Synthesis and Characterisation of Pyridinium-Based Ionic Liquid as Activating Agent in Rubber Seed Shell Activated Carbon Production for CO2 Capture
Keywords:Activated carbon (AC), Ionic Liquid (IL), 1-butylpyridinium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide [C4Py][Tf2N], Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Rubber seed shell (RSS)
The use of an activating agent in chemical activation of activated carbon (AC) production is very important as it will help to open the pore structure of AC as adsorbents and could enhance its performance for adsorption capacity. In this study, a pyridinium-based ionic liquid (IL), 1-butylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide, [C4Py][Tf2N] has been synthesized by using anion exchange reaction and was characterized using few analyses such as 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and FTIR. Low-cost AC was synthesized by chemical activation process in which rubber seed shell (RSS) and ionic liquid [C4Py][Tf2N] were employed as the precursor and activating agent, respectively. AC has been prepared with different IL concentration (1% and 10%) at 500°C and 800°C for 2 hours. Sample AC2 shows the highest SBET and VT which are 392.8927 m2/g and 0.2059 cm3/g respectively. The surface morphology of synthesized AC can be clearly seen through FESEM analysis. A high concentration of IL in sample AC10 contributed to blockage of pores by the IL. On the other hand, the performance of synthesized AC for CO2 adsorption capacity also studied by using static volumetric technique at 1 bar and 25°C. Sample AC2 contributed the highest CO2 uptakes which is 50.783 cm3/g. This current work shows that the use of low concentration IL as an activating agent has the potential to produce porous AC, which offers low-cost, green technology as well as promising application towards CO2 capture.
Ahmed, Rafay, Guijian Liu, Balal Yousaf, Qumber Abbas, Habib Ullah, and Muhammad Ubaid Ali. "Recent advances in carbon-based renewable adsorbent for selective carbon dioxide capture and separation-A review." Journal of Cleaner Production 242 (2020): 118409. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.118409
Bergna, Davide, Toni Varila, Henrik Romar, and Ulla Lassi. "Comparison of the properties of activated carbons produced in one-stage and two-stage processes." C-Journal of Carbon Research 4, no. 3 (2018): 41. https://doi.org/10.3390/c4030041
Bohli, Thouraya, Abdelmottaleb Ouederni, Nuria Fiol, and Isabel Villaescusa. "Evaluation of an activated carbon from olive stones used as an adsorbent for heavy metal removal from aqueous phases." Comptes Rendus Chimie 18, no. 1 (2015): 88-99. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.crci.2014.05.009
Azry, Borhan, and Fikree Kamil Ahmad. "Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from rubber-seed shell by chemical activation." Journal of Applied Sciences 12, no. 11 (2012): 1124-1129. https://doi.org/10.3923/jas.2012.1124.1129
Borhan, Azry, Suzana Yusup, Jun Wei Lim, and Pau Loke Show. "Characterization and modelling studies of activated carbon produced from rubber-seed shell using KOH for CO2 adsorption." Processes 7, no. 11 (2019): 855. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr7110855
Azry, Borhan, TongYeong Yit, Yusup Suzana, and Mohd Yunus Normawati. "Monoethanolamine wastewater treatment via adsorption using wood sawdust based activated carbon." Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences 22, no. 3 (2018): 532-541. https://doi.org/10.17576/mjas-2018-2203-22
Contescu, Cristian I., Shiba P. Adhikari, Nidia C. Gallego, Neal D. Evans, and Bryan E. Biss. "Activated carbons derived from high-temperature pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass." C-Journal of Carbon Research 4, no. 3 (2018): 51. https://doi.org/10.3390/c4030051
Danish, Mohammed, and Tanweer Ahmad. "A review on utilization of wood biomass as a sustainable precursor for activated carbon production and application." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 87 (2018): 1-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2018.02.003
Enayati, Maedeh, and Hossein Faghihian. "N-butyl-pyridinium tetrafluoroborate as a highly efficient ionic liquid for removal of dibenzothiophene from organic solutions." Journal of Fuel Chemistry and Technology 43, no. 2 (2015): 195-201.
