1
Volume 11, No. 1
Fluid-Particle Interaction with Buoyancy Forces on Jeffrey Fluid with Newtonian Heating
Abdul Rahman Mohd Kasim, Nur Syamilah Arifin, Syazwani Mohd Zokri, Mohd Zuki Salleh
Page 1 – 16
AbstractThe numerical results of fluid flow problem that being embedded with the dust particles is presented in this paper. In order to analyze such problem, a two-phase model is constructed by introducing a fluid-particle interaction forces in the momentum equations of fluid and dust phases. The buoyancy forces and aligned magnetic field are considered on the fluid flow. Also, the Newtonian heating boundary condition is induced on the vertical stretching sheet. The suitable similarity transformation is applied to the governing equations of the model which then produces the ordinary differential system. The results are obtained by adapting the Runge-Kutta Fehlberg (RKF45) method whereby the solutions are interpreted in terms of velocity and temperature profiles for Jeffrey fluid and dust particles respectively. The influences of assorted physical parameters are visualized graphically to clarify the flow and heat transfer characteristic for both phases. The discovery found that the presence of the dust particles have an effect on the fluid motion which led to decelerate the fluid transference. The present flow model can match to the single phase fluid cases if the fluid particle interaction parameter is ignored.
CiteMLA
Abdul Rahman, Mohd Kasim, et al. "Fluid-Particle Interaction with Buoyancy Forces on Jeffrey Fluid with Newtonian Heating." CFD Letters 11.1 (2019): 1-16.
APA
Abdul Rahman, M. K., Nur Syamilah, A., Syazwani, M. Z., & Mohd Zuki, S.(2019). Fluid-Particle Interaction with Buoyancy Forces on Jeffrey Fluid with Newtonian Heating. CFD Letters, 11(1), 1-16.
Chicago
Abdul Rahman Mohd Kasim, Nur Syamilah Arifin, Syazwani Mohd Zokri, and Mohd Zuki Salleh."Fluid-Particle Interaction with Buoyancy Forces on Jeffrey Fluid with Newtonian Heating." CFD Letters." 11, no. 1 (2019): 1-16.
Harvard
Abdul Rahman, M.K., Nur Syamilah, A., Syazwani, M.Z., and Mohd Zuki, S.,2019. Fluid-Particle Interaction with Buoyancy Forces on Jeffrey Fluid with Newtonian Heating. CFD Letters 11(1), pp. 1-16.
Vancouver
Abdul Rahman MK, Nur Syamilah A, Syazwani MZ, Mohd Zuki S. Fluid-Particle Interaction with Buoyancy Forces on Jeffrey Fluid with Newtonian Heating. CFD Letters. 2019;11(1): 1-16.

MHD Slip Flow and Heat Transfer on Stagnation Point of a Magnetite (Fe3O4 ) Ferrofluid towards a Stretching Sheet with Newtonian Heating
Muhammad Khairul Anuar Mohamed, Nurul Ainn Ismail, Norhamizah Hashim, Norlianah Mohd Shah, Mohd Zuki Salleh
Page 17 - 27

AbstractPresent paper investigates the flow and heat transfer of Magnetite (Fe3O4) water based nanofluid termed as ferrofluid on stagnation point past a stretching sheet with slip effect. The methodology starts with transforming the non-linear partial differential equations that governed the model to ordinary differential equations, then solved numerically by Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg (RKF45) method in Maple software. The influenced and characteristics of pertinent parameters which are the stretching parameter, magnetic parameter, velocity slip parameter and solid volume fraction for nanofluid are analyzed and discussed. It was found that the magnetite (Fe3O4) ferrofluid provided higher wall temperature and heat transfer capabilities compared to water. Meanwhile, the presence of slip effect had minimized the skin friction coefficient.
CiteMLA
Muhammad Khairul Anuar, Mohamed, et al. "MHD Slip Flow and Heat Transfer on Stagnation Point of a Magnetite (Fe3O4 ) Ferrofluid towards a Stretching Sheet with Newtonian Heating." CFD Letters 11.1 (2019): 17-27.
APA
Muhammad Khairul Anuar, M., Nurul Ainn, I., Norhamizah, H., Norlianah, M. S., & Mohd Zuki, S.(2019). MHD Slip Flow and Heat Transfer on Stagnation Point of a Magnetite (Fe3O4 ) Ferrofluid towards a Stretching Sheet with Newtonian Heating. CFD Letters, 11(1), 17-27.
Chicago
Muhammad Khairul Anuar Mohamed, Nurul Ainn Ismail, Norhamizah Hashim, Norlianah Mohd Shah, and Mohd Zuki Salleh."MHD Slip Flow and Heat Transfer on Stagnation Point of a Magnetite (Fe3O4 ) Ferrofluid towards a Stretching Sheet with Newtonian Heating." CFD Letters." 11, no. 1 (2019): 17-27.
Harvard
Muhammad Khairul Anuar, M., Nurul Ainn, I., Norhamizah, H., Norlianah, M.S., and Mohd Zuki, S.,2019. MHD Slip Flow and Heat Transfer on Stagnation Point of a Magnetite (Fe3O4 ) Ferrofluid towards a Stretching Sheet with Newtonian Heating. CFD Letters 11(1), pp. 17-27.
Vancouver
Muhammad Khairul Anuar M, Nurul Ainn I, Norhamizah H, Norlianah MS, Mohd Zuki S. MHD Slip Flow and Heat Transfer on Stagnation Point of a Magnetite (Fe3O4 ) Ferrofluid towards a Stretching Sheet with Newtonian Heating. CFD Letters. 2019;11(1): 17-27.

