Energy and Exergy Analyses of Stirling Engine using CFD Approach
Keywords:Stirling engine, Losses, Energy and exergy analyses, CFD simulation
A comprehensive characterization of the GPU-3 Stirling engine losses with the aid of the CFD approach is presented. Firstly, a detailed description of the losses-related phenomena along with the method of calculating each type of loss are addressed. Secondly, an energy analysis of the engine is carried out in order to specify the impact of each type of losses on the performance. Finally, the design effectivity of each component of the engine is investigated using an exergy analysis. The results reveal that the hysteresis loss occurs mainly within the working spaces due to the flow jetting during the first part of the expansion strokes. Additionally, the pressure difference between the working spaces is the main driver for the flow leakage through the appendix gap. The exposure of the displacer top wall to the jet of hot gas flowing into the expansion space during expansion stroke essentially increases the shuttle heat loss. A new definition for the regenerator effectiveness is presented to assess the quality of the heat storage and recovery processes. The energy analysis shows that regenerator thermal loss and pumping power represent the largest part of the engine losses by about 9.2% and 7.5% of the heat input, respectively. The exergy losses within regenerator and cold space are the highest values among the components, consequently, they need to be redesigned.
El-Ghafour, S. A., M. El-Ghandour, and N. N. Mikhael. "Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulation of stirling engine." Energy conversion and management 180 (2019): 533-549. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2018.10.103
Alfarawi, S., R. Al-Dadah, and S. Mahmoud. "Influence of phase angle and dead volume on gamma-type Stirling engine power using CFD simulation." Energy Conversion and Management 124 (2016): 130-140. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2016.07.016
Chen, Wen-Lih, King-Leung Wong, and Yu-Feng Chang. "A computational fluid dynamics study on the heat transfer characteristics of the working cycle of a low-temperature-differential ?-type Stirling engine." International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 75 (2014): 145-155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2014.03.055
Mahkamov, K. "Design improvements to a biomass Stirling engine using mathematical analysis and 3D CFD modeling." (2006): 203-215. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2213273
Ahmed, Fawad, Hulin Huang, Shoaib Ahmed, and Xin Wang. "A comprehensive review on modeling and performance optimization of Stirling engine." International Journal of Energy Research (2020).
Malroy, Eric Thomas. "Solution of the Ideal Adiabatic Stirling Model with Coupled First Order Differential Equations by the Pasic Method." PhD diss., Ohio University, 1998.
Bumataria, Rakesh K., and Nikul K. Patel. "Stirling engine performance prediction using Schmidt analysis by considering different losses." IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology eISSN (2013): 2319-1163. https://doi.org/10.15623/ijret.2013.0208067
Xiao, Gang, Umair Sultan, Mingjiang Ni, Hao Peng, Xin Zhou, Shulin Wang, and Zhongyang Luo. "Design optimization with computational fluid dynamic analysis of ?-type Stirling engine." Applied Thermal Engineering 113 (2017): 87-102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2016.10.063
Tew Jr, Roy C. "Overview of heat transfer and fluid flow problem areas encountered in Stirling engine modeling." (1988).
Hachem, Houda, Ramla Gheith, Fethi Aloui, and Sassi Ben Nasrallah. "Numerical characterization of a ?-Stirling engine considering losses and interaction between functioning parameters." Energy conversion and management 96 (2015): 532-543. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2015.02.065
Kornhauser, Alan Abram. "Gas-wall heat transfer during compression and expansion." PhD diss., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1989.
Lee, Kang P., and J. L. Smith. "Influence of cyclic wall-to-gas heat transfer in the cylinder of the valved hot-gas engine." In From: Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, 13th Proceedings., no. SAE 789195 Conf Paper. 1978.
Jeong, Eun S. "Heat transfer with oscillating pressure in reciprocating machinery." PhD diss., Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1991.
Urieli, Israel, and David M. Berchowitz. Stirling cycle engine analysis. Bristol, UK: A. Hilger, 1984.
Scheck, Christopher G. "Thermal hysteresis loss in gas springs." PhD diss., Ohio University, 1988.
Willich, Caroline, Christos N. Markides, and Alexander J. White. "An investigation of heat transfer losses in reciprocating devices." Applied Thermal Engineering 111 (2017): 903-913. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2016.09.136
Timoumi, Youssef, Iskander Tlili, and Sassi Ben Nasrallah. "Design and performance optimization of GPU-3 Stirling engines." Energy 33, no. 7 (2008): 1100-1114.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2008.02.005
Sullivan, Timothy J. "NASA Lewis Stirling Engine Computer Code Evaluation." (1989).
Andersen, Stig Kildegård, Henrik Carlsen, and Per Grove Thomsen. "Numerical study on optimal Stirling engine regenerator matrix designs taking into account the effects of matrix temperature oscillations." Energy Conversion and Management 47, no. 7-8 (2006): 894-908. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2005.06.006
Costa, S. C., Igor Barreno, Mustafa Tutar, Jon-Ander Esnaola, and Harritz Barrutia. "The thermal non-equilibrium porous media modelling for CFD study of woven wire matrix of a Stirling regenerator." Energy conversion and management 89 (2015): 473-483. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2014.10.019
De Boer, P. C. T. "Optimal regenerator performance in Stirling engines." International Journal of Energy Research 33, no. 9 (2009): 813-832. https://doi.org/10.1002/er.1516
Baik, Jong Hoon, and Ho-Myung Chang. "An exact solution for shuttle heat transfer." Cryogenics 35, no. 1 (1995): 9-13. https://doi.org/10.1016/0011-2275(95)90418-F
Mabrouk, Mohamed Tahar, Abdelhamid Kheiri, and Michel Feidt. "Displacer gap losses in beta and gamma Stirling engines." Energy 72 (2014): 135-144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2014.05.017
Segado, M. A., and J. G. Brisson. "Appendix Gap Losses with Pressure-Driven Mass Flows." (2012).