Fan, Xiangqian, Lingxia Zhang, Guobin Zhang, Zhu Shu, and Jianlin Shi. "Chitosan derived nitrogen-doped microporous carbons for high performance CO2 capture." Carbon 61 (2013): 423-430. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2013.05.026
Furmanski, Luana Milak, Patricia Darolt de Costa, and Lucas Dominguini. "Production of Activated Carbon from Nutshell as An Alternative Material for Adsorption of Methylene Blue." In XIV Brazil MRS Meeting, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (2015).
González-García, P. "Activated carbon from lignocellulosics precursors: A review of the synthesis methods, characterization techniques and applications." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 82 (2018): 1393-1414. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.04.117
Guo, Yafei, Chang Tan, Jian Sun, Weiling Li, Jubing Zhang, and Chuanwen Zhao. "Porous activated carbons derived from waste sugarcane bagasse for CO2 adsorption." Chemical Engineering Journal 381 (2020): 122736. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2019.122736
Habila, Mohamed A., Zeid A. AlOthman, Ayman A. Ghfar, Maha IM Al-Zaben, Ahmed AS Alothman, Ahmed A. Abdeltawab, Adel El-Marghany, and Mohamed Sheikh. "Phosphonium-based ionic liquid modified activated carbon from mixed recyclable waste for mercury (II) uptake." Molecules 24, no. 3 (2019): 570.
He, Xiaodong, Jiamei Zhu, Hongmin Wang, Min Zhou, and Shuangquan Zhang. "Surface Functionalization of Activated Carbon with Phosphonium Ionic Liquid for CO2 Adsorption." Coatings 9, no. 9 (2019): 590. https://doi.org/10.3390/coatings9090590
Hernández-Montoya, Virginia, Josafat García-Servin, and José Iván Bueno-López. "Thermal treatments and activation procedures used in the preparation of activated carbons." Lignocellulosic Precursors Used in the Synthesis of Activated Carbon-Characterization Techniques and Applications in the Wastewater Treatment (2012): 19-36. https://doi.org/10.5772/39365
Kemp, K. Christian, Seung Bin Baek, Wang-Geun Lee, M. Meyyappan, and Kwang S. Kim. "Activated carbon derived from waste coffee grounds for stable methane storage." Nanotechnology 26, no. 38 (2015): 385602.
Lee, Je Seung, Xiqing Wang, Huimin Luo, and Sheng Dai. "Fluidic carbon precursors for formation of functional carbon under ambient pressure based on ionic liquids." Advanced Materials 22, no. 9 (2010): 1004-1007. https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.200903403
Li, Ming, and Rui Xiao. "Preparation of a dual pore structure activated carbon from rice husk char as an adsorbent for CO2 capture." Fuel Processing Technology 186 (2019): 35-39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuproc.2018.12.015
Murshid, Ghulam, Azmi Mohd Shariff, Lau Kok Keong, and A. M. Bustam. "Thermo physical analysis of 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol solvent for carbon dioxide removal." Chemical Engineering Transactions 25 (2011): 45-50.
Nandiyanto, Asep Bayu Dani, Zulfan Adi Putra, Riezqa Andika, Muhammad Roil Bilad, Tedi Kurniawan, Rizka Zulhijah, and Ida Hamidah. "Porous activated carbon particles from rice straw waste and their adsorption properties." Journal of Engineering Science and Technology 12, no. Specia (2017): 1-11.
Sugumaran, P., V. Priya Susan, P. Ravichandran, and S. Seshadri. "Production and characterization of activated carbon from banana empty fruit bunch and Delonix regia fruit pod." Journal of Sustainable Energy & Environment 3, no. 3 (2012): 125-132.