Analysis of Injection Pressure and High Ambient Density of Biodiesel Spray using Computational Fluid Dynamics
Norrizam Jaat, Amir Khalid, Norrizal Mustaffa, Fathul Hakim Zulkifli, Norshuhaila Mohamed Sunar, Ridwan Saputra Nursal, Mahmod Abd Hakim Mohamad, Djamal Didane
Page 28 - 39

AbstractBlended fuels have great potential for substitution with petroleum fuel for the purpose of emission control and fuel ef?ciency improvement. This research is to investigate the effect of high injection pressure and high ambient condition of biodiesel blends on spray characteristics using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The variables in this study are the various injection pressure (220, 250 and 280 MPa) and ambient temperatures (850, 950, and 1050 K), while the ambient pressure is kept constant at 8 MPa. The simulation in ANSYS FLUENT was used to observe the spray characteristics of biodiesel blends at various conditions. Simulation results show that longer spray penetration length with smaller spray signi?cantly a?ects the mixture formation biodiesel blends compared to pure diesel at high injection pressure and ambient temperature.
CiteMLA
Norrizam, Jaat, et al. "Analysis of Injection Pressure and High Ambient Density of Biodiesel Spray using Computational Fluid Dynamics." CFD Letters 11.1 (2019): 28-39.
APA
Norrizam, J., Amir, K., Norrizal, M., Fathul Hakim, Z., Norshuhaila, M. S., Ridwan, S. N., Mahmod, A. H. M., & Djamal, D.(2019). Analysis of Injection Pressure and High Ambient Density of Biodiesel Spray using Computational Fluid Dynamics. CFD Letters, 11(1), 28-39.
Chicago
Norrizam Jaat, Amir Khalid, Norrizal Mustaffa, Fathul Hakim Zulkifli, Norshuhaila Mohamed Sunar, Ridwan Saputra Nursal, Mahmod Abd Hakim Mohamad, and Djamal Didane."Analysis of Injection Pressure and High Ambient Density of Biodiesel Spray using Computational Fluid Dynamics." CFD Letters." 11, no. 1 (2019): 28-39.
Harvard
Norrizam, J., Amir, K., Norrizal, M., Fathul Hakim, Z., Norshuhaila, M.S., Ridwan, S.N., Mahmod, A.H.M., and Djamal, D.,2019. Analysis of Injection Pressure and High Ambient Density of Biodiesel Spray using Computational Fluid Dynamics. CFD Letters 11(1), pp. 28-39.
Vancouver
Norrizam J, Amir K, Norrizal M, Fathul Hakim Z, Norshuhaila MS, Ridwan SN, Mahmod AHM, Djamal D. Analysis of Injection Pressure and High Ambient Density of Biodiesel Spray using Computational Fluid Dynamics. CFD Letters. 2019;11(1): 28-39.

Analytical and Numerical Solutions to the 2D Sakiadis Flow of Casson Fluid with Cross Diffusion, Inclined Magnetic Force, Viscous Dissipation and Thermal Radiation Based on Buongiorno's Mathematical Model
Emran Khoshrouye Ghiasi, Reza Saleh
Page 40 - 54

AbstractIn this paper, the homotopy analysis method (HAM) and Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method (RKF45M) are applied to investigate the 2D Sakiadis flow of non-Newtonian Casson fluid with convective boundary conditions based on the Buongiorno’s mathematical model. The governing boundary layer equations of continuity, momentum, thermal energy and nanoparticle concentration are derived and converted to the dimensionless form via the similarity variables. The present solutions agree entirely with those available results in the literatures. A parametric study is also performed to illustrate the effects of pertinent parameters on the fluid flow. It is shown that the skin friction coefficient for a non-Newtonian fluid is found to be higher than that of the Newtonian one. Furthermore, the thermal boundary layer thickness is greatly affected by the resistive Lorentz force and viscous dissipation.
CiteMLA
Emran, Khoshrouye Ghiasi, and Reza, Saleh. "Analytical and Numerical Solutions to the 2D Sakiadis Flow of Casson Fluid with Cross Diffusion, Inclined Magnetic Force, Viscous Dissipation and Thermal Radiation Based on Buongiorno's Mathematical Model." CFD Letters 11.1 (2019): 40-54.
APA
Emran, K. G., & Reza, S.(2019). Analytical and Numerical Solutions to the 2D Sakiadis Flow of Casson Fluid with Cross Diffusion, Inclined Magnetic Force, Viscous Dissipation and Thermal Radiation Based on Buongiorno's Mathematical Model. CFD Letters, 11(1), 40-54.
Chicago
Emran Khoshrouye Ghiasi, and Reza Saleh."Analytical and Numerical Solutions to the 2D Sakiadis Flow of Casson Fluid with Cross Diffusion, Inclined Magnetic Force, Viscous Dissipation and Thermal Radiation Based on Buongiorno's Mathematical Model." CFD Letters." 11, no. 1 (2019): 40-54.
Harvard
Emran, K.G., and Reza, S.,2019. Analytical and Numerical Solutions to the 2D Sakiadis Flow of Casson Fluid with Cross Diffusion, Inclined Magnetic Force, Viscous Dissipation and Thermal Radiation Based on Buongiorno's Mathematical Model. CFD Letters 11(1), pp. 40-54.
Vancouver
Emran KG, Reza S. Analytical and Numerical Solutions to the 2D Sakiadis Flow of Casson Fluid with Cross Diffusion, Inclined Magnetic Force, Viscous Dissipation and Thermal Radiation Based on Buongiorno's Mathematical Model. CFD Letters. 2019;11(1): 40-54.

