Torrefaction of Briquettes Made of Palm Kernel Shell with Mixture of Starch and Water as Binder

Authors

  • Muhammad Ariff Hanaffi Mohd Fuad School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Mohamad Muslihuddin Razali School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Zaitul Nadiah Mohamad Izal School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Hasan Mohd Faizal Automotive Development Centre (ADC), Institute for Vehicle System and Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Norhayati Ahmad Department of Material Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia
  • Mohd Rosdzimin Abdul Rahman Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia, Kem Sg. Besi, 57000, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • Md. Mizanur Rahman School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor Bahru, Johor, Malaysia

Keywords:

palm kernel shell, starch binder, torrefaction, briquette, temperature effect, flow rate effect

Abstract

This study presents physical and combustion properties of briquettes made of palm kernel shell (PKS) with mixture of starch and water as binder. The briquettes with weight ratio of 60:40 (PKS: starch binder) were torrefied at various temperatures (225- 275?) and nitrogen flow rates (1000-3000 mL/min). The physical properties such as appearance, compressive strength, density and mass yield as well as combustion properties such as high heating value (HHV), energy yield and proximate analysis of untorrefied and torrefied briquettes were determined in the present study. The performances of the torrefied briquettes were also compared with the case of untorrefied briquettes as well as international benchmarks. It was found that torrefaction temperature significantly affects the properties of torrefied briquette rather than volume flow rate of nitrogen. At severe torrefaction condition (temperature of 275?), HHV of 22.16±0.23 MJ/kg was obtained, that is the highest if compared to HHV of the briquettes torrefied at other temperatures. It was found that properties of the torrefied briquettes do not really affected by nitrogen flow rate. Overall, with the presence of starch binder, briquettes with considerably high compressive strength were obtained if compared to the previously developed binderless PKS briquettes.

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Published

2021-01-03

How to Cite

Mohd Fuad, M. A. H. ., Razali, M. M. ., Mohamad Izal, Z. N. ., Mohd Faizal, H. ., Ahmad, N. ., Abdul Rahman, M. R. ., & Rahman, M. M. . (2021). Torrefaction of Briquettes Made of Palm Kernel Shell with Mixture of Starch and Water as Binder. Journal of Advanced Research in Fluid Mechanics and Thermal Sciences, 70(2), 21–36. Retrieved from https://www.akademiabaru.com/submit/index.php/arfmts/article/view/2949

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