Paraknowitsch, Jens Peter, and Arne Thomas. "Functional Carbon Materials from Ionic Liquid Precursors." Chemical Synthesis and Applications of Graphene and Carbon Materials (2017): 21-42. https://doi.org/10.1002/9783527648160.ch2
Pârvulescu, Vasile I., and Christopher Hardacre. "Catalysis in ionic liquids." Chemical Reviews 107, no. 6 (2007): 2615-2665. https://doi.org/10.1021/cr050948h
Plaza, M. G., C. Pevida, J. J. Pis, and F. Rubiera. "Evaluation of the cyclic capacity of low-cost carbon adsorbents for post-combustion CO2 capture." Energy Procedia 4 (2011): 1228-1234. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2011.01.178
Poole, Colin F., and Salwa K. Poole. "Extraction of organic compounds with room temperature ionic liquids." Journal of Chromatography A 1217, no. 16 (2010): 2268-2286. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2009.09.011
Ramesh, S., and Soon-Chien Lu. "Effect of nanosized silica in poly (methyl methacrylate)-lithium bis (trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide based polymer electrolytes." Journal of Power Sources 185, no. 2 (2008): 1439-1443.
Rashidi, NOR Adilla, Suzana Yusup, and Azry Borhan. Novel low-cost activated carbon from coconut shell and its adsorptive characteristics for carbon dioxide. Vol. 594. Trans Tech Publications Ltd, 2014. https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/KEM.594-595.240
Rashidi, Nor Adilla, and Suzana Yusup. "Potential of palm kernel shell as activated carbon precursors through single stage activation technique for carbon dioxide adsorption." Journal of Cleaner Production 168 (2017): 474-486. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.09.045
Rashidi, Nor Adilla, Suzana Yusup, and Azry Borhan. "Isotherm and thermodynamic analysis of carbon dioxide on activated carbon." Procedia Engineering 148 (2016): 630-637. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2016.06.527
Sun, Kang, and Jian chun Jiang. "Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from rubber-seed shell by physical activation with steam." Biomass and Bioenergy 34, no. 4 (2010): 539-544.
Torralba-Calleja, Elena, James Skinner, and David Gutiérrez-Tauste. "CO2 capture in ionic liquids: a review of solubilities and experimental methods." Journal of Chemistry 2013 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/473584
Wang, Qijun, Yuanxin Wu, and Shengdong Zhu. "Use of ionic liquids for improvement of cellulosic ethanol production." BioResources 6, no. 1 (2011): 1-2.
Wang, Xue, Shaojuan Zeng, Junli Wang, Dawei Shang, Xiangping Zhang, Jindun Liu, and Yatao Zhang. "Selective separation of hydrogen sulfide with pyridinium-based ionic liquids." Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 57, no. 4 (2018): 1284-1293. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.iecr.7b04477
Wang, Yuxin, Yaping Zhou, Congmin Liu, and Li Zhou. "Comparative studies of CO2 and CH4 sorption on activated carbon in presence of water." Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects 322, no. 1-3 (2008): 14-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2008.02.014
Yunus, Normawati M., MI Abdul Mutalib, Zakaria Man, Mohamad Azmi Bustam, and Thanapalan Murugesan. "Thermophysical properties of 1-alkylpyridinum bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide ionic liquids." The Journal of Chemical Thermodynamics 42, no. 4 (2010): 491-495. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jct.2009.11.004
Zhang, Suojiang, Ning Sun, Xuezhong He, Xingmei Lu, and Xiangping Zhang. "Physical properties of ionic liquids: database and evaluation." Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data 35, no. 4 (2006): 1475-1517. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.2204959
Zhang, Yaqin, Hongyan He, Suojiang Zhang, and Maohong Fan. "Hydrogen-bonding interactions in pyridinium-based ionic liquids and dimethyl sulfoxide binary systems: a combined experimental and computational study." ACS Omega 3, no. 2 (2018): 1823-1833. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.7b01805