Effects Of Mixed Convection On Methanol And Kerosene Oil Based Micropolar Nanofluid Containing Oxide Nanoparticles
Hamzeh T. Alkasasbeh, Mohammed Z. Swalmeh, Abid Hussanan, Mustafa Mamat
Page 55 - 68

AbstractThe purpose of this communication is to examine the micro-rotation and micro-inertia characteristics of nanofluids over a solid sphere under mixed convection effect. Two types of oxide nanoparticles namely graphene and iron oxide suspended in two different types of base fluids such as methanol and kerosene oil. The governing boundary layer equations are transformed into nonlinear partial differential equations system and solved numerically using an implicit finite difference scheme known as Keller box method. The results for temperature, velocity and angular velocity are discussed and plotted for different values of the parameters, namely, nanoparticle volume fraction, the micro-rotation parameter and the mixed convection parameter by considering the thermo-physical properties of both nanoparticles and base fluids. Moreover, numerical results for the local Nusselt number and the local skin friction coefficient are obtained. It is found that Fe3O4/GO kerosene oil has higher in local Nusselt number compared with Fe3O4/GO methanol. The results of the local Nusselt number and the local skin friction for the Newtonian fluid are found to be in good accurate with the literature.
CiteMLA
Hamzeh, T. Alkasasbeh, et al. "Effects Of Mixed Convection On Methanol And Kerosene Oil Based Micropolar Nanofluid Containing Oxide Nanoparticles." CFD Letters 11.1 (2019): 55-68.
APA
Hamzeh, T. A., Mohammed, Z. S., Abid, H., & Mustafa, M.(2019). Effects Of Mixed Convection On Methanol And Kerosene Oil Based Micropolar Nanofluid Containing Oxide Nanoparticles. CFD Letters, 11(1), 55-68.
Chicago
Hamzeh T. Alkasasbeh, Mohammed Z. Swalmeh, Abid Hussanan, and Mustafa Mamat."Effects Of Mixed Convection On Methanol And Kerosene Oil Based Micropolar Nanofluid Containing Oxide Nanoparticles." CFD Letters." 11, no. 1 (2019): 55-68.
Harvard
Hamzeh, T.A., Mohammed, Z.S., Abid, H., and Mustafa, M.,2019. Effects Of Mixed Convection On Methanol And Kerosene Oil Based Micropolar Nanofluid Containing Oxide Nanoparticles. CFD Letters 11(1), pp. 55-68.
Vancouver
Hamzeh TA, Mohammed ZS, Abid H, Mustafa M. Effects Of Mixed Convection On Methanol And Kerosene Oil Based Micropolar Nanofluid Containing Oxide Nanoparticles. CFD Letters. 2019;11(1): 55-68.

On the Parallelization of Moving Particle Level Set (MPLS) Method for Multiphase Flow Simulation using OpenMP
Abdalla Mohamed Elfatih Ibrahim, Khai Ching Ng, Yee Luon Ng
Page 69 - 85

AbstractAs the field of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) continues to grow, some advanced simulation methods such as mesh-less (or particle) methods have been devised to solve fluid flow problems involving complex dynamics. The popular Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method is one of the particle methods commonly used to solve fluid flow problems without relying on the pre-existing mesh structure. Recently, based on the MPS method, two new methods, i.e. the Moving Particle Pressure Mesh (MPPM) and the Moving Particle Level-Set (MPLS) methods have been developed in our research team to simulate single- and multi-phase flow problems and meanwhile to obtain a smoother pressure field. In the current work, the Open Multi Processing (OpenMP) library was used to parallelize the MPLS code on a shared memory machine and the effects of parallelism on the computation performances of MPLS were studied. The test case used to benchmark the computation performance was the multi-phase problem, i.e. the problem involving Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI). The machine used in this work has 6 physical cores with 12 logical threads. The maximum speedup was 3.71x, which was comparable to those achieved by similar particle methods such as Direct Simulation Monte Carlo, Discrete Element Method, etc. Strong and weak scaling studies were conducted and the memory access (cache hit rates) under different scheduling patterns was investigated. It was found that the speedup and core performance of the level-set function implemented in the MPLS code was relatively high.
CiteMLA
Abdalla Mohamed, Elfatih Ibrahim, et al. "On the Parallelization of Moving Particle Level Set (MPLS) Method for Multiphase Flow Simulation using OpenMP." CFD Letters 11.1 (2019): 69-85.
APA
Abdalla Mohamed, E. I., Ng, K. C., & Ng, Y. L.(2019). On the Parallelization of Moving Particle Level Set (MPLS) Method for Multiphase Flow Simulation using OpenMP. CFD Letters, 11(1), 69-85.
Chicago
Abdalla Mohamed Elfatih Ibrahim, Khai Ching Ng, and Yee Luon Ng."On the Parallelization of Moving Particle Level Set (MPLS) Method for Multiphase Flow Simulation using OpenMP." CFD Letters." 11, no. 1 (2019): 69-85.
Harvard
Abdalla Mohamed, E.I., Ng, K.C., and Ng, Y.L.,2019. On the Parallelization of Moving Particle Level Set (MPLS) Method for Multiphase Flow Simulation using OpenMP. CFD Letters 11(1), pp. 69-85.
Vancouver
Abdalla Mohamed EI, Ng KC, Ng YL. On the Parallelization of Moving Particle Level Set (MPLS) Method for Multiphase Flow Simulation using OpenMP. CFD Letters. 2019;11(1): 69-85.