Rios, P. A. "An approximate solution to the shuttle heat-transfer losses in a reciprocating machine." (1971): 177-182. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3445549
William, R. MARTINI. "Stirling engine design manual." Martini Engineering (1983).
Chang, Ho-Myung, Dae-Jong Park, and Sangkwon Jeong. "Effect of gap flow on shuttle heat transfer." Cryogenics 40, no. 3 (2000): 159-166. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0011-2275(00)00020-5
Sauer, Jan, and Hans-Detlev Kuehl. "Numerical model for Stirling cycle machines including a differential simulation of the appendix gap." Applied Thermal Engineering 111 (2017): 819-833. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2016.09.176
Formosa, Fabien, and Ghislain Despesse. "Analytical model for Stirling cycle machine design." Energy Conversion and Management 51, no. 10 (2010): 1855-1863. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2010.02.010
Pfeiffer, Jens, and Hans-Detlev Kuehl. "Review of Models for Appendix Gap Losses in Stirling Cycle Machines." Journal of Propulsion and Power 30, no. 5 (2014): 1419-1432. https://doi.org/10.2514/1.B35132
Strauss, Johannes Matthias. "Direct piston displacement control of free-piston Stirling engines." PhD diss., Stellenbosch: Stellenbosch University, 2013.
Tew, Roy C., Kent Jefferies, and David Miao. A Stirling engine computer model for performance calculations. Vol. 78884. Department of Energy, Office of Conservation and Solar Applications, Division of Transportation Energy Conservation, 1978.
Alfarawi, Suliman. "Thermodynamic analysis of rhombic?driven and crank?driven beta?type Stirling engines." International Journal of Energy Research 44, no. 7 (2020): 5596-5608. https://doi.org/10.1002/er.5309
Kays, William Morrow, and Alexander Louis London. "Compact heat exchangers." (1984).
Barreno, Igor, S. C. Costa, Marta Cordon, Mustafa Tutar, Idoia Urrutibeascoa, Xabo Gomez, and German Castillo. "Numerical correlation for the pressure drop in Stirling engine heat exchangers." International Journal of Thermal Sciences 97 (2015): 68-81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2015.06.014
Ibrahim, Mounir B., and Roy C. Tew Jr. Stirling convertor regenerators. CRC Press, 2011.
Chen, Norbert CJ, and Fred P. Griffin. Effects of pressure-drop correlations on Stirling-engine predicted performance. No. CONF-830812-52. Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA), 1983.
Simon, Terrence W., and Jorge R. Seume. "A survey of oscillating flow in stirling engine heat exchangers." (1988).
Hosseinzade, Hadi, and Hoseyn Sayyaadi. "CAFS: The Combined Adiabatic–Finite Speed thermal model for simulation and optimization of Stirling engines." Energy conversion and Management 91 (2015): 32-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2014.11.049
Costea, M., S. Petrescu, and C. Harman. "The effect of irreversibilities on solar Stirling engine cycle performance." Energy conversion and management 40, no. 15-16 (1999): 1723-1731. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0196-8904(99)00065-5
Babaelahi, Mojtaba, and Hoseyn Sayyaadi. "Simple-II: a new numerical thermal model for predicting thermal performance of Stirling engines." Energy 69 (2014): 873-890. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2014.03.084
Li, Ruijie, Lavinia Grosu, and Diogo Queiros-Condé. "Losses effect on the performance of a Gamma type Stirling engine." Energy Conversion and Management 114 (2016): 28-37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2016.02.007
Mabrouk, Mohamed Tahar, Abdelhamid Kheiri, and Michel Feidt. "Effect of leakage losses on the performance of a ? type Stirling engine." Energy 88 (2015): 111-117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2015.05.075
Moran, Michael J., Howard N. Shapiro, Daisie D. Boettner, and Margaret B. Bailey. Fundamentals of engineering thermodynamics. John Wiley & Sons, 2014.
El-Ghafour, S. "Design and Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of a Solar Stirling Engine." PhD diss., Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Port Said, Port Said, Egypt, 2018.
Colpan, C. Ozgur, and Tülay Ye?in. "Energetic, exergetic and thermoeconomic analysis of Bilkent combined cycle cogeneration plant." International Journal of Energy Research 30, no. 11 (2006): 875-894. https://doi.org/10.1002/er.1192
Ergun, Sabri, and Ao Ao Orning. "Fluid flow through randomly packed columns and fluidized beds." Industrial & Engineering Chemistry 41, no. 6 (1949): 1179-1184. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie50474a011
Walker, G., and V. Vasishta. "Heat-transfer and flow-friction characteristics of dense-mesh wire-screen Stirling-cycle regenerators." In Advances in Cryogenic Engineering, pp. 324-332. Springer, Boston, MA, 1971. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-0244-6_41
Thieme, Lanny G. "High-power baseline and motoring test results for the GPU-3 Stirling engine." (1981).
Costa, S. C., Harritz Barrutia, Jon Ander Esnaola, and Mustafa Tutar. "Numerical study of the pressure drop phenomena in wound woven wire matrix of a Stirling regenerator." Energy Conversion and Management 67 (2013): 57-65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2012.10.014
Tlili, I., Y. Timoumi, and S. Ben Nasrallah. "Numerical simulation and losses analysis in a Stirling engine." Int. J. Heat Technol 24, no. 1 (2006): 97-105.