Numerical Investigation on the Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Wing for Various Flow and Geometrical Parameters
Keywords:Airfoil, Wing, Angle of Attack, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Reynolds Number, Lift co-efficient, Drag co-efficient
The wing is a critical component of an aircraft, responsible for generating the lift force necessary for flight. The aerodynamic behavior of a wing is complex and is influenced by factors such as air speed, angle of attack, wing shape, twist angle, and turbulence. This research investigates the performance of NACA 4412 and NACA 4418 airfoils using 2D CFD, covering a range of angle-of-attack values from -5 to 20 degrees. The superior performing airfoil, NACA 4412, was selected for wing geometry which outperforms NACA 4418 in terms of lower drag and higher lift coefficient at both low and high Reynolds numbers. Then 3D CFD analysis was employed to study how wings perform at different Reynolds numbers and the optimal twist angle for the wing was determined, focusing on a steady-state analysis. The Reynolds number range which corresponds to the flow velocity range, is used in this numerical study for 3D wings. The result shows that as the Reynolds number increases, the wing’s lift coefficient proportionally rises, owing to higher flow velocities. However, this increase in Reynolds number also results in a higher drag coefficient due to a rise in turbulence. The investigation reveals the existence of an optimum twist angle for the wing, which maximizes the lift-to-drag coefficient ratio, thus enhancing overall aerodynamic performance.