Spiral Groove Bearing Geometry Variation Effect on Left Ventricular Assist Device Impeller Performance
Shirly Empaling, Ahmad Zahran Md Khudzari, Muhammad Rashidi Abdul Kadir, Kahar Osman, Akmal Hakim Mohamad Hudzari, Mohammad Hasbullah Padzillah, Ishkrizat Abdul Talib, Mohamed Ezani Abdul Taib, Aizai Azan Abdul Rahim
Page 86 - 101

AbstractMechanical heart assist device has been accepted as a reliable treatment modality for advanced heart failure patient option other than orthotropic heart transplantation. One type of the device is a centrifugal rotary mechanical blood pump that has an impeller levitated using a magnetic motor system in which, it reduces blood damage compared to its predecessors. Spiral Groove Bearing (SGB) is proposed as another design consideration to further decrease blood damage, increasing blood flow in the tight gaps, while maintaining pump performances. There were few studies investigating several aspects of SGB effect on blood flow within the mechanical blood pump, however no study has been done on the SGB geometry configurations, and its effect on device performance. In this study, two design factors of SGB geometry were simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software – a gap between impeller and housing, and SGB groove depths. The resulting variants were then evaluated using several performance indexes which are pump pressure output, average washout flow, hemolysis index, bearing load carrying capacity and pump efficiency. From the results, there are two conclusions that can be drawn. By deepening SGB groove depth, blood pump performance increased, while increasing the gap between the impeller and pump housing, most performance indexes were reduced. Scoring and screening method was also utilized to evaluate the best variant and it was found that, the variant with SGB groove depths 1000 ?m and gap of 80 ?m was the best in term of overall performances.
CiteMLA
Shirly, Empaling, et al. "Spiral Groove Bearing Geometry Variation Effect on Left Ventricular Assist Device Impeller Performance." CFD Letters 11.1 (2019): 86-101.
APA
Shirly, E., Ahmad Zahran, M. K., Muhammad Rashidi, A. K., Kahar, O., Akmal Hakim, M. H., Mohammad Hasbullah, P., Ishkrizat, A. T., Mohamed Ezani, A. T., & Aizai Azan, A. R.(2019). Spiral Groove Bearing Geometry Variation Effect on Left Ventricular Assist Device Impeller Performance. CFD Letters, 11(1), 86-101.
Chicago
Shirly Empaling, Ahmad Zahran Md Khudzari, Muhammad Rashidi Abdul Kadir, Kahar Osman, Akmal Hakim Mohamad Hudzari, Mohammad Hasbullah Padzillah, Ishkrizat Abdul Talib, Mohamed Ezani Abdul Taib, and Aizai Azan Abdul Rahim."Spiral Groove Bearing Geometry Variation Effect on Left Ventricular Assist Device Impeller Performance." CFD Letters." 11, no. 1 (2019): 86-101.
Harvard
Shirly, E., Ahmad Zahran, M.K., Muhammad Rashidi, A.K., Kahar, O., Akmal Hakim, M.H., Mohammad Hasbullah, P., Ishkrizat, A.T., Mohamed Ezani, A.T., and Aizai Azan, A.R.,2019. Spiral Groove Bearing Geometry Variation Effect on Left Ventricular Assist Device Impeller Performance. CFD Letters 11(1), pp. 86-101.
Vancouver
Shirly E, Ahmad Zahran MK, Muhammad Rashidi AK, Kahar O, Akmal Hakim MH, Mohammad Hasbullah P, Ishkrizat AT, Mohamed Ezani AT, Aizai Azan AR. Spiral Groove Bearing Geometry Variation Effect on Left Ventricular Assist Device Impeller Performance. CFD Letters. 2019;11(1): 86-101.

