Optimum Tilt Angle for Solar Collectors used in Kano, Nigeria
Keywords:tilt angle, solar thermal collector, solar radiation, phovoltaic system
Solar intensity, collector design and its orientation are the key parameters that affect the performance of any solar collector. This work presents mathematical modelling of solar radiation for studying the effects of collector slope angle on the radiation falling on a solar collector and the determination of the collector optimum slope angle for Kano, Nigeria (12.05oN). To study such effects, two computer programs were developed for studying the effects of solar collector slope angle and optimization of the collection which was carried out using Engineering Equation Solver (ESS). Results showed that for maximum energy collection over the year, the collector should be tilted (in the order of priority); to the optimum angle of each month, to the seasonal tilt angles (i.e. horizontal from April to September and then set to Kano’s latitude plus 15o for the other months) or fixed to the latitude of Kano. Sloping of solar collector to the monthly optimum tilt angle results in significant radiation gain throughout the year with 28.6 and 24.8% in December and January respectively. Also the maximum radiation obtainable in each month is received and there will be no radiation loss throughout the year. Also energy received by the collector for generating hot water or steam in solar thermal collector was found to be affected by the collector’s orientation and slope angle.