Synthesis and Characterisation of Pyridinium-Based Ionic Liquid as Activating Agent in Rubber Seed Shell Activated Carbon Production for CO2 Capture


  • Nawwarah Mokti Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, 32610, Perak, Malaysia
  • Azry Borhan HICOE, Centre for Biofuel and Biochemical Research, Institute of Self-Sustainable Building, Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, 32610, Perak, Malaysia
  • Siti Nur Azella Zaine Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, 32610, Perak, Malaysia
  • Hayyiratul Fatimah Mohd Zaid Department of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, 32610, Perak, Malaysia



Activated carbon (AC), Ionic Liquid (IL), 1-butylpyridinium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide [C4Py][Tf2N], Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Rubber seed shell (RSS)


The use of an activating agent in chemical activation of activated carbon (AC) production is very important as it will help to open the pore structure of AC as adsorbents and could enhance its performance for adsorption capacity. In this study, a pyridinium-based ionic liquid (IL), 1-butylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide, [C4Py][Tf2N] has been synthesized by using anion exchange reaction and was characterized using few analyses such as 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and FTIR. Low-cost AC was synthesized by chemical activation process in which rubber seed shell (RSS) and ionic liquid [C4Py][Tf2N] were employed as the precursor and activating agent, respectively. AC has been prepared with different IL concentration (1% and 10%) at 500°C and 800°C for 2 hours. Sample AC2 shows the highest SBET and VT which are 392.8927 m2/g and 0.2059 cm3/g respectively. The surface morphology of synthesized AC can be clearly seen through FESEM analysis. A high concentration of IL in sample AC10 contributed to blockage of pores by the IL. On the other hand, the performance of synthesized AC for CO2 adsorption capacity also studied by using static volumetric technique at 1 bar and 25°C. Sample AC2 contributed the highest CO2 uptakes which is 50.783 cm3/g. This current work shows that the use of low concentration IL as an activating agent has the potential to produce porous AC, which offers low-cost, green technology as well as promising application towards CO2 capture.   


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How to Cite

Mokti, N., Borhan, A., Zaine, S. N. A. ., & Mohd Zaid, H. F. . (2021). Synthesis and Characterisation of Pyridinium-Based Ionic Liquid as Activating Agent in Rubber Seed Shell Activated Carbon Production for CO2 Capture. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 82(1), 85–95.




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