Volume 11, No. 2
Numerical Analysis of Solar Hybrid Photovoltaic Thermal Air Collector Simulation by ANSYS
Amira Lateef Abdullah, Suhaimi Misha, Noreffendy Tamaldin, Mohd Afzanizam Mohd Rosli, Fadhil Abdulameer sachit
Page 1 – 11
AbstractSolar energy is one of the renewable energy sources which have potential for future energy applications. The current technology converts solar energy into electricity and heat respectively. The aim from the paper to increases the PV efficiency by using duct of air under the PV panels to help reduce the temperature of the PV cells, an effort was made to simulate and evaluate the overall performance of a hybrid photovoltaic thermal (PVT) air collector using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. The numerical analysis of the flow and heat transfer in hybrid PVT systems is computationally complicated. Based on numerical analysis, the performance of a solar hybrid PVT air collector was studied. The numerical simulation was performed using a commercial software ANSYS FLUENT 19.1. The electrical energy conversion from the solar cells was calculated with a user defined function. The numerical results were validated with the experimental results from the literature. The results showed a good agreement between the experimental and simulated results for outlet air temperature and PV cell temperature. Using a validated model, the effects of mass flow rate and duct depth on the performance of solar hybrid PVT collector were studied and optimum values were identified. The results indicated that the reduction in the depth of air channel increases the thermal efficiency, but it has no considerable effect on the electrical efficiency. The increase of the mass flow rate of air increases the thermal efficiency, but a slight enhancement is required for the generation of electrical power by PVT.
CiteMLA
Amira, Suhaimi, et al. "Numerical Analysis of Solar Hybrid Photovoltaic Thermal Air Collector Simulation by ANSYS." CFD Letters 11.2 (2019): 1-11.
APA
Amira Lateef, A., Suhaimi, M., Noreffendy, T., Mohd Afzanizam, M. R., & Fadhil Abdulameer, S.(2019). Numerical Analysis of Solar Hybrid Photovoltaic Thermal Air Collector Simulation by ANSYS. CFD Letters, 11(2), 1-11.
Chicago
Amira Lateef Abdullah, Suhaimi Misha, Noreffendy Tamaldin, Mohd Afzanizam Mohd Rosli, and Fadhil Abdulameer sachit."Numerical Analysis of Solar Hybrid Photovoltaic Thermal Air Collector Simulation by ANSYS." CFD Letters." 11, no. 2 (2019): 1-11.
Harvard
Abdul Amira Lateef, A., Suhaimi, M., Noreffendy, T., Mohd Afzanizam, M. R., and Fadhil Abdulameer, S.,2019. Numerical Analysis of Solar Hybrid Photovoltaic Thermal Air Collector Simulation by ANSYS. CFD Letters 11(2), pp. 1-11.
Vancouver
Amira Lateef A, Suhaimi M, Noreffendy T, Mohd Afzanizam MR, Fadhil Abdulameer S. Numerical Analysis of Solar Hybrid Photovoltaic Thermal Air Collector Simulation by ANSYS. CFD Letters. 2019;11(2): 1-11.

Comparison of Rod-Airfoil Noise Calculation between Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and Detached-Eddy Simulation (DES)
Siti Ruhliah Lizarose Samion, Mohamed Sukri Mat Ali
Page 12 - 20

AbstractAirfoil Leading Edge noise is generated due to impingement of turbulent structures onvthe airfoil surface. The rod-airfoil configuration is a benchmark configuration for the Leading edge noise and their noise calculation by computer simulation has peen progressively investigated to acceptable compare with the experiment. This paper presents the noise results finding between two distinct simulation models and their comparison with the experimental results. The two simulation models are Large-eddy simulation (LES) and the Delayed Detached-Eddy simulation (DDES). The DES can provide good noise results with the correct number of meshing grids with shorter timespan if compared to the LES. This study proposes to use DDES results for further rodairfoil noise analysis.
CiteMLA
Siti Ruhliah and Mohamed Sukri, et al. "Comparison of Rod-Airfoil Noise Calculation between Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and Detached-Eddy Simulation (DES)" CFD Letters 11.2 (2019): 12-20.
APA
Siti Ruhliah, L. S., & Mohamed Sukri, M. A.(2019). Comparison of Rod-Airfoil Noise Calculation between Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and Detached-Eddy Simulation (DES). CFD Letters, 11(2), 12-20.
Chicago
Siti Ruhliah Lizarose Samion, and Mohamed Sukri Mat Ali."Comparison of Rod-Airfoil Noise Calculation between Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and Detached-Eddy Simulation (DES)." CFD Letters." 11, no. 2 (2019): 12-20.
Harvard
Siti Ruhliah, L. S., and Mohamed Sukri, M. A.,2019. Comparison of Rod-Airfoil Noise Calculation between Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and Detached-Eddy Simulation (DES). CFD Letters 11(2), pp. 12-20.
Vancouver
Siti Ruhliah LS, Mohamed Sukri MA. Comparison of Rod-Airfoil Noise Calculation between Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and Detached-Eddy Simulation (DES). CFD Letters. 2019;11(2): 12-20.

Numerical Solution on MHD Stagnation Point Flow in Ferrofluid with Newtonian Heating and Thermal Radiation Effect
Siti Hanani Mat Yasin, Muhammad Khairul Anuar Mohamed, Zulkhibri Ismail@Mustofa, Basuki Widodo, Mohd Zuki Salleh
Page 21 - 31

AbstractThis study aims to investigate MHD stagnation point flow of Magnetite (Fe3O4) with Newtonian heating and thermal radiation effect over a flat plate. The governing equation which is in the form of dimensional nonlinear partial differential equations are reduced to non-linear ordinary equations by using appropriate similarity transformation, then solved numerically by using Keller-box method, which programmed in Matlab software. The influenced of significant parameter such as the magnetic parameter, radiation parameter and volume fraction on velocity and temperature profiles will be obtained. The study reveals the radiation parameter will enhance the temperature of the flow. On the other hand, the skin friction and Nusselt number will increase with an increase magnetic parameter.
CiteMLA
Siti Hanani, Muhammad Khairul, et al. "Numerical Solution on MHD Stagnation Point Flow in Ferrofluid with Newtonian Heating and Thermal Radiation Effect." CFD Letters 11.2 (2019): 21-31.
APA
Siti Hanani, M. Y., Muhammad Khairul, A. M., Zulkhibri Ismail, M., Basuki, W., & Mohd Zuki, S.(2019). Numerical Solution on MHD Stagnation Point Flow in Ferrofluid with Newtonian Heating and Thermal Radiation Effect. CFD Letters, 11(2), 21-31.
Chicago
Siti Hanani Mat Yasin, Muhammad Khairul Anuar Mohamed, Zulkhibri Ismail@Mustofa, Basuki Widodo, and Mohd Zuki Salleh."Numerical Solution on MHD Stagnation Point Flow in Ferrofluid with Newtonian Heating and Thermal Radiation Effect." CFD Letters." 11, no. 2 (2019): 21-31.
Harvard
Siti Hanani, M. Y., Muhammad Khairul, A. M., Zulkhibri Ismail, M., Basuki, W., and Mohd Zuki, S.,2019. Numerical Solution on MHD Stagnation Point Flow in Ferrofluid with Newtonian Heating and Thermal Radiation Effect. CFD Letters 11(2), pp. 21-31.
Vancouver
Siti Hanani MY, Muhammad Khairul AM, Zulkhibri Ismail M, Basuki W, Mohd Zuki S. Numerical Solution on MHD Stagnation Point Flow in Ferrofluid with Newtonian Heating and Thermal Radiation Effect. 2019;11(2): 21-31.

Aerodynamics Investigation of Delta Wing at Low Reynold’s Number
Ilya Bashiera Hamizi, Sher Afghan Khan
Page 32 - 41

AbstractA numerical simulation has been carried out to investigate the aerodynamics of an oscillating delta wing and to evaluate the flow structure over the leading edge at different low Reynolds numbers. The numerical results of coefficient of lift (CL) vs angle of attack is validated with the experimental results from the previous study. Effects of Reynolds number and angle of attack is investigated for the wing lift coefficient, and the aerodynamic efficiency. Pressure contour and turbulence kinetic energy are also observed for each case. Vortex formation from each case is noted from pressure contour and lift coefficient. The stall condition is also observed. Considering the three Reynolds number at max CL, which is at angle of attack of 40 degrees, the CL only increased by 0.01, which is not a very significant increase. But L/D ratio has in-creased significantly for Reynolds number in the range from 8x104 to 1.5x105 and from Re 1.5x105 to 2.68x105. Whereas for each Reynolds number, the lift coefficient CL seems to attain highest value of 0.4 at angle of incidence between 10 degrees and -10 degrees to -20 degrees.
CiteMLA
Ilya Bashiera and Sher Afghan. "Aerodynamics Investigation of Delta Wing at Low Reynold’s Number." CFD Letters 11.2 (2019): 32-41.
APA
Ilya Bashiera, H., & Sher Afghan, K.(2019). Aerodynamics Investigation of Delta Wing at Low Reynold’s Number. CFD Letters, 11(2), 32-41.
Chicago
Ilya Bashiera Hamizi, and Sher Afghan Khan."Aerodynamics Investigation of Delta Wing at Low Reynold’s Number." CFD Letters." 11, no. 2 (2019): 32-41.
Harvard
Ilya Bashiera, H., and Sher Afghan, K.,2019. Aerodynamics Investigation of Delta Wing at Low Reynold’s Number. CFD Letters 11(2), pp. 32-41.
Vancouver
Ilya Bashiera H, Sher Afghan K. Aerodynamics Investigation of Delta Wing at Low Reynold’s Number. CFD Letters. 2019;11(2): 32-41.

Evaluation of Air Flow Pattern for Conceptual Design of Automotive Painting Line Using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) for Better Dust Particle Reduction
Muhammad Hafizan Yosri, Pauziah Muhamad, Norfazrina Hayati Mohd Yatim
Page 42 - 49

AbstractIn the painting production process, repairing of paint work defects by running the part through repeat process, together with the essential requirement quality control routines, account for a very large proportion of the operating costs .The dust and fibre defects is ranged between 40% and 50% and found to be the highest rejection from one of the local industry painting line. Hence that, this research is focused to study the effectiveness of simulating this painting line using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) method to identify the air flow and turbulence pattern which may help to understand the particle concentration and movement in the painting line. Six mechanical designs of ventilation system was proposed in order to study the particle movement and concentration to this automotive painting line. From here, the best design which suite the objective of minimizing the particle concentration and its dissipation into the painted part are justified. Hence, improvement action such as layout arrangement and mechanical design are factors involved to overcome and minimize the foreign particle from fall down into the parts during the painting process. The result from this study may also be a benchmarking for future design of new automotive painting line.
CiteMLA
Muhammad Hafizan, Pauziah, et al. "Evaluation of Air Flow Pattern for Conceptual Design of Automotive Painting Line Using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) for Better Dust Particle Reduction." CFD Letters 11.2 (2019): 42-49.
APA
Muhammad Hafizan, Y., Pauziah, M., & Norfazrina Hayati, M. Y.(2019). Evaluation of Air Flow Pattern for Conceptual Design of Automotive Painting Line Using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) for Better Dust Particle Reduction. CFD Letters, 11(2), 42-49.
Chicago
Muhammad Hafizan Yosri, Pauziah Muhamad, and Norfazrina Hayati Mohd Yatim."Evaluation of Air Flow Pattern for Conceptual Design of Automotive Painting Line Using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) for Better Dust Particle Reduction." CFD Letters." 11, no. 2 (2019): 42-49.
Harvard
Muhammad Hafizan, Y., Pauziah, M., and Norfazrina Hayati, M. Y.,2019. Evaluation of Air Flow Pattern for Conceptual Design of Automotive Painting Line Using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) for Better Dust Particle Reduction. CFD Letters 11(2), pp. 42-49.
Vancouver
Muhammad Hafizan Y, Pauziah M, Norfazrina Hayati MY. Evaluation of Air Flow Pattern for Conceptual Design of Automotive Painting Line Using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) for Better Dust Particle Reduction. CFD Letters. 2019;11(2): 42-49.

Modelling, Validation and Analyzing Performance of Serpentine-Direct PV/T Solar Collector Design
Fadhil Abdulameer sachit, Mohd Afzanizam Mohd Rosli, Noreffendy Tamaldin, Suhaimi Misha, Amira Lateef Abdullah
Page 50 - 65

AbstractThe photovoltaic thermal, PV/T water collector’s thermal and electrical performance was investigated for two absorbers design. Comparison between them were done using validated simulation of the model which was presented using theoretical data with the help of program MATLAB. The first design serpentine and the second serpin-Direct (new design), were defined under solar radiation levels (300-1100)W/m2. Mass flow rate range from (0.011 kg /s to 0.1 kg /s) at each level of solar radiation. The PV/T system was evaluated in terms of thermal efficiency, electrical efficiency and a combination of both PV/T efficiencies. The results showed that the values of cell efficiency increases with decreasing solar radiation and cell temperature. The cell temperature increases with increasing solar radiation and decreases with the increasing mass flow rate. The outlet water temperature increases with rising solar radiation and decreases as mass flow rate rises. At optimum conditions of 900W/?2 solar radiation and 0.06 kg/s mass flow rate, the results indicated that serpin-direct PV/T design achieved 53% thermal and 14.3% electrical efficiency respectively. Under same operating conditions the results showed the priority of serpen-direct PV/T collector design performance versus the serpentine PV/T collector in term of thermal and electrical efficiency.
CiteMLA
Fadhil Abdulameer, Mohd Afzanizam, et al. "Modelling, Validation and Analyzing Performance of Serpentine-Direct PV/T Solar Collector Design." CFD Letters 11.2 (2019): 50-65.
APA
Fadhil Abdulameer, S., Mohd Afzanizam, M. R., Noreffendy, T., Suhaimi, M., & Amira Lateef, A.(2019). Modelling, Validation and Analyzing Performance of Serpentine-Direct PV/T Solar Collector Design. CFD Letters, 11(2), 50-65.
Chicago
Fadhil Abdulameer sachit, Mohd Afzanizam Mohd Rosli, Noreffendy Tamaldin, Suhaimi Misha, and Amira Lateef Abdullah."Modelling, Validation and Analyzing Performance of Serpentine-Direct PV/T Solar Collector Design." CFD Letters." 11, no. 2 (2019): 50-65.
Harvard
Fadhil Abdulameer, S., Mohd Afzanizam, M. R., Noreffendy, T., Suhaimi, M., and Amira Lateef, A.,2019. Modelling, Validation and Analyzing Performance of Serpentine-Direct PV/T Solar Collector Design. CFD Letters 11(2), pp. 50-65.
Vancouver
Fadhil Abdulameer S, Mohd Afzanizam MR, Noreffendy T, Suhaimi M, Amira Lateef A. Modelling, Validation and Analyzing Performance of Serpentine-Direct PV/T Solar Collector Design. CFD Letters. 2019;11(2): 50-65.

Design and Analysis of Vortex Induced Vibration (VIV) Suppression Device
Syamsul Azry Md Esa, Wan Mohd. Arif Aziz Japar, Nor Azwadi Che Sidik
Page 66 - 80

AbstractRiser which have a cylindrical structure is used in Oil & Gas industry to facilitate the safe transportation of material, fluids, and gases between seafloor and host platform. However, the continues interaction between the cylinder riser and shed vortices causes a several damage to the riser due to large amplitude of vibration experienced by the riser. As consequence, maintenance cost and time consuming to repair the damage increases. Hence, present study is conducted to investigate the effectiveness of fairing geometry to suppress vortex induced vibration of a cylindrical structure. Comparative analysis between bare cylinder and the proposed design is conducted to study the effect of fairing geometry on the drag coefficient and lift coefficient of proposed design. The result shows the existence of fairing geometry in proposed design has obtained the lower St number then cylinder riser and thus reduced the vortex shedding formation near to main structure. Besides that, vortex shedding formed by the proposed design is less aggressive and slower than bare cylinder. At the lower velocity (v = 0.5m/s), proposed design with the chord length of 1.5D shows the lowest CL and CD value. However, at the higher velocity (1.0m/s?v?2.0m/s), proposed design with the chord length of 1.25D shows the lowest CL value with average drag coefficient.
CiteMLA
Syamsul Azry,Aziz Japar, et al. "Design and Analysis of Vortex Induced Vibration (VIV) Suppression Device." CFD Letters 11.2 (2019): 66-80.
APA
Syamsul Azry, M. E., Aziz Japar, W. M. A., & Sidik, N. A. C.(2019). Design and Analysis of Vortex Induced Vibration (VIV) Suppression Device. CFD Letters, 11(2), 66-80.
Chicago
Syamsul Azry Md Esa, Wan Mohd. Arif Aziz Japar, and Nor Azwadi Che Sidik."Design and Analysis of Vortex Induced Vibration (VIV) Suppression Device." CFD Letters." 11, no. 2 (2019): 66-80.
Harvard
Syamsul Azry, M. E., Aziz Japar, W. M. A., and Sidik, N. A. C.,2019. Design and Analysis of Vortex Induced Vibration (VIV) Suppression Device. CFD Letters 11(2), pp. 66-80.
Vancouver
Syamsul Azry ME, Aziz Japar WMA, Sidik NAC. Design and Analysis of Vortex Induced Vibration (VIV) Suppression Device. CFD Letters. 2019;11(2): 66-80.

CFD Analysis of Dual-Phase Flows Inside Helically Coiled Tubes in Vapour Compression Micro-Refrigerator
Parashurama Siddegowda, Govindegowda Mundur Sannappagowda, Srinath Mandya Sridharamuthy, Ramesha Devarahalli Kempegowda
Page 81 - 94

AbstractThis study focus on experimental exploration of heat transfer by helical coil. Helical pipe of circular cross section is used widely in variety of applications due to inexpensive and easiness in production. Enhancement of heat transfer by helical pipe is more prominent than in straight pipe, which has supported by many literatures. Controlling pressure drop (which is also a significant factor) to enhance heat transfer in the helical pipe. Modeling of dual phase, especially fluid – vapor flow under adiabatic conditions inside a flat helical tube utilizing CFD examination is difficult with the accessible dual phase models in fluent due to constantly changing flow patterns. In the present investigation, CFD examination of two phase flow of refrigerants inside a level helical pipe of inward diameter across, 20 mm and 100mm length is completed utilizing homogeneous model in adiabatic conditions. The refrigerants considered are R290 and R134a. The investigation is performed at saturation temperatures with fluid flow rates to assess the nearby frictional weight drop. Flow characteristics, velocity, pressure drop, turbulent kinetic energy, and temperature contours along the total length of the coil are to be analysed. Velocity, pressure drop, turbulent kinetic energy, and temperature distribution of multi-phase flow inside the pipe also to be analyzed. By utilizing homogeneous model, normal properties are acquired for each of the refrigerants that are considered as multi-stage pseudo liquid.
CiteMLA
Parashurama, Govindegowda, et al. "CFD Analysis of Dual-Phase Flows Inside Helically Coiled Tubes in Vapour Compression Micro-Refrigerator." CFD Letters 11.2 (2019): 81-94.
APA
Parashurama, S., Govindegowda, M. S., Srinath, M. S., & Ramesha, D. K.(2019). CFD Analysis of Dual-Phase Flows Inside Helically Coiled Tubes in Vapour Compression Micro-Refrigerator. CFD Letters, 11(2), 81-94.
Chicago
Parashurama Siddegowda, Govindegowda Mundur Sannappagowda, Srinath Mandya Sridharamuthy, and Ramesha Devarahalli Kempegowda."CFD Analysis of Dual-Phase Flows Inside Helically Coiled Tubes in Vapour Compression Micro-Refrigerator." CFD Letters." 11, no. 2 (2019): 81-94.
Harvard
Parashurama, S., Govindegowda, M. S., Srinath, M. S., and Ramesha, D. K.,2019. CFD Analysis of Dual-Phase Flows Inside Helically Coiled Tubes in Vapour Compression Micro-Refrigerator. CFD Letters 11(2), pp. 81-94.
Vancouver
Parashurama S, Govindegowda MS, Srinath MS, Ramesha DK. CFD Analysis of Dual-Phase Flows Inside Helically Coiled Tubes in Vapour Compression Micro-Refrigerator. CFD Letters. 2019;11(2): 81-94.

Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis on Single Leak and Double Leaks Subsea Pipeline Leakage
Ong Yong Wei, Siti Ujila Masuri
Page 95 - 107

AbstractThis paper describes the numerical investigation on single leak and double leaks subsea pipeline leakage using ANSYS FLUENT based on standard k-? model under steady-state condition. The simulation is done to investigate the effect of fluid velocity and emergence of second leak on the leak flow rate, pressure distribution and turbulence kinetic energy at near leak region and compare those flow parameters between single leak and double leaks subsea pipeline models. The simulations results show that the change of pipeline fluid velocity only has little impact on the flow behavior at leak region. The emergence of second leak does not cause much effect on the flow behavior at first leak. When both models are compared, the leak flow rate at first leak is always higher than that of the second leak. Pressure distribution disturbance due to leak is much more significant at second leak as compared to first leak while vice versa for turbulence kinetic energy along the subsea pipeline.
CiteMLA
Ong, and Siti Ujila, et al. "Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis on Single Leak and Double Leaks Subsea Pipeline Leakage." CFD Letters 11.2 (2019): 95-107.
APA
Ong, Y. W., & Siti Ujila, M.(2019). Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis on Single Leak and Double Leaks Subsea Pipeline Leakage. CFD Letters, 11(2), 95-107.
Chicago
Ong Yong Wei and Siti Ujila Masuri."Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis on Single Leak and Double Leaks Subsea Pipeline Leakage." CFD Letters." 11, no. 2 (2019): 95-107.
Harvard
Ong, Y. W., and Siti Ujila, M.,2019. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis on Single Leak and Double Leaks Subsea Pipeline Leakage. CFD Letters 11(2), pp. 95-107.
Vancouver
Ong YW, Siti Ujila M. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis on Single Leak and Double Leaks Subsea Pipeline Leakage. CFD Letters. 2019;11(2): 95-